Discretization of forced Duffing system with fractional-order damping
© El-Sayed et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 20 November 2013
Accepted: 4 February 2014
Published: 14 February 2014
In this paper we are interested in studying the effect of the fractional-order damping in the forced Duffing oscillator before and after applying a discretization process to it. Fixed points and their stability are discussed for the discrete system obtained. Finally, numerical simulations using Matlab are carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior such as bifurcation, chaos, and chaotic attractors. We note that on increasing the value of the fractional-order parameter, the resulting discrete system is stabilized.
In recent years differential equations with fractional-order have attracted the attention of many researchers because of their applications in many areas of science and engineering. Analytical and numerical techniques have been implemented to study such equations. The fractional calculus has allowed the operations of integration and differentiation to be applied upon any fractional-order. For the existence of solutions for fractional differential equations, see [1, 2].
As regards the development of existence theorems for fractional functional-differential equations, many contributions exist and can be referred to [3–5]. Many applications of fractional calculus amount to replacing the time derivative in a given evolution equation by a derivative of fractional-order.
We recall the basic definitions (Caputo) and properties of fractional-order differentiation and integration.
To solve fractional-order differential equations there are two famous methods: frequency domain methods  and time domain methods . In recent years it has been shown that the second method is more effective because the first method is not always reliable in detecting chaos  and .
Often it is not desirable to solve a differential equation analytically, and one turns to numerical or computational methods. In , a numerical method for nonlinear fractional-order differential equations with constant or time-varying delay was devised. It should be noticed that the fractional differential equations tend to lower the dimensionality of the differential equations in question, however, introducing delay in differential equations makes it infinite dimensional. So, even a single ordinary differential equation with delay could display chaos.
A lot of differential equations with Caputo fractional derivative were simulated by the predictor-corrector scheme, such as the fractional Chua system, the fractional Chen system, the Lorenz system, and so on. We should note that the predictor-corrector method is an approximation for the fractional-order integration, however, our approach is an approximation for the right-hand side.
Indeed, fractional-order systems are useful in studying the anomalous behavior of dynamical systems in electrochemistry, biology, viscoelasticity, and chaotic systems; see for example . Dealing with fractional-order differential equations as dynamical systems is somewhat new and has motivated the leading research literature recently; see for example [12–26]. The nonlocal property of fractional differential equations means that the next state of a system not only depends on its current state but also on its history states. This property is very closely resembling to the real world and thus fractional differential equations have become popular and have been applied to dynamical systems.
On the other hand, some examples of dynamical systems generated by piecewise constant arguments have been studied in [27–30]. Here we propose a discretization process to obtain the discrete version of the system under study. Meanwhile, we apply the discretization process to discretize the fractional-order logistic differential equation.
2 Forced Duffing oscillator with fractional-order damping
The Duffing oscillator is an example of a periodically forced oscillator with nonlinear elasticity. It is one of the prototype systems of nonlinear dynamics. It first became popular for studying harmonic oscillations and, later, chaotic nonlinear dynamics in the wake of early studies by the engineer Georg Duffing . The system has been successfully used to model a variety of physical processes, such as stiffening springs, beam buckling, nonlinear electronic circuits, superconducting Josephson parametric amplifiers, and ionization waves in plasmas. Despite the simplicity of the Duffing oscillator, the dynamical behavior is extremely rich and research is still going on today .
Forced Duffing oscillators are much harder to analyze analytically, because of the periodic force involved. It is far better to use computer approximations of the system to analyze how the forced Duffing oscillator is behaving under certain conditions. The Duffing equation, a well-known nonlinear differential equation, is used for describing many physical, engineering, and even biological problems .
where the constants μ, λ, b, and γ are the damping coefficient, linear stiffness, nonlinear stiffness, excitation amplitude, and excitation frequency, respectively. All previous constants, assumed to be positive except λ, can also be negative.
2.1 Bifurcation and chaos
3 Discretization process
In , a discretization process is introduced to discretize the fractional-order differential equations and we take Riccati’s fractional-order differential equations as an example. We notice that when the fractional-order parameter , Euler’s discretization method is obtained. In , the same discretization method is applied to the logistic fractional-order differential equation. We conclude that Euler’s method is able to discretize first order difference equations, however, we succeeded in discretizing a second order difference equation. Finally, in , we applied the same procedure to the fractional-order Chua system to get the same results as in the two previous papers, and we showed that when the system will be stabilized.
Here we are very interested in applying the dicretization method to a system of differential equations like the Chua system.
with initial conditions , , and .
Indeed, there are other discretization methods for discretizing fractional-order differential equations, for example:
The Grünwald-Letnikov definition (GL) which is a generalization of the derivative. The idea behind is that h, the step size, should approach 0 as n approaches infinity.
The predictor-corrector method is an approximation for the fractional-order integration.
As a matter of fact, our approach is an approximation for the right-hand side.
4 Stability of fixed points
Now we study the asymptotic stability of the fixed points of the system (3.4) in the unforced case, that is, , which has three fixed point namely, , , and .
From the Jury test, if , , and , , , where , , , , and , then the roots of satisfy and thus is asymptotically stable. This is not satisfied here since . That is, is unstable.
We let , , and . From the Jury test, if , , and , , , where , , , , and , then the roots of satisfy and thus or is asymptotically stable. We can check easily that , that is, both and are unstable.
5 Attractors, bifurcation, and chaos
Now vary the fractional-order parameter α from 0.70 to 0.95, but with a fixed system parameter μ and change the parameter r from 0.15 to 0.30; the resulting bifurcation diagrams are shown in Figure 12(a)-(d).
Then vary the fractional-order parameter α from 0.85 to 0.95, but with a fixed system parameter and vary the parameter γ from 0 to 2; the resulting bifurcation diagrams are shown in Figure 12(a)-(d).
A discretization method is applied in this paper to the forced Duffing oscillator with fractional-order damping. The dynamics of the discretized fractionally damped Duffing equation has been examined numerically. Also, the conclusion of bifurcation of the parameter-dependent system has been drawn numerically. Increasing the value of the fractional-order damping term stabilizes the system under study in both cases: fractional-order system and discretized system.
The authors would like to thank the referees of this manuscript for their valuable comments and suggestions.
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