- Research Article
- Open Access

# Impulsive Periodic Boundary Value Problems for Dynamic Equations on Time Scale

- Eric R. Kaufmann
^{1}Email author

**2009**:603271

https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/603271

© Eric R. Kaufmann. 2009

**Received: **31 March 2009

**Accepted: **20 May 2009

**Published: **29 June 2009

## Abstract

## Keywords

- Banach Space
- Periodic Solution
- Dynamic Equation
- Periodic Boundary Condition
- Nonlinear Problem

## 1. Introduction

Due to their importance in numerous application, for example, physics, population dynamics, industrial robotics, optimal control, and other areas, many authors are studying dynamic equations with impulse effects; see [1 - 19] and references therein.

where and is the -derivative on .

where , and . This paper extends and generalized the above results to dynamic equations on time scales.

We assume the reader is familiar with the notation and basic results for dynamic equations on time scales. While the books [20, 21] are indispensable resources for those who study dynamic equations on time scales, these manuscripts do not explicitly cover the concept of periodicity. The following definitions are essential in our analysis.

Definition 1.1 (see [8]).

We say that a time scale
is *periodic* if there exist a
such that if
, then
. For
, the smallest positive
is called the *period* of the time scale.

Example 1.2.

- (1)
- (2)
- (3)
- (4)

Remark 1.3.

All periodic time scales are unbounded above and below.

Definition 1.4.

Let be a periodic time scale with period . We say that the function is periodic with period if there exists a natural number such that , for all and is the smallest number such that .

If , we say that is periodic with period if is the smallest positive number such that for all .

Remark 1.5.

If is a periodic time scale with period , then . Consequently, the graininess function satisfies and so, is a periodic function with period .

where and . Define and note that the intervals and are defined similarly.

In Section 2 we present some preliminary ideas that will be used in the remainder of the paper. In Section 3 we give sufficient conditions for the existence of at least one solution of the nonlinear problem (1.3).

## 2. Preliminaries

In this section we present some important concepts found in [20, 21] that will be used throughout the paper. We also define the space in which we seek solutions, state Schaeffer's theorem, and invert the linearized dynamic equation.

A function
is said to be *regressive* provided
for all
. The set of all regressive rd-continuous functions
is denoted by
.

is the solution to the initial value problem . Other properties of the exponential function are given in the following lemma, [20, Theorem 2.36].

Lemma 2.1.

We employ Schaeffer's fixed point theorem, see [22], to prove the existence of a periodic solution.

Theorem 2.2 (Schaeffer's Theorem).

- (A)
- (F)

Furthermore, to ensure that the boundary value problem is not at resonance, we assume that .

where . Our first result inverts the operator (2.6).

Lemma 2.3.

Proof.

The converse follows trivially and the proof is complete.

## 3. The Nonlinear Problem

Then is a solution of (1.3) if and only if is a fixed point of . A standard application of the Arzelà-Ascoli theorem yields that is compact.

Our first result is an existence and uniqueness theorem.

Theorem 3.1.

and such that

Then there exists a unique solution to (1.3).

Proof.

We will show that there exists a unique solution of (3.1). By Lemma 2.3 this solution is the unique solution of (1.3).

Hence, . By the Contraction Mapping Principal, there exists a unique solution of (3.1) and the proof is complete.

Our next two results utilize Theorem 2.2 to establish the existence of solutions of (1.3).

Theorem 3.2.

Suppose that . Then there exists at least one solution of (1.3).

Proof.

which implies that We have that if , then is bounded by the constant The set is bounded and so by Schaeffer's theorem, the operator has a fixed point. This fixed point is a solution of (1.3) and the proof is complete.

In our next theorem we assume that and are sublinear at infinity with respect to the second variable.

Theorem 3.3.

Assume that

Then there exists at least one solution of the boundary value problem (1.3).

Proof.

as , which contradicts for all . Thus the set is bounded. By Theorem 2.2, the operator has a fixed point. This fixed point is a solution of (1.3) and the proof is complete.

The following corollary is an immediate consequences of Theorem 3.3

Corollary 3.4.

Assume that and are bounded. Then there exists at least one solution of (1.3).

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Baĭnov DD, Simeonov PS:
*Systems with Impulse Effect: Stability, Theory and Application, Ellis Horwood Series: Mathematics and Its Applications*. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UK; 1989:255.Google Scholar - Benchohra M, Henderson J, Ntouyas SK, Ouahab A:
**On first order impulsive dynamic equations on time scales.***Journal of Difference Equations and Applications*2004,**10**(6):541-548. 10.1080/10236190410001667986MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Geng F, Xu Y, Zhu D:
**Periodic boundary value problems for first-order impulsive dynamic equations on time scales.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2008,**69**(11):4074-4087. 10.1016/j.na.2007.10.038MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Graef JR, Ouahab A:
**Extremal solutions for nonresonance impulsive functional dynamic equations on time scales.***Applied Mathematics and Computation*2008,**196**(1):333-339. 10.1016/j.amc.2007.05.056MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Guo D:
**Existence of positive solutions for nth-order nonlinear impulsive singular integro-differential equations in Banach spaces.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2008,**68**(9):2727-2740. 10.1016/j.na.2007.02.019MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Guo D:
**A class of second-order impulsive integro-differential equations on unbounded domain in a Banach space.***Applied Mathematics and Computation*2002,**125**(1):59-77. 10.1016/S0096-3003(00)00115-6MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Guo D:
**Multiple positive solutions of a boundary value problem for nth-order impulsive integro-differential equations in Banach spaces.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2005,**63**(4):618-641. 10.1016/j.na.2005.05.023MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kaufmann ER, Raffoul YN:
**Periodic solutions for a neutral nonlinear dynamical equation on a time scale.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2006,**319**(1):315-325. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2006.01.063MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kaufmann ER, Kosmatov N, Raffoul YN:
**Impulsive dynamic equations on a time scale.***Electronic Journal of Differential Equations*2008,**2008**(67):1-9.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Kaufmann ER, Kosmatov N, Raffoul YN:
**A second-order boundary value problem with impulsive effects on an unbounded domain.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2008,**69**(9):2924-2929. 10.1016/j.na.2007.08.061MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Lakshmikantham V, Baĭnov DD, Simeonov PS:
*Theory of Impulsive Differential Equations, Series in Modern Applied Mathematics*.*Volume 6*. World Scientific, Teaneck, NJ, USA; 1994.Google Scholar - Li J, Nieto JJ, Shen J:
**Impulsive periodic boundary value problems of first-order differential equations.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2007,**325**(1):226-236. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.04.005MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Liu X:
**Nonlinear boundary value problems for first order impulsive integro-differential equations.***Applicable Analysis*1990,**36**(1-2):119-130. 10.1080/00036819008839925MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Nieto JJ:
**Basic theory for nonresonance impulsive periodic problems of first order.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*1997,**205**(2):423-433. 10.1006/jmaa.1997.5207MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Pierson-Gorez C:
**Impulsive differential equations of first order with periodic boundary conditions.***Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems*1993,**1**(3):185-196.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Rogovchenko YV:
**Impulsive evolution systems: main results and new trends.***Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems*1997,**3**(1):57-88.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Samoĭlenko AM, Perestyuk NA:
*Impulsive Differential Equations, World Scientific Series on Nonlinear Science, Series A: Monographs and Treatises*.*Volume 14*. World Scientific, River Edge, NJ, USA; 1995:x+462.Google Scholar - Vatsala AS, Sun Y:
**Periodic boundary value problems of impulsive differential equations.***Applicable Analysis*1992,**44**(3-4):145-158. 10.1080/00036819208840074MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Wang D-B:
**Positive solutions for nonlinear first-order periodic boundary value problems of impulsive dynamic equations on time scales.***Computers & Mathematics with Applications*2008,**56**(6):1496-1504. 10.1016/j.camwa.2008.02.038MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Bohner M, Peterson A:
*Dynamic Equations on Time Scales: An Introduction with Applications*. Birkhäuser, Boston, Mass, USA; 2001:x+358.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Bohner M, Peterson A:
*Advances in Dynamic Equations on Time Scales*. Birkhäuser, Boston, Mass, USA; 2003:xii+348.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Smart DR:
*Fixed Point Theorems*. Cambridge University Press, London, UK; 1980.MATHGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.