- Research
- Open Access
Dynamic behaviors of a stage structure amensalism system with a cover for the first species
- Chaoquan Lei^{1}Email author
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13662-018-1729-1
© The Author(s) 2018
- Received: 23 May 2018
- Accepted: 17 July 2018
- Published: 8 August 2018
Abstract
In this paper, we propose and study a two-species stage structured amensalism model with a cover for the first species. By developing a new analysis technique or, more precisely, by combining the differential inequality theory and the Lyapunov function method, we obtain sufficient conditions ensuring the global attractivity of positive and boundary equilibria, respectively. Our study shows that the final density of the first species is an increasing function of the partial cover, and if the stage structured species is globally asymptotically stable, then there exists a threshold such that if the cover is greater than this threshold, the species can still exist in the long run, whereas if the cover is too small, then the first species is driven to extinction.
Keywords
- Stage structure
- Amensalism
- Lyapunov function
- Differential inequality
- Global stability
MSC
- 34C25
- 92D25
- 34D20
- 34D40
1 Introduction
- 1.The first species has two-stage structure, immature and mature. Its dynamic behavior is described by the equation systemWe refer to Khajanchi and Banerjee [1] for more background of this equation system.$$\begin{aligned} &\frac{dx_{1}}{dt}=\alpha x_{2}-\beta x_{1}- \delta_{1} x_{1}, \\ &\frac{dx_{2}}{dt}=\beta x_{1}-\delta_{2} x_{2}- \gamma x_{2}^{2}. \end{aligned}$$
- 2.
There is a partial cover (represented by k) for the first species to protect it from the second species.
- 3.
Both relationships between the immature species and the second species and between the mature species and the second species are bilinear: (\(d_{1}(1-k)x_{1}y\) and \(d_{2}(1-k)x_{2}y\)).
- 4.
The second species satisfies the logistic model.
It brings to our attention that, to this day, still no scholars propose and study the dynamic behaviors of the amensalism model with stage structure. This motivated us to propose system (1.1). We mention here that at first sight, system (1.1) is very simple, However, the third equation is independent of \(x_{1}\) and \(x_{2}\), and hence it is impossible to investigate the stability property of the system by constructing a suitable Lyapunov function. Also, since this is a three-dimensional system, we cannot investigate the stability property of the system by using the Dulac criterion.
The paper is arranged as follows. We investigate the existence and locally stability property of the equilibria of system (1.1) in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3, by applying the differential inequality theory and constructing some suitable Lyapunov function we are able to investigate the global attractivity of the positive and boundary equilibria. We then discuss the influence of partial cover to the final density of the first species in Sect. 4, and in Sect. 5, we present an example together with its numerical simulations to show the feasibility of the main results. We end this paper by a brief discussion.
2 Local stability of the equilibria
Lemma 2.1
Now we are in position to investigate the local stability property of system (1.1).
We will now investigate the local stability of the above equilibria.
Theorem 2.1
\(A_{1}(0,0,0)\) is unstable.
Proof
Theorem 2.2
Proof
Theorem 2.3
\(A_{3}(x_{1}^{*},x_{2}^{*}, 0)\) is unstable.
Proof
Theorem 2.4
Proof
3 Global stability
As was shown in the previous section, under some suitable conditions, \(A_{2}\) and \(A_{4}\) can be locally asymptotically stable. In this section, we obtain some sufficient conditions that for the global asymptotical stability of the equilibria \(A_{2}\) and \(A_{4}\).
Theorem 3.1
Proof
Remark 3.1
Under the assumption \(\alpha\beta<\delta_{2}(\beta +\delta_{1})\), it follows from Lemma 2.1 that the first species will be driven to extinction. In this case, for all \(0< k<1\), inequality (3.1) holds, and it follows from Theorem 3.1 that \(A_{2}(0,0,\frac{b_{2}}{a_{2}})\) is globally attractive, which means that the first species is still driven to extinction.
Remark 3.2
Remark 3.3
At first sight, system (1.1) is not complicate, and we may conjecture that it is easy to investigate the stability of the equilibrium by constructing a suitable Lyapunov function as that of An and Lei [36]; however, this is impossible, since the term \(-d_{1}(1-k)x_{1}y\) in the first equation of system (1.1) cannot be dealt with directly. Here, by combining the differential inequality theory and the Lyapunov function we give a strict proof of Theorem 3.1. Such a method possibly could be applied to other situations.
Theorem 3.2
Proof
Remark 3.4
Condition (3.14) is necessary to ensure the existence of the positive equilibrium. Theorem 3.2 shows that if the positive equilibrium exists, then it is globally asymptotically stable, and hence it is impossible for the system to have the bifurcation phenomenon.
Remark 3.5
If \(\alpha\beta>\delta_{2}(\beta+\delta _{1}) \), then for large enough k (k is close to 1) inequality (3.14) can hold, and from Lemma 2.1 we know that in this case, system (2.1) admits a unique positive equilibrium. In other words, if system (2.1) admits a unique positive equilibrium, then for the amensalism model, if the influence of the second species to the first species is limited, then the system still admits a unique globally asymptotically stable positive equilibrium.
4 The influence of the partial cover
From (2.8) we easily see that the final density of the immature and mature species are relevant to the partial cover, and hence one interesting issue is to find out a relationship between the final density of the species and the partial cover.
5 Example
Now let us consider the following example.
Example 5.1
6 Conclusion
During the lase decade, many scholars [13–19] studied the dynamic behavior of the amensalism model; however, only recently, scholars [14, 16, 18] studied the influence of the partial cover to the traditional two-species amensalism model. In this paper, for first time, we propose a two-species stage-structured amensalism model with a cover for the first species.
Though at first sight, the system seems very simple, note that the third equation of system (1.1) is independent of \(x_{1}\) and \(x_{2}\), and thus the Lyapunov method cannot be applied directly to investigate the stability property of system (1.1). By combining the differential inequality theory and the Lyapunov function method we are able to investigate the global stability property of the boundary and positive equilibrium. Theorem 3.2 shows that if the positive equilibrium exists, then it is globally attractive, and the final density of the first species is an increasing function of the partial cover.
We mention here that the method used in this paper can be applied to investigate the stability property of the other ecosystem. We leave this for the future study.
Declarations
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank Dr. Xuelin Xie for useful discussion during the period of writing this paper.
Funding
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant (11601085) and the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province (2017J01400).
Authors’ contributions
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Competing interests
The author declares that there is no conflict of interests.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Authors’ Affiliations
References
- Khajanchi, S., Banerjee, S.: Role of constant prey refuge on stage structure predator–prey model with ratio dependent functional response. Appl. Math. Comput. 314, 193–198 (2017) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Lin, Q.F.: Dynamic behaviors of a commensal symbiosis model with non-monotonic functional response and non-selective harvesting in a partial closure. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2018, Article ID 4 (2018) Google Scholar
- Wu, R.X., Li, L., Lin, Q.F.: A Holling type commensal symbiosis model involving Allee effect. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2018, Article ID 6 (2018) Google Scholar
- Wu, R.X., Li, L., Zhou, X.Y.: A commensal symbiosis model with Holling type functional response. J. Math. Comput. Sci. 16, 364–371 (2016) View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xie, X.D., Miao, Z.S., Xue, Y.L.: Positive periodic solution of a discrete Lotka–Volterra commensal symbiosis model. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2015, Article ID 2 (2015) Google Scholar
- Xue, Y.L., Xie, X.D., Chen, F.D., Han, R.Y.: Almost periodic solution of a discrete commensalism system. Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2015, Article ID 295483 (2015) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Chen, J.H., Wu, R.X.: A commensal symbiosis model with non-monotonic functional response. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2017, Article ID 5 (2017) Google Scholar
- Deng, H., Huang, X.Y.: The influence of partial closure for the populations to a harvesting Lotka–Volterra commensalism model. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2018, Article ID 10 (2018) Google Scholar
- Li, T.T., Lin, Q.X., Chen, J.H.: Positive periodic solution of a discrete commensal symbiosis model with Holling II functional response. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2016, Article ID 22 (2016) Google Scholar
- Zhu, Z.F., Chen, Q.L.: Mathematic analysis on commensalism Lotka–Volterra model of populations. J. Jixi Univ. 8(5), 100–101 (2008) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Lin, Q.F.: Allee effect increasing the final density of the species subject to Allee effect in a Lotka–Volterra commensal symbiosis model. Adv. Differ. Equ. 2018(1), 196 (2018) MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen, B.G.: Dynamic behaviors of a commensal symbiosis model involving Allee effect and one party can not survive independently. Adv. Differ. Equ. 2018(1), 212 (2018) MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xiong, H.H., Wang, B.B., Zhang, H.L.: Stability analysis on the dynamic model of fish swarm amensalism. Adv. Appl. Math. 5(2), 255–261 (2016) View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu, R.X., Zhao, L., Lin, Q.X.: Stability analysis of a two species amensalism model with Holling II functional response and a cover for the first species. J. Nonlinear Funct. Anal. 2016, Article ID 46 (2016) Google Scholar
- Chen, B.: Dynamic behaviors of a non-selective harvesting Lotka–Volterra amensalism model incorporating partial closure for the populations. Adv. Differ. Equ. 2018(1), 111 (2018) MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sita Rambabu, B., Narayan, K.L., Bathul, S.: A mathematical study of two species amensalism model with a cover for the first species by homotopy analysis method. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 3(3), 1821–1826 (2012) Google Scholar
- Lin, Q.X., Zhou, X.Y.: On the existence of positive periodic solution of a amensalism model with Holling II functional response. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2017, Article ID 3 (2017) Google Scholar
- Xie, X.D., Chen, F.D., He, M.X.: Dynamic behaviors of two species amensalism model with a cover for the first species. J. Math. Comput. Sci. 16, 395–401 (2016) View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu, R.: A two species amensalism model with non-monotonic functional response. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2016, Article ID 19 (2016) Google Scholar
- Chen, L., Wang, Y.: Dynamical analysis on prey refuge in a predator–prey model with square root functional response. J. Math. Comput. Sci. 18(2), 154–162 (2018) View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen, L., Chen, F., Chen, L.: Qualitative analysis of a predator–prey model with Holling type II functional response incorporating a constant prey refuge. Nonlinear Anal., Real World Appl. 11(1), 246–252 (2010) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Wei, F., Fu, Q.: Globally asymptotic stability of a predator–prey model with stage structure incorporating prey refuge. Int. J. Biomath. 9(04), 1650058 (2016) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Chen, F., Ma, Z., Zhang, H.: Global asymptotical stability of the positive equilibrium of the Lotka–Volterra prey–predator model incorporating a constant number of prey refuges. Nonlinear Anal., Real World Appl. 13(6), 2790–2793 (2012) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Chen, F.D., Chen, W.L., Wu, Y.M., Ma, Z.Z.: Permanence of a stage-structured predator–prey system. Appl. Math. Comput. 219(17), 8856–8862 (2013) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Chen, F.D., Xie, X.D., Li, Z.: Partial survival and extinction of a delayed predator–prey model with stage structure. Appl. Math. Comput. 219(8), 4157–4162 (2012) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Chen, F.D., Wang, H.N., Lin, Y.H., Chen, W.L.: Global stability of a stage-structured predator–prey system. Appl. Math. Comput. 223, 45–53 (2013) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Lu, Y., Pawelek, K.A., Liu, S.: A stage-structured predator–prey model with predation over juvenile prey. Appl. Math. Comput. 297, 115–130 (2017) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Ma, Z.H., Li, Z.Z., Wang, S.F., Li, T., Zhang, F.P.: Permanence of a predator–prey system with stage structure and time delay. Appl. Math. Comput. 201, 65–71 (2008) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Li, T.T., Chen, F.D., Chen, J.H., Lin, Q.X.: Stability of a mutualism model in plant–pollinator system with stage-structure and the Beddington–DeAngelis functional response. J. Nonlinear Funct. Anal. 2017, Article ID 50 (2017) Google Scholar
- Li, Z., Han, M., Chen, F.: Global stability of a predator-prey system with stage structure and mutual interference. Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., Ser. B 19(1), 173–187 (2014) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Chen, F.D., Xie, X.D., Chen, X.F.: Dynamic behaviors of a stage-structured cooperation model. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2015, Article ID 4 (2015) Google Scholar
- Lin, Y., Xie, X., Chen, F., et al.: Convergences of a stage-structured predator–prey model with modified Leslie–Gower and Holling-type II schemes. Adv. Differ. Equ. 2016(1), 181 (2016) MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pu, L.Q., Miao, Z.S., Han, R.Y.: Global stability of a stage-structured predator–prey model. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2015, Article ID 5 (2015) Google Scholar
- Han, R.Y., Yang, L.Y., Xue, Y.L.: Global attractivity of a single species stage-structured model with feedback control and infinite delay. Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci. 2015, Article ID 6 (2015) Google Scholar
- Wu, H.L., Chen, F.D.: Harvesting of a single-species system incorporating stage structure and toxicity. Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2009, Article ID 290123 (2009) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Xiao, A., Lei, C.Q.: Dynamic behaviors of a non-selective harvesting single species stage structure system incorporating partial closure for the populations. Adv. Differ. Equ. 2018(1), 245 (2018) View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen, L.S.: Mathematical Models and Methods in Ecology. Science Press, Beijing (1988) (in Chinese) Google Scholar