- Research Article
- Open Access

# Existence of Positive Solutions for Multipoint Boundary Value Problem with -Laplacian on Time Scales

- Meng Zhang
^{1}, - Shurong Sun
^{1}Email author and - Zhenlai Han
^{1, 2}

**2009**:312058

https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/312058

© Meng Zhang et al. 2009

**Received: **11 March 2009

**Accepted: **8 May 2009

**Published: **9 June 2009

## Abstract

We consider the existence of positive solutions for a class of second-order multi-point boundary value problem with -Laplacian on time scales. By using the well-known Krasnosel'ski's fixed-point theorem, some new existence criteria for positive solutions of the boundary value problem are presented. As an application, an example is given to illustrate the main results.

## Keywords

- Banach Space
- Eating Disorder
- West Nile Virus
- Fixed Point Theorem
- Epidemic Model

## 1. Introduction

The theory of time scales has become a new important mathematical branch since it was introduced by Hilger [1]. Theoretically, the time scales approach not only unifies calculus of differential and difference equations, but also solves other problems that are a mix of stop start and continuous behavior. Practically, the time scales calculus has a tremendous potential for application, for example, Thomas believes that time scales calculus is the best way to understand Thomas models populations of mosquitoes that carry West Nile virus [2]. In addition, Spedding have used this theory to model how students suffering from the eating disorder bulimia are influenced by their college friends; with the theory on time scales, they can model how the number of sufferers changes during the continuous college term as well as during long breaks [2]. By using the theory on time scales we can also study insect population, biology, heat transfer, stock market, epidemic models [2–6], and so forth. At the same time, motivated by the wide application of boundary value problems in physical and applied mathematics, boundary value problems for dynamic equations with *p*-Laplacian on time scales have received lots of interest [7–16].

*p*-Laplacian on time scales:

where , and for some positive constants They established the existence results for at least one positive solution by using a fixed point theorem of cone expansion and compression of functional type.

For the same boundary value problem, He in [8] using a new fixed point theorem due to Avery and Henderson obtained the existence results for at least two positive solutions.

*p*-Laplacian boundary value problem on time scales:

where is a nonnegative rd-continuous function defined in and satisfies that there exists such that is a nonnegative continuous function defined on for some positive constants They established the existence results for at least single, twin, or triple positive solutions of the above problem by using Krasnosel'skii's fixed point theorem, new fixed point theorem due to Avery and Henderson and Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem.

*p*-Laplacian:

where By using fixed-point theorem for operators on a cone, they obtained some existence of at least three positive solutions for the above problem. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has not any results concerning the similar problems on time scales.

## 2. Preliminaries

In this section, we provide some background material to facilitate analysis of problem (1.4).

It is easy to see , for and if then is the positive solution of BVP (1.4).

From the definition of for each we have and

Lemma 2.1.

Proof.

First, we show that maps bounded set into bounded set.

So, by applying Arzela-Ascoli Theorem on time scales, we obtain that is relatively compact.

here we have used the Lebesgues dominated convergence theorem on time scales. From the definition of , we know that on . This shows that each subsequence of uniformly converges to . Therefore, the sequence uniformly converges to . This means that is continuous at . So, is continuous on since is arbitrary. Thus, is completely continuous.

The proof is complete.

Lemma 2.2.

Proof.

The proof is complete.

Lemma 2.3 ([18]).

is a completely continuous operator such that either

## 3. Main Results

In this section, we present our main results with respect to BVP (1.4).

For the sake of convenience, we define number of zeros in the set , and number of in the set

Theorem 3.1.

BVP (1.4) has at least one positive solution in the case and

Proof.

In other words, if then Thus by of Lemma 2.3, it follows that has a fixed point in with .

so that for we have Thus by (ii) of Lemma 2.3, it follows that has a fixed point in with

The proof is complete.

Theorem 3.2.

Suppose , and the following conditions hold,

- (C3):
- (C4):

furthermore, Then BVP (1.4) has at least one positive solution such that lies between and

Proof.

Without loss of generality, we may assume that

Consequently, in view of (3.16), and (3.19), it follows from Lemma 2.3 that has a fixed point in Moreover, it is a positive solution of (1.4) and

The proof is complete.

For the case or we have the following results.

Theorem 3.3.

Suppose that and hold. Then BVP (1.4) has at least one positive solution.

Proof.

It is easy to see that under the assumptions, the conditions and in Theorem 3.2 are satisfied. So the proof is easy and we omit it here.

Theorem 3.4.

Suppose that and hold. Then BVP (1.4) has at least one positive solution.

Proof.

So, if we choose then for we have which yields condition in Theorem 3.2.

where we consider two cases.

Case 1.

In this case, take sufficiently large such that then from (3.24), we know for which yields condition in Theorem 3.2.

Case 2.

Thus, the condition of Theorem 3.2 is satisfied.

Hence, from Theorem 3.2, BVP (1.4) has at least one positive solution.

The proof is complete.

From Theorems 3.3 and 3.4, we have the following two results.

Corollary 3.5.

Suppose that and the condition in Theorem 3.2 hold. Then BVP (1.4) has at least one positive solution.

Corollary 3.6.

Suppose that and the condition in Theorem 3.2 hold. Then BVP (1.4) has at least one positive solution.

Theorem 3.7.

Suppose that and hold. Then BVP (1.4) has at least one positive solution.

Proof.

The result is obtained, and the proof is complete.

Theorem 3.8.

Suppose that and hold. Then BVP (1.4) has at least one positive solution.

Proof.

Since similar to the second part of Theorem 3.1, we have for

By similar to the second part of proof of Theorem 3.4, we have where Thus BVP (1.4) has at least one positive solution.

The proof is complete.

From Theorems 3.7 and 3.8, we can get the following corollaries.

Corollary 3.9.

Suppose that and the condition in Theorem 3.2 hold. Then BVP (1.4) has at least one positive solution.

Corollary 3.10.

Theorem 3.11.

Suppose that and the condition of Theorem 3.2 hold. Then BVP (1.4) has at least two positive solutions such that

Proof.

By using the method of proving Theorems 3.1 and 3.2, we can deduce the conclusion easily, so we omit it here.

Theorem 3.12.

Suppose that and the condition of Theorem 3.2 hold. Then BVP (1.4) has at least two positive solutions such that

Proof.

Combining the proofs of Theorems 3.1 and 3.2, the conclusion is easy to see, and we omit it here.

## 4. Applications and Examples

## Declarations

### Acknowledgments

This research is supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (60774004), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project (20080441126), Shandong Postdoctoral Funded Project (200802018), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong (Y2007A27, Y2008A28), and the Fund of Doctoral Program Research of University of Jinan (B0621, XBS0843).

## Authors’ Affiliations

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## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.