 Research
 Open Access
 Published:
The Kortewegde Vries equation and a Diophantine problem related to Bernoulli polynomials
Advances in Difference Equations volume 2013, Article number: 245 (2013)
Abstract
Some Diophantine equations related to the soliton solutions of the Kortewegde Vries equation are resolved. The main tools are the connection with Bernoulli polynomials and the application of certain computational numbertheoretical results.
MSC:11D41, 14H45, 11Y50.
Dedication
Dedicated to Professor Hari M Srivastava
1 Introduction
In the paper [1], Fairlie and Veselov obtained a relation of the Bernoulli polynomials with the theory of the Kortewegde Vries (KdV) equation
This equation has infinitely many conservation laws (that is, certain laws, which show that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system, like mass, energy, momentum, etc., does not change as the system evolves) of the form
where ${P}_{m}$ are some polynomials of the function u and its xderivatives up to order m, see [2]. For example,
and
The KdV equation possesses a remarkable family of socalled nsoliton solutions corresponding to the initial profile ${u}_{n}(x,0)=2n(n+1){sech}^{2}x$. For some recent generalizations and applications of the Kortewegde Vries equation, we refer to [3, 4] and [5] and the references given therein.
Using the spectral theory of Schrödinger operators, see [6], Fairlie and Veselov [1] proved that there is a strong connection between the improver integrals related to the functions ${u}_{n}(x,0)$ above and the wellknown discrete sums of power values, namely,
for $k=1,0,1,\dots $ .
Now, let $k\ne l$ be fixed integers with $k,l\in \{1,0,1,2,\dots \}$, and suppose that
One can ask how often can these integrals be equal for given k and l? In other words, what is the cardinality of the set of solutions m, n to the equation
where k and l are fixed distinct integers? Of course, one can consider the much more general problem, when k and l are also unknown integers; however, in this case, the solution of the corresponding equation seems beyond the reach of current techniques.
Applying some recent results by Rakaczki, see [7] and [8], it is not too hard to give some ineffective and effective finiteness statements for the solutions m and n to equation (1). However, the purpose of this note is to resolve (1) for certain values of m and n, including an infinite family of the parameters.
Theorem 1 For $k=1$ and $l\in \{0,1,2,3\}$, equation (1) has only one solution, namely, $(l,m,n)=(0,24,5)$.
Theorem 2 Assume that $k=0$ and l is a positive integer such that $2l+3$ is prime. Then (1) has no solution in positive integers m and n.
2 Auxiliary results
In our first lemma, we summarize some classical properties of Bernoulli polynomials. For the proofs of these results, we refer to [9].
Lemma 1 Let ${B}_{j}(X)$ denote the jth Bernoulli polynomial and ${B}_{j}={B}_{j}(0)$, $j=1,2,\dots $ . Further, let ${D}_{j}$ be the denominator of ${B}_{j}$. Then we have

(A)
${B}_{j}(X)={X}^{n}+{\sum}_{i=1}^{j}\left(\genfrac{}{}{0ex}{}{j}{i}\right){B}_{i}{X}^{ji}$,

(B)
${S}_{j}(x)={1}^{j}+{2}^{j}+\cdots +{(x1)}^{j}=\frac{1}{j+1}({B}_{j+1}(x){B}_{j+1})$,

(C)
${B}_{1}=\frac{1}{2}$, ${B}_{2j+1}=0$, $j=1,2,\dots $ ,

(D)
(von StaudtClausen) ${D}_{2j}={\prod}_{p12j,p\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mathrm{prime}}p$,

(E)
${X}^{2}{(X1)}^{2}{B}_{2j}(X){B}_{2j}$ (in $\mathbb{Q}[X]$),

(F)
${B}_{j}(X)={(1)}^{j}{B}_{j}(1X)$.
Consider the hyperelliptic curve
where ${b}_{i}\in \mathbb{Z}$. Let α be a root of F, and let $J(\mathbb{Q})$ be the Jacobian of the curve . We have that
where $\kappa ,\xi \in K=\mathbb{Q}(\alpha )$ and κ comes from a finite set. By knowing the MordellWeil group of the curve , it is possible to provide a method to compute such a finite set. To each coset representative ${\sum}_{i=1}^{m}({P}_{i}\mathrm{\infty})$ of $J(\mathbb{Q})/2J(\mathbb{Q})$, we associate
where the set $\{{P}_{1},\dots ,{P}_{m}\}$ is stable under the action of Galois, all $y({P}_{i})$ are nonzero and $x({P}_{i})={\gamma}_{i}/{d}_{i}^{2}$, where ${\gamma}_{i}$ is an algebraic integer and ${d}_{i}\in {\mathbb{Z}}_{\ge 1}$. If ${P}_{i}$, ${P}_{j}$ are conjugate, then we may suppose that ${d}_{i}={d}_{j}$, and so, ${\gamma}_{i}$, ${\gamma}_{j}$ are conjugate. We have the following lemma (Lemma 3.1 in [10]).
Lemma 2 Let be a set of κ values, associated as above to a complete set of coset representatives of $J(\mathbb{Q})/2J(\mathbb{Q})$. Then is a finite subset of ${\mathcal{O}}_{K}$, and if $(x,y)$ is an integral point on the curve (2), then $x\alpha =\kappa {\xi}^{2}$ for some $\kappa \in \mathcal{K}$ and $\xi \in K$.
As an application of his theory of lower bounds for linear forms in logarithms, Baker [11] gave an explicit upper bound for the size of integral solutions of hyperelliptic curves. This result has been improved by many authors (see, e.g., [12–18] and [19]).
In [10], an improved completely explicit upper bound were proved combining ideas from [15, 19–25]. Now we will state the theorem, which gives the improved bound. We introduce some notation. Let K be a number field of degree d, and let r be its unit rank, and let R be its regulator. For $\alpha \in K$, we denote by $\mathrm{h}(\alpha )$ the logarithmic height of the element α. Let
and let
Define the constants
Let
where $K\subseteq L$ are number fields. Define
The following result will be used to get an upper bound for the size of the integral solutions of our equations. It is Theorem 3 in [10].
Lemma 3 Let α be an algebraic integer of degree at least 3, and let κ be an integer belonging to K. Denote by ${\alpha}_{1}$, ${\alpha}_{2}$, ${\alpha}_{3}$ distinct conjugates of α and by ${\kappa}_{1}$, ${\kappa}_{2}$, ${\kappa}_{3}$ the corresponding conjugates of κ. Let
and
In what follows R stands for an upper bound for the regulators of ${K}_{1}$, ${K}_{2}$ and ${K}_{3}$, and r denotes the maximum of the unit ranks of ${K}_{1}$, ${K}_{2}$, ${K}_{3}$. Let
and let
and let
Define
and
If $x\in \mathbb{Z}\mathrm{\setminus}\{0\}$ satisfies $x\alpha =\kappa {\xi}^{2}$ for some $\xi \in K$ then
To obtain a lower bound for the possible unknown integer solutions, we are going to use the socalled MordellWeil sieve. The MordellWeil sieve has been successfully applied to prove the nonexistence of rational points on curves (see, e.g., [26–28] and [29]).
Let $C/\mathbb{Q}$ be a smooth projective curve (in our case a hyperelliptic curve) of genus $g\ge 2$. Let J be its Jacobian. We assume the knowledge of some rational point on C, so let D be a fixed rational point on C, and let ȷ be the corresponding AbelJacobi map
Let W be the image in J of the known rational points on C and ${D}_{1},\dots ,{D}_{r}$ generators for the free part of $J(\mathbb{Q})$. By using the MordellWeil sieve, we are going to obtain a very large and smooth integer B such that
Let
so that the image of ϕ is the free part of $J(\mathbb{Q})$. The variant of the MordellWeil sieve explained in [10] provides a method to obtain a very long decreasing sequence of lattices in ${\mathbb{Z}}^{r}$
such that
for $j=1,\dots ,k$.
The next lemma [[10], Lemma 12.1] gives a lower bound for the size of rational points, whose images are not in the set W.
Lemma 4 Let W be a finite subset of $J(\mathbb{Q})$, and let L be a sublattice of ${\mathbb{Z}}^{r}$. Suppose that $\u0237(C(\mathbb{Q}))\subset W+\varphi (L)$. Let ${\mu}_{1}$ be a lower bound for $h\stackrel{\u02c6}{h}$ and
Denote by M the heightpairing matrix for the MordellWeil basis ${D}_{1},\dots ,{D}_{r}$, and let ${\lambda}_{1},\dots ,{\lambda}_{r}$ be its eigenvalues. Let
and let $m(L)$ be the Euclidean norm of the shortest nonzero vector of L. Then, for any $P\in C(\mathbb{Q})$, either $\u0237(P)\in W$ or
The following lemma plays a crucial role in the proof of Theorem 1.
Lemma 5 The integral solutions of the equation
are
Proof of Lemma 5 Let $J(\mathbb{Q})$ be the Jacobian of the genus two curve (3). Using MAGMA, we determine a MordellWeil basis, which is given by
Let $f=x{(x+20)}^{2}({x}^{2}+10x+400)+140\text{,}625$, and let α be a root of f. We will choose for coset representatives of $J(\mathbb{Q})/2J(\mathbb{Q})$ the linear combinations ${\sum}_{i=1}^{2}{n}_{i}{D}_{i}$, where ${n}_{i}\in \{0,1\}$. Then
where $\kappa \in \mathcal{K}$, and is constructed as described in Lemma 2. We have that $\mathcal{K}=\{1,\alpha ,20\alpha ,\alpha (\alpha +20)\}$. By local arguments, it is possible to restrict the set further (see, e.g., [26, 30]). In our case, one can eliminate
by local computations in ${\mathbb{Q}}_{3}$. We apply Lemma 3 to get a large upper bound for $logx$ in the remaining cases. A MAGMA code was written to obtain the bounds that appeared in [10]; they can be found at http://www.warwick.ac.uk/~maseap/progs/intpoint/bounds.m. We obtain that these bounds are as in Table 1.
The set of known rational points on the curve (3) is $\{\mathrm{\infty},(0,\pm 375),(20,\pm 375)\}$. Let W be the image of this set in $J(\mathbb{Q})$. Applying the MordellWeil sieve, implemented by Bruin and Stoll and explained in [10], we obtain that $\u0237(C(\mathbb{Q}))\subseteq W+BJ(\mathbb{Q})$, where
that is
Now, we use an extension of the MordellWeil sieve due to Samir Siksek to obtain a very long decreasing sequence of lattices in ${\mathbb{Z}}^{2}$. After that, we apply Lemma 4 to obtain a lower bound for possible unknown rational points. We get that if $(x,y)$ is an unknown integral point, then
This contradicts the bound for $logx$ that we obtained by Baker’s method. □
3 Proofs of the theorems
Proof of Theorem 1 For $k=1$ and $l\in \{0,1,2,3\}$, we have the Diophantine equations
and
respectively. One can see that the first three equations are elliptic Diophantine equations, thus using the program package MAGMA, subroutines IntegralPoints or IntegralQuarticPoints are just a straightforward calculation to solve them. In these cases, the unique solution is $(l,m,n)=(0,24,5)$. The forth equation can be written as follows
So, we easily obtain a hyperelliptic curve
where $Y=375(2n+1)$ and $X=20{m}^{2}+20m20$. By Lemma 5, we have that $X=0\text{or}20$. Therefore, we have that $m\in \{1,0\}$, a contradiction and there is no solution in positive integers of (7). □
Proof of Theorem 2 Now $k=0$ and $p=2l+3\ge 3$ is a prime. From (1), we get
Let m and n be an arbitrary but fixed solution. An elementary number theoretical argument and Lemma 1 yield that $pm(m+1)$ and
Suppose that $pm$, and let d be the smallest positive integer such that ${B}_{p+1}(m+1){B}_{p+1}=\frac{1}{d}f(m){m}^{2}{(m+1)}^{2}$, and let $f(X)\in \mathbb{Z}[X]$. Since $\left(\genfrac{}{}{0ex}{}{p+1}{k}\right)$ is divisible by p for $k=2,\dots ,p1$ and ${B}_{1}=1/2$, we have that p is not a divisor of d. The constant term of the polynomial $f(X)$ is $d\left(\genfrac{}{}{0ex}{}{p+1}{p1}\right){B}_{p1}$, and, by von StaudtClausen theorem, it is not divisible by p. On the other hand, p is a divisor of m and $f(m)$, we have a contradiction. If $pm+1$, then we can repeat the previous argument using the fact $f(X)=f(X1)$, cf. Lemma 1. □
References
 1.
Fairlie DB, Veselov AP: Faulhaber and Bernoulli polynomials and solitons. Physica D 2001, 152–153: 47–50.
 2.
Miura RM, Gardner CS, Kruskal WD: Kortewegde Vries equation and generalizations. II. J. Math. Phys. 1968, 9: 1204–1209. 10.1063/1.1664701
 3.
Ismail MS: Numerical solution of complex modified Kortewegde Vries equation by PetrovGalerkin method. Appl. Math. Comput. 2008, 202: 520–531. 10.1016/j.amc.2008.02.033
 4.
Gai XL, Gao YT, Yu X, Wang L: Painlevé property, autoBäcklund transformation and analytic solutions of a variablecoefficient modified Kortewegde Vries model in a hot magnetized dusty plasma with charge fluctuations. Appl. Math. Comput. 2011, 216: 271–279.
 5.
Rady ASA, Khater AH, Osman ES, Khafallah M: New periodic wave and soliton solutions for system of coupled Kortewegde Vries equations. Appl. Math. Comput. 2009, 207: 406–414. 10.1016/j.amc.2008.10.064
 6.
Zakharov VE, Faddaev LD: KdV equation is completely integrable Hamiltonian system. Funct. Anal. Appl. 1971, 5: 18–27.
 7.
Rakaczki C:On the Diophantine equation ${S}_{m}(x)=g(y)$. Publ. Math. (Debr.) 2004, 65: 439–460.
 8.
Rakaczki C:On some generalization of the Diophantine equation $s({1}^{k}+{2}^{k}+\cdots +{x}^{k})+r=d{y}^{n}$. Acta Arith. 2012, 151: 201–216. 10.4064/aa15124
 9.
Rademacher H: Topics in Analytic Number Theory. Springer, Berlin; 1973.
 10.
Bugeaud Y, Mignotte M, Siksek S, Stoll M, Tengely S: Integral points on hyperelliptic curves. Algebra Number Theory 2008, 2: 859–885. 10.2140/ant.2008.2.859
 11.
Baker A: Bounds for the solutions of the hyperelliptic equation. Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 1969, 65: 439–444. 10.1017/S0305004100044418
 12.
Bilu YF: Effective analysis of integral points on algebraic curves. Isr. J. Math. 1995, 90: 235–252. 10.1007/BF02783215
 13.
Bilu YF, Hanrot G: Solving superelliptic Diophantine equations by Baker’s method. Compos. Math. 1998, 112: 273–312. 10.1023/A:1000305028888
 14.
Brindza B: On S integral solutions of the equation ${y}^{m}=f(x)$ . Acta Math. Hung. 1984, 44: 133–139. 10.1007/BF01974110
 15.
Bugeaud Y: Bounds for the solutions of superelliptic equations. Compos. Math. 1997, 107: 187–219. 10.1023/A:1000130114331
 16.
Poulakis D:Solutions entières de l’équation ${Y}^{m}=f(X)$. Sémin. Théor. Nr. Bordx.) 1991, 3: 187–199.
 17.
Schmidt WM: Integer points on curves of genus 1. Compos. Math. 1992, 81: 33–59.
 18.
Sprindžuk VG: The arithmetic structure of integer polynomials and class numbers. Tr. Mat. Inst. Steklova 1977, 143: 152–174. Analytic number theory, mathematical analysis and their applications (dedicated to I.M. Vinogradov on his 85th birthday)
 19.
Voutier PM:An upper bound for the size of integral solutions to ${Y}^{m}=f(X)$. J. Number Theory 1995, 53: 247–271. 10.1006/jnth.1995.1090
 20.
Bugeaud Y, Győry K: Bounds for the solutions of unit equations. Acta Arith. 1996, 74: 67–80.
 21.
Bugeaud Y, Mignotte M, Siksek S: Classical and modular approaches to exponential Diophantine equations. I. Fibonacci and Lucas perfect powers. Ann. Math. 2006, 163: 969–1018. 10.4007/annals.2006.163.969
 22.
Landau E: Verallgemeinerung eines Pólyaschen satzes auf algebraische zahlkörper. Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gött., Math.Phys. Kl. 1918, 1918: 478–488.
 23.
Matveev EM: An explicit lower bound for a homogeneous rational linear form in logarithms of algebraic numbers. II. Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Mat. 2000, 64: 125–180. 10.4213/im314
 24.
Pethö A, de Weger BMM: Products of prime powers in binary recurrence sequences. I. The hyperbolic case, with an application to the generalized RamanujanNagell equation. Math. Comput. 1986, 47: 713–727.
 25.
Voutier PM: An effective lower bound for the height of algebraic numbers. Acta Arith. 1996, 74: 81–95.
 26.
Bruin N, Stoll M: Deciding existence of rational points on curves: an experiment. Exp. Math. 2008, 17: 181–189. 10.1080/10586458.2008.10129031
 27.
Bruin N, Stoll M: The MordellWeil sieve: proving nonexistence of rational points on curves. LMS J. Comput. Math. 2010, 13: 272–306.
 28.
Flynn EV: The Hasse principle and the BrauerManin obstruction for curves. Manuscr. Math. 2004, 115: 437–466. 10.1007/s0022900405029
 29.
Scharaschkin, V: Localglobal problems and the BrauerManin obstruction. PhD thesis, University of Michigan (1999)
 30.
Bruin N, Stoll M: Twocover descent on hyperelliptic curves. Math. Comput. 2009, 78: 2347–2370. 10.1090/S0025571809022558
Acknowledgements
The work is supported by the TÁMOP4.2.2.C11/1/KONV20120010 project. The project is implemented through the New Hungary Development Plan, cofinanced by the European Social Fund and the European Regional Development Fund. Research was supported in part by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, OTKA grants K75566, K100339, NK101680, NK104208 (ÁP) and OTKA grants PD75264, NK104208, K100339 and János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ST). The authors are grateful to the reviewers for their helpful remarks.
Author information
Additional information
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
The authors have made equal contributions to this manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Received
Accepted
Published
DOI
Keywords
 Diophantine equations
 curves of genus 2
 Kortewegde Vries equation