- Research
- Open Access
Qualitative behaviors of the high-order Lorenz-Stenflo chaotic system arising in mathematical physics describing the atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves
- Guangyun Zhang^{1},
- Fuchen Zhang^{1, 2}Email author and
- Min Xiao^{3}
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13662-017-1351-7
© The Author(s) 2017
- Received: 7 June 2017
- Accepted: 6 September 2017
- Published: 15 September 2017
Abstract
The boundedness of chaotic systems plays an important role in investigating the stability of the equilibrium, estimating the Lyapunov dimension of attractors, the Hausdorff dimension of attractors, the existence of periodic solutions, chaos control, and chaos synchronization. However, as far as the authors know, there are only a few papers dealing with bounds of high-order chaotic systems due to their complex algebraic structure. To sort this out, in this paper, we study the bounds of a high-order Lorenz-Stenflo system arising in mathematical physics. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we show that there exists a globally exponential attractive set for this system. The innovation of the paper is that we not only prove that this system is globally bounded for all the parameters, but also give a family of mathematical expressions of global exponential attractive sets of this system with respect to its parameters. We also study some other dynamical characteristics of this chaotic system such as invariant sets and chaotic behaviors. To justify the theoretical analysis, we carry out detailed numerical simulations.
Keywords
- High-order Lorenz-Stenflo system
- Lyapunov exponents
- Lyapunov stability
- domain of attraction
- nonlinear dynamics
1 Introduction
Chaos phenomena and chaotic systems have been extensively studied by many researchers due to their various applications in the fields of atmospheric dynamics, population dynamics, electric circuits, cryptology, fluid dynamics, lasers, engineering, stock exchanges, chemical reactions, and so on [1–11]. Most of the complex dynamical phenomena are characterized by chaotic and hyperchaotic systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations [1–21].
Remark 1
An oscillation in a dynamical system can be localized numerically if the initial conditions from its open neighborhood lead to the long-time behavior that approaches the oscillation. Such an oscillation (or a set of oscillations) is called an attractor, and its attracting set is called a basin of attraction. Thus, from a point of view of the numerical analysis of nonlinear dynamical models, it is essential to classify an attractor as a self-excited or hidden attractor depending on simplicity of finding its basin of attraction [14, 30, 31]: An attractor is called a self-excited attractor if its basin of attraction intersects with an arbitrarily small open neighborhood of an unstable equilibrium; otherwise, it is called a hidden attractor (see [14] and [30, 31] for a detailed discussion of the attractors in dynamical systems). Although the authors in [28, 29] point out that system (2) has a attractor for \(\sigma = 10\), \(b = \frac{8}{3}\), \(r = 40\), \(s = 50\), they do not point out which type of attractor system (2) has. It is necessary and interesting to discuss the classification of the attractors in system (2) in the future.
2 Some dynamics of high-order Lorenz-Stenflo system
2.1 Invariance
The positive z-axis, u-axis, and ω-axis are invariant under the flow, that is, they are positively invariant under the flow generated by system (2). However, this is not the case on the positive x-axis, y-axis, and v-axis for system (2) since they are all not positively invariant under the flow generated by system (2).
2.2 Ultimate bound set and domain of attraction
In this section, we further investigate the ultimate bound set and global domain of attraction of the high-order Lorenz-Stenflo system (2). The main result is described by the following theorems, Theorems 1 and 2.
Theorem 1
Proof
This completes the proof. □
Theorem 1 points that the trajectories of system (2) are ultimately bounded. However, Theorem 1 does not give the rate of the trajectories of system (2) going from the exterior of the trapping set to the interior of the trapping set. The rate of the trajectories rate of system (2) is studied in the next theorem, Theorem 2.
Let \(X ( t ) = ( x ( t ) ,y ( t ) ,z ( t ) ,v ( t ) ,u ( t ) ,\omega ( t ) ) \) be an arbitrary solution of system (2). We have the following results for system (2).
Theorem 2
Proof
Remark 2
3 Conclusions
By means of Lyapunov-like functions, we have studied some dynamical behaviors of a high-order Lorenz-Stenflo system using theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. The obtained results show that this system has complex dynamics and this system deserves a further detailed investigation. The results of this paper are useful in many engineering applications such as chaos synchronization, chaos cryptology, coding information, and information compression.
Declarations
Acknowledgements
Fuchen Zhang is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11501064), the Basic and Advanced Research Project of CQCSTC (Grant No. cstc2014jcyjA00040), the Scientific and Technological Research Program of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission (Grant No. KJ1500605), the Research Fund of Chongqing Technology and Business University (Grant No. 2014-56-11), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016M590850). We thank professors Jinhu Lu in Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiaofeng Liao in College of Electronic and Information Engineering of Southwest University, Gaoxiang Yang in Ankang University and Ping Zhou in Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications for their help. The authors wish to thank the editors and reviewers for their conscientious reading of this paper and numerous comments for improvement, which were extremely useful and helpful in modifying the paper.
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Authors’ Affiliations
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