Global attractivity of a discrete cooperative system incorporating harvesting
 Fengde Chen^{1},
 Huiling Wu^{2, 3} and
 Xiangdong Xie^{4}Email author
https://doi.org/10.1186/s136620160996y
© Chen et al. 2016
Received: 14 August 2016
Accepted: 13 October 2016
Published: 22 October 2016
Abstract
Keywords
global attractivity cooperation equilibrium iterative methodMSC
34D23 92B05 34D401 Introduction
Recently, Xie et al. [2] revisited the dynamic behaviors of the system (1.1). By using the iterative method, they showed that the condition which ensures the existence of a unique positive equilibrium is enough to ensure the globally attractive of the positive equilibrium. Their result significantly improves the corresponding results of Wei and Li [1].
 (H_{1}):

\(r_{i}\), \(b_{i}\), \(a_{i}\), E, q, \(i=1, 2\) are all positive constants, \(r_{1}>Eq\).
The aim of this paper is, by further developing the analysis technique of Xie et al. [2], Yang et al. [3], and Chen and Teng [4], to obtain a set of sufficient conditions to ensure the global attractivity of the interior equilibrium of system (1.1). More precisely, we will prove the following result.
Theorem 1.1
 (H_{2}):

\(0< r_{1}qE\leq1\), \(r_{2}\leq1\),
The rest of the paper is arranged as follows. With the help of several useful lemmas, we will prove Theorem 1.1 in Section 2. Two examples together with their numeric simulations are presented in Section 3 to show the feasibility of our results. We end this paper by a brief discussion. For more work about cooperative systems, we can refer to [1–30] and the references therein.
2 Global attractivity
We will give a strict proof of Theorem 1.1 in this section. To achieve this objective, we introduce several useful lemmas.
Lemma 2.1
[4]
Let \(f(u)=u\exp(\alpha\beta u)\), where α and β are positive constants, then \(f(u)\) is nondecreasing for \(u\in(0,\frac{1}{\beta}]\).
Lemma 2.2
[4]
 (i)
If \(\alpha<2\), then \(\lim_{k\rightarrow+\infty}{u(k)}=\frac{\alpha}{\beta}\).
 (ii)
If \(\alpha\leq1\), then \(u(k)\leq\frac{1}{\beta}\), \(k=2,3,\ldots\) .
Lemma 2.3
[25]
Proof of Theorem 1.1
Now, we will prove \(\{M_{k}^{x} \}\), \(\{M_{k}^{y} \}\) is monotonically decreasing, \(\{m_{k}^{x} \}\), \(\{m_{k}^{y} \}\) is monotonically increasing by means of inductive method.
3 Examples
In this section, we shall give two examples to illustrate the feasibility of the main result.
Example 3.1
Example 3.2
4 Discussion
In [2], Xie et al. studied the stability property of the system (1.1), their result shows that once the system (1.1) admits a unique positive equilibrium, it is globally attractive. In this paper, we try to consider the discrete type of system (1.1), we first establish the corresponding system (1.2), then, by developing the analysis technique of [2–4], we also obtain a set of sufficient conditions which ensure the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium. Our result shows that the intrinsic growth rate plays an important role in the stability property of the system.
It brings to our attention that conditions for the continuous system are very simple (one only requires \(r_{1}>qE\)), while conditions for the discrete one is very strong, since one requires \(r_{1}qE\leq1\) and \(r_{2}\leq1\). This motivated us to study the case \(r_{i}>1\), numeric simulation (Example 3.2) shows that in this case, the system still possible admits a unique globally attractive positive equilibrium, and we conjecture that Theorem 1.1 still holds under the condition \(r_{1}Eq<2\), \(r_{2}<2\); we leave this for future study.
At the end of the paper, we would like to point out that one of the reviewers of this paper said ‘Population models with stochastic noises may also be important and interesting. In fact, many authors have studied stochastic population models with stochastic noises, for example, Beddington and May [31], Liu and Bai [32, 33]. I suggest the authors take stochastic noises into account in their future study.’ We do agree with the opinion of the reviewers, and we hope we could do some relevant work in the future.
Declarations
Acknowledgements
The authors are grateful to anonymous referees for their excellent suggestions, which greatly improve the presentation of the paper. The research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province (2015J01012, 2015J01019, 2015J05006) and the Scientific Research Foundation of Fuzhou University (XRC1438).
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Authors’ Affiliations
References
 Wei, FY, Li, CY: Permanence and globally asymptotic stability of cooperative system incorporating harvesting. Adv. Pure Math. 3, 627632 (2013) View ArticleGoogle Scholar
 Xie, XD, Chen, FD, Xue, YL: Note on the stability property of a cooperative system incorporating harvesting. Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2014, Article ID 327823 (2014) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Yang, K, Xie, XD, Chen, FD: Global stability of a discrete mutualism model. Abstr. Appl. Anal. 2014, Article ID 709124 (2014) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Chen, GY, Teng, ZD: On the stability in a discrete twospecies competition system. J. Appl. Math. Comput. 38, 2536 (2012) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 Li, YK, Xu, GT: Positive periodic solutions for an integrodifferential model of mutualism. Appl. Math. Lett. 14, 525530 (2001) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 Chen, LJ, Chen, LJ, Li, Z: Permanence of a delayed discrete mutualism model with feedback controls. Math. Comput. Model. 50, 10831089 (2009) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 Chen, LJ, Xie, XD: Permanence of an nspecies cooperation system with continuous time delays and feedback controls. Nonlinear Anal., Real World Appl. 12, 3438 (2001) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 Li, YK, Zhang, T: Permanence of a discrete Nspecies cooperation system with timevarying delays and feedback controls. Math. Comput. Model. 53, 13201330 (2011) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 Chen, LJ, Xie, XD: Feedback control variables have no influence on the permanence of a discrete Nspecies cooperation system. Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2009, Article ID 306425 (2009) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
 Chen, FD, Liao, XY, Huang, ZK: The dynamic behavior of Nspecies cooperation system with continuous time delays and feedback controls. Appl. Math. Comput. 181, 803815 (2006) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
 Chen, FD: Permanence of a discrete Nspecies cooperation system with time delays and feedback controls. Appl. Math. Comput. 186, 2329 (2007) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
 Chen, FD: Permanence for the discrete mutualism model with time delays. Math. Comput. Model. 47, 431435 (2008) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 Chen, FD, Yang, JH, Chen, LJ, Xie, XD: On a mutualism model with feedback controls. Appl. Math. Comput. 214, 581587 (2009) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
 Chen, FD, Xie, XD, Chen, XF: Dynamic behaviors of a stagestructured cooperation model. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2015, Article ID 4 (2015) Google Scholar
 Chen, FD, Xie, XX: Study on the Dynamic Behaviors of Cooperative System. Science Press, Beijing (2014) Google Scholar
 Chen, FD, Pu, LQ, Yang, LY: Positive periodic solution of a discrete obligate LotkaVolterra model. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2015, Article ID 14 (2015) Google Scholar
 Li, YK: Positive periodic solutions of a discrete mutualism model with time delays. Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 2005(4), 499506 (2005) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 Liu, ZJ, Tan, RH, Chen, YP, Chen, LS: On the stable periodic solutions of a delayed twospecies model of facultative mutualism. Appl. Math. Comput. 196, 105117 (2008) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
 Li, XP, Yang, WS: Permanence of a discrete model of mutualism with infinite deviating arguments. Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2010, Article ID 931798 (2010) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
 Li, Z: Permanence for the discrete mutualism model with delays. J. Math. Study 43(1), 5154 (2010) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Muhammadhaji, A, Teng, ZD: Global attractivity of a periodic delayed nspecies model of facultative mutualism. Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2013, Article ID 580185 (2013) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 Xu, CJ, Wu, YS: Permanence in a discrete mutualism model with infinite deviating arguments and feedback controls. Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2013, Article ID 397382 (2013) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Xie, XD, Chen, FD, Yang, K, Xue, Y: Global attractivity of an integrodifferential model of mutualism. Abstr. Appl. Anal. 2014, Article ID 928726 (2014) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Xie, XD, Miao, ZS, Xue, YL: Positive periodic solution of a discrete LotkaVolterra commensal symbiosis model. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2015, Article ID 2 (2015) Google Scholar
 Wang, L, Wang, MQ: Ordinary Difference Equation. Xinjing University Press, Urmuqi (1989) Google Scholar
 Yang, WS, Li, XP: Permanence of a discrete nonlinear Nspecies cooperation system with time delays and feedback controls. Appl. Math. Comput. 218, 35813586 (2011) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
 Xue, YL, Xie, XD, Chen, FD, Han, RY: Almost periodic solution of a discrete commensalism system. Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2015, Article ID 295483 (2015) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Miao, ZS, Xie, XD, Pu, LQ: Dynamic behaviors of a periodic LotkaVolterra commensal symbiosis model with impulsive. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2015, Article ID 3 (2015) Google Scholar
 Wu, RX, Li, L, Zhou, XY: A commensal symbiosis model with Holling type functional response. J. Math. Comput. Sci. 16(3), 364371 (2016) Google Scholar
 Yang, K, Miao, ZS, Chen, FD, Xie, XD: Influence of single feedback control variable on an autonomous HollingII type cooperative system. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 435(1), 874888 (2016) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 Beddington, JR, May, RM: Harvesting natural populations in a randomly fluctuating environment. Science 197, 463465 (1997) View ArticleGoogle Scholar
 Liu, M, Bai, C: Analysis of a stochastic tritrophic foodchain model with harvesting. J. Math. Biol. 73, 597625 (2016) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 Liu, M, Bai, C: Optimal harvesting of a stochastic mutualism model with Levy jumps. Appl. Math. Comput. 276, 301309 (2016) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar