- Open Access
On the oscillation and asymptotic behavior for a kind of fractional differential equations
© Wang et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
- Received: 29 September 2013
- Accepted: 13 January 2014
- Published: 31 January 2014
In this paper, we discuss the oscillations of the fractional order differential equation , , , where q is a positive real-valued function and f is a continuous functional; denotes the Riemann-Liouville differential operator of order α, . We use the Riccati transformation technique to obtain some sufficient conditions which guarantee that every solution of the equation is oscillatory or the limit inferior converges to zero. Two examples are given to show the applications of our main results.
- fractional differential equation
- Riemann-Liouville differential operator
The theory of fractional calculus goes back to Leibniz’s note in his list to L’Hospital , dated 30 September 1695, in which the meaning of the derivative of order 1/2 is discussed. After that in pure mathematics field the foundation of the fractional differential equations had been established. However, in recent years, many researchers found that the fractional differential equations are more accurate in describing some practical models, e.g. polymers. Today it has been used widely in physics, electrochemistry, control theory, and electromagnetic fields [2–7]. Furthermore, the fractional calculus can also provide an excellent instrument for the description of memory and hereditary properties of various materials and processes due to the existence of a ‘memory’ term in the model [8–13]. Since these studies there has been much research actively concerned with the fractional differential equations and many useful achievements have been obtained [14–18].
From the 1960s, a lot of books and theses about the oscillatory behavior for first, second, and higher order differential equations are presented, see [19–21]. The study of the oscillatory problem with a view on fractional differential equation is just being initiated. As a new cross-cutting area, recently some attention has been paid to oscillations of fractional differential equations [22–29].
By the Riccati transformation technique the authors obtained some sufficient conditions, which guarantee that every solution of the equation is oscillatory.
where is the Liouville right-sided fractional derivative of order of y.
where denotes the Liouville right-sided fractional derivative of order α of x. Using a generalized Riccati function and the inequality technique, he established some new oscillation criteria.
where is a real number, is the Liouville right-sided fractional derivative of order α of y. By a generalized Riccati transformation technique, oscillation criteria for the nonlinear fractional differential equation are obtained.
where also denotes the Liouville right-sided fractional derivative and some sufficient conditions for the oscillation of the equation have been given.
The above works on the oscillation are all concerned with fractional equations with Liouville right-sided fractional derivative by the Riccati transformation technique.
We notice that very little attention is paid to oscillations of fractional differential equations with a Riemann-Liouville derivative. For work studying the oscillatory behavior of fractional differential equations with the Riemann-Liouville derivative we refer to [27, 28], and .
where denotes the Riemann-Liouville differential operator of order q with , and the operator is the Rieman-Liouville fractional integral operator. The authors obtained some new oscillation criteria by reducing the fractional differential equation to the equivalent Volterra fractional integral equation and by applying the inequality technique.
where is a Riemann-Liouville like discrete fractional difference operator of order α, and some oscillation criteria are established by the same method in .
where denotes the Riemann-Liouville or Caputo differential operator of order q with , , and the operator is the Rieman-Liouville fractional integral operator. The authors obtained some new oscillation criteria by the same method as .
and denotes the Riemann-Liouville integral operator.
We will use the method of the Riccati transformation technique to study the oscillatory behavior of the fractional differential equation (1.1). To the best of our knowledge, there is not any result on the oscillation of the fractional differential equation involving the Riemann-Liouville derivative by the method of the Riccati transformation technique.
A solution of (1.1) is said to be oscillatory if it has arbitrarily large zeros on and otherwise it is non-oscillatory. An equation is said to be oscillatory if all its solutions are oscillatory.
The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we present some basic definitions of the fractional differential and integral operators, and provide some necessary lemmas. In Section 3, we mainly use the Riccati transformation technique to get some sufficient conditions which guarantee that every solution of (1.1) is oscillatory or the limit inferior converges to zero. Our results are essential new. Finally we provide some examples to show applications of our criteria.
Lemma 2.1 
for some , , where n is the smallest integer greater than or equal to α.
Before stating our main results, we begin with the following lemmas which are crucial in the proofs of the main results.
Proof Let x be an eventually positive solution of (1.1), which means that there exists a such that for .
From Lemma 2.1 we know that if exists, and this means for any , especially .
Obviously there exists a sufficient large such that . So for . The proof is complete. □
Lemma 2.3 
where equality holds if and only if .
where , then every solution x of (1.1) is oscillatory or .
If , from Lemma 2.2, there exists a such that for . Furthermore, using the same measure in Lemma 2.2, we can easily obtain the result that there exists a such that for . So we get for .
which is a contradiction to the condition (3.1) and the proof is complete. □
Then every solution x of (1.1) is either oscillatory or .
Proof This follows from Theorem 3.1 by taking . □
Then every solution x of (1.1) is either oscillatory or .
Proof Taking , then the condition (3.1) in Theorem 3.1 is reduced to (3.5). Hence the result is obtained from Theorem 3.1. □
then every solution x of (1.1) is oscillatory or .
Proof Suppose x is a non-oscillatory solution of (1.1). We only consider the case that is eventually positive, since the case that is eventually negative is similar. Assume that for all with large enough .
which contradicts (3.7). The proof is complete. □
where . Then every solution of (1.1) is either oscillatory or .
which is a contradiction of (3.10). So the proof is complete. □
In this section, we will show applications of our main results.
which implies that all conditions in Theorem 3.1 hold. So by Theorem 3.1 every solution of (4.1) is oscillatory or .
which yields the result that all conditions on Theorem 3.3 hold. Therefore, by Theorem 3.3 every solution of (4.2) is oscillatory or .
This research is supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (61374074), Natural Science Outstanding Youth Foundation of Shandong Province (JQ201119) and supported by Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (ZR2012AM009, ZR2013AL003), also supported by Natural Science Foundation of Educational Department of Shandong Province (J11LA01).
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