- Open Access
Numerical approximation for a time optimal control problems governed by semi-linear heat equations
© Zheng and Yin; licensee Springer. 2014
- Received: 25 December 2013
- Accepted: 4 March 2014
- Published: 20 March 2014
In this paper, we study the optimal time for a time optimal control problem , governed by an internally controlled semi-linear heat equation. By projecting the original problem via the finite element method, we obtain another time optimal control problem governed by a semi-linear system of ordinary differential equations. Here, h is the mesh sizes of the finite element spaces. The purpose of this study is to approach the optimal time for the problem through the optimal time for the problem . We obtain error estimates between the optimal times in terms of h.
- heat equation
- time optimal control
- finite element methods
- numerical approximation
One of the most important optimal control problems is how to drive the corresponding trajectory of the equation from an initial state to a given target set in the shortest time, through applying constrained controllers. With regard to this kind of problems, the optimal time, is a very significant value. In this paper, we study numerical approximation for a time optimal control problems governed by semi-linear heat equations. We first project the problem into another time optimal control problem of ordinary differential equations, via the finite element method. Then, we establish error estimates between the optimal times for the original problem and its projected problem.
In this problem, the number is called the optimal time, while a control , in the set , and holding the property that , is called an optimal control. For each , we define to be the optimal time for the problem . Thus, is a function from to .
For each , we define to be the optimal time for the problem where the initial value is replaced by . Thus, is a function from to , and is the optimal time for .
In this study, we derive the error estimates between and , in terms of h. The main results of the paper are presented as follows.
Here and throughout the rest of the paper, stand for the first eigenvalue of the operator −△, with the Dirichlet boundary condition, and C stands for a positive constant independent of h. This constant varies in different contexts.
Since is an optimal control problem governed by an infinite dimensional system, while is an optimal control problem governed by a finite dimensional system, the study of should be much more difficult than that of . The main purpose of this paper is to study the approximation of through . This kind of problem has only been addressed in quite limited papers. To the best of our knowledge, the first study on this subject is the paper . In this , the author was concerned with time optimal control problems for a class of boundary scalar controlled linear parabolic equations, obtained error estimates for optimal times, presented a full discretization of the original problem followed by numerical tests. In our paper, the problem which we study is governed by the internally controlled semi-linear heat equation. The other important literature on this subject which we would like to mention is [4, 5].
The rest of the paper is structured as follows. In Section 2, we first construct finite element spaces , then give certain properties for the functions and . Section 3 presents the proof of Theorem 1.1.
(A1) There exist two positive constants ρ and σ independent of h, such that and for each element τ in . (The notations and stand for the diameter of the set τ and the diameter of the greatest ball contained in τ, respectively.)
(A2) is a polygonal approximation of . The vertices of , which are on the boundary , belong to ∂ Ω. Furthermore, we see that the measure of .
Now, we will present some lemmas, which will be used later.
From this, we can complete the proof of the lemma. □
Thus, we obtain the estimate (2.6). With the same argument, we can also obtain inequality (2.7). This completes the proof of the lemma. □
Write . There are only two possibilities: either belongs to or is outside of .
In the first case, by the optimality of to the problem , we deduce that . Therefore, the inequality (3.1) holds for this case.
This inequality, together with (3.4), yields the estimate (3.1) for the second case. In summary, we conclude that the estimate (3.1) stands.
Write . There are only two possibilities: z either belongs to or is outside of .
In the first case, the solution takes value in at time . This, together with the optimality of to the problem , indicates that . Therefore, the inequality (3.2) stands in the first case.
In the second case, we let and be the optimal time and an optimal control to the problem , where is replaced by z.
This inequality, together with (3.6), gives the estimate (3.2) for the second case. In summary, we conclude that the estimate (3.2) stands, and we can complete the proof of this theorem.
The authors would like to express their sincere thanks to the referees for their providing several important references and for their valuable suggestions. This work was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants (U1204105, 61203293), the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang (Y6110751), the Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo (2010A610096), the Key Foundation of Henan Educational Committee (13A120524, 12B120006), and the National Research Foundation of South Africa.
- Cazenave T, Haraux A: An Introduction to Semilinear Evolution Equations. Clarendon, Oxford; 1998.Google Scholar
- Evans LC Graduate Studies in Mathematics 19. In Partial Differential Equation. Am. Math. Soc., Providence; 1998.Google Scholar
- Knowles G: Finite element approximation of parabolic time optimal control problem. SIAM J. Control Optim. 1982, 20: 414-427. 10.1137/0320032MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang G, Yu X: Error estimates for an optimal control problem governed by the heat equation with state and control constraints. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Model. 2010, 7: 30-65.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Wang G, Zheng G: An approach to the optimal time for a time optimal control problem of an internally controlled heat equation. SIAM J. Control Optim. 2012, 50: 601-628. 10.1137/100793645MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ciarlet P: The Finite Element Method for Elliptic Problems. North-Holland, Amsterdam; 1978.Google Scholar
- Chrysafinos K, Hou LS: Error estimates for semidiscrete finite element approximations of linear and semilinear parabolic equations under minimal regularity assumptions. SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 2002, 40: 282-306. 10.1137/S0036142900377991MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thomée V: Galerkin Finite Element Methods for Parabolic Equations. Springer, Berlin; 1997.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Barbu V: Analysis and Control of Nonlinear Infinite Dimensional Systems. Academic Press, New York; 1993.Google Scholar
- Li X, Yong J: Optimal Control Theory for Infinite Dimensional Systems. Birkhäuser Boston, Cambridge; 1995.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang G:-Null controllability for the heat equation and its consequences for the time optimal control problem. SIAM J. Control Optim. 2008, 47: 1701-1720. 10.1137/060678191MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.