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Table 1 Meaning of the parameters used in the model of glucose–insulin interaction in Eq. (3)

From: Bifurcations in a delayed fractional model of glucose–insulin interaction with incommensurate orders

Parameter Meaning
\(a_{1}\) Insulin-independent constant of tissue glucose uptake rate
\(a_{2}\) Apparent first-order disappearance rate constant for insulin
\(a_{3}\) Constant measuring the insulin-dependent glucose disappearance rate per unit [pM] of plasma insulin concentration
\(a_{4}\) Reciprocal of the half-saturation constant of plasma glucose
\(a_{5}\) Second-phase pancreatic insulin release rate constant in mg/dl of the average plasma glucose concentration throughout the previous τ minutes
\(a_{6}\) Constant increase rate in plasma glucose concentration due to constant baseline liver glucose release
τ Number of minutes of the past period whose plasma glucose concentrations influence the current pancreatic insulin secretion