Skip to content


  • Research
  • Open Access

On oscillatory behavior of two-dimensional time scale systems

Advances in Difference Equations20182018:18

  • Received: 25 April 2017
  • Accepted: 7 January 2018
  • Published:


This paper deals with long-time behaviors of nonoscillatory solutions of a system of first-order dynamic equations on time scales. Some well-known fixed point theorems and double improper integrals are used to prove the main results.


  • nonoscillation
  • long-time behavior
  • two-dimensional system
  • asymptotic properties
  • time scale systems


  • 34N05
  • 39A10
  • 39A13

1 Introduction

In this paper, we consider the following system:
$$ \textstyle\begin{cases} x^{\Delta}(t)= a(t) f(y(t)),\\ y^{\Delta}(t)=b(t)g(x(t)), \end{cases} $$
where \(a,b\in C_{rd} ([t_{0},\infty)_{\mathbb{T}},{\mathbb {R}}^{+} )\), and f and g are nondecreasing functions such that \(uf(u)>0\) and \(ug(u)>0\) for \(u\neq0\). The time scale theory is initiated by the German mathematician S. Hilger in his PhD thesis in 1988. His purpose was to unify continuous and discrete analysis and extend the results in one theory. A time scale, denoted by \({\mathbb {T}}\), is a nonempty closed subset of real numbers, and some examples are the set of real numbers \({\mathbb{R}}\), the set of integers \({\mathbb{Z}}\), \(h{\mathbb{Z}}\) for \(h>0\), and \(q^{{\mathbb{N}}_{0}}\) for \(q>1\). In this paper, we assume that \({\mathbb{T}}\) is unbounded above and that \((x,y)\) is a proper solution of system (1); see [1]. We call \((x,y)\) a proper solution if it is defined on \([t_{0},\infty)_{\mathbb{T}}\) and \(\sup\{ \vert x(s) \vert , \vert y(s) \vert : s\in [t,\infty)_{\mathbb{T}}\} > 0\) for \(t \geq t_{0}\). A solution \((x,y)\) is called nonoscillatory if x and y are both nonoscillatory, that is, eventually of one sign. Otherwise, it is said to be oscillatory. For more information about the time scale theory, we refer the interested readers to the books [2, 3] by Bohner and Peterson, respectively.

This paper helps readers to understand the significance of the nonoscillation theory in a more general context. In fact, nonoscillation plays a very important role in understanding the long-time behavior of solutions of a system for several reasons, for example, stability and control theories. Two-dimensional systems of first-order equations have several real-life applications in engineering. For example, Bartolini et al. [46] considered a second-order system in order to control uncertain nonlinear systems by some control techniques, for example, sliding mode and approximate linearization. In addition to nonoscillatory solutions of second-order systems, periodic and subharmonic solutions were also considered in [79], and important results were obtained.

If \({\mathbb{T}}={\mathbb{R}}\), then system (1) turns out to be the system of first-order differential equations, and this system was considered by Li [10]. Also, different versions of system (1) when \({\mathbb{T}}={\mathbb{Z}}\) were considered by Cheng, H. J. Li, and Patula [11], Agarwal, W. T. Li, and Pang [12], and Cecchi, Došlá, and Marini [13, 14]. The time-scale versions of system (1) were studied by Öztürk and Akın [1518]. For example, Öztürk, Akın, and Tiryaki [16] considered a different version of system (1), known as the Emden-Fowler dynamical system in the literature,
$$ \textstyle\begin{cases} x^{\Delta}(t)= (\frac{1}{a(t)} )^{\frac{1}{\alpha}} \vert y(t) \vert ^{\frac{1}{\alpha}} \operatorname{sgn}y(t),\\ y^{\Delta}(t)=-b(t) \vert x^{\sigma}(t) \vert ^{\beta}\operatorname{sgn} x^{\sigma}(t), \end{cases} $$
where \(\alpha, \beta> 0\) and \(a,b\in C_{rd} ([t_{0},\infty )_{\mathbb{T}},{\mathbb{R}}^{+} )\), and investigated nonosillatory behaviors by using α and β relations and some improper integrals. The Emden-Fowler dynamical system has several applications in astrophysics, gas dynamics and fluid mechanics, relativistic mechanics, nuclear physics, and chemically reacting systems; see [1926].
Supposing that S is the set of all nonoscillatory solutions of system (1), we can easily show that any nonoscillatory solution \((x,y)\) of system (1) belongs to one of the following classes:
$$\begin{aligned}& S^{+}:=\bigl\{ (x,y)\in S: xy>0 \mbox{ eventually}\bigr\} , \\& S^{-}:=\bigl\{ (x,y)\in S: xy< 0 \mbox{ eventually}\bigr\} . \end{aligned}$$
In this paper, we only focus on \(S^{-}\) since the existence in \(S^{+}\) is examined by Öztürk [1]. Without loss of generality, we assume that \(x>0\) eventually, and proofs are similar when \(x<0\) eventually. By a solution we mean a nonoscillatory solution.
The structure of the paper is as follows. In Section 1, we provide the existence and nonexistence of solutions of system (1). In Section 2, we present examples for our theoretical claims, and finally, we give a conclusion in the last section. For simplicity, we set
$$\begin{aligned}& A(t_{0},t)= \int_{t_{0}}^{t}a(s)\Delta s \quad\mbox{and}\quad B(t_{0},t)= \int_{t_{0}}^{t}b(s)\Delta s. \end{aligned}$$
Suppose that \((x,y)\) is a nonoscillatory solution of system (1) such that \(x>0\) eventually. Then by the first and second equations of system (1) we have that x is positive decreasing and y is negative increasing eventually. So we have that \(x\rightarrow c\) or \(x\rightarrow0\) and \(y\rightarrow-d\) or \(y\rightarrow0\) for \(0< c<\infty\) and \(0< d<\infty\). So in view of our discussion, we can get the following subclasses of \(S^{-}\):
$$\begin{aligned}& S^{-}_{B,B} = \Bigl\{ (x,y) \in S^{-}: \lim_{t\rightarrow\infty}x(t)=c, \lim_{t\rightarrow\infty} y(t)=-d \Bigr\} , \\& S^{-}_{B,0} = \Bigl\{ (x,y)\in S^{-}: \lim_{t\rightarrow\infty}x(t)=c, \lim_{t\rightarrow\infty}y(t)=0 \Bigr\} , \\& S^{-}_{0,B} = \Bigl\{ (x,y)\in S^{-}: \lim_{t\rightarrow\infty}x(t)=0, \lim_{t\rightarrow\infty}y(t)=-d \Bigr\} , \\& S^{-}_{0,0} = \Bigl\{ (x,y)\in S^{-}: \lim_{t\rightarrow0}x(t)=0, \lim_{t\rightarrow0}y(t)=0 \Bigr\} . \end{aligned}$$
To show the existence, we use the following fixed point theorems known as Schauder’s fixed point theorem and Knaster’s fixed point theorem in the literature, see [27, Theorem 2.A] and [28], respectively.

Theorem 1

Let X be a Banach space such that Y is a closed, nonempty, convex, and bounded subset of X. Suppose also \(F:Y\rightarrow Y\) is a compact operator. Then F has a fixed point.

Theorem 2

If \((Y, \leq)\) is a complete lattice and \(F:Y\rightarrow Y\) is order-preserving, then F has a fixed point. As a matter of fact, the set of fixed points of F is a complete lattice.

2 Main results

2.1 Existence in \(S^{-}\)

In this section, we provide the existence and nonexistence of nonoscillatory solutions of system (1) with the help of the following improper integrals under the monotonicity condition on f and g:
$$\begin{aligned}& I_{1}= \int_{t_{0}}^{\infty}a(t)f \biggl(k-l \int_{t}^{\infty}b(s)\Delta s \biggr)\Delta t, \\& I_{2}= \int_{t_{0}}^{\infty}b(t)g \biggl(m \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)\Delta s \biggr)\Delta t, \end{aligned}$$
where k, l, and m are some constants.

Theorem 3

Let \(B(t_{0},\infty)<\infty\). Then \(S^{-}_{B, B}\neq\emptyset\) if and only if \(I_{1}<\infty\), provided that \(k<0\) and \(l>0\).


Suppose \(S^{-}_{B, B}\neq\emptyset\). Then there exists a solution \((x,y)\in S^{-}_{B,B}\) such that \(x>0\), \(y<0\), \(x(t)\rightarrow c_{1}\) and \(y(t)\rightarrow-d_{1}\) as \(t\rightarrow\infty\) for \(0< c_{1}<\infty\) and \(0< d_{1}<\infty\). By the monotonicity of g and integrating the second equation of system (1) from t to ∞, we obtain
$$\begin{aligned} y(t)&=y(\infty)- \int_{t}^{\infty}b(s)g\bigl(x(s)\bigr)\Delta s \\ &\leq-d_{1}-l \int_{t}^{\infty}b(s)\Delta s, \quad\mbox{where } l=g(c_{1}). \end{aligned}$$
Since x is bounded, integrating the first equation from \(t_{1}\) to t and using (2) result in
$$\begin{aligned} c_{1}&\leq x(t)=x(t_{1})+ \int_{t_{1}}^{t}a(s)f\bigl(y(s)\bigr)\Delta s \\ &\leq x(t_{1})+ \int_{t_{1}}^{t}a(s)f \biggl(-d_{1}-l \int_{s}^{\infty }b(u)\Delta u \biggr)\Delta s\leq x(t_{1}), \quad t\geq t_{1}. \end{aligned}$$
This implies that \(I_{1}<\infty\) as \(t\rightarrow\infty\), where \(-d_{1}=k\).
Conversely, suppose that \(I_{1}<\infty\). Then there exist \(t_{1}\geq t_{0}\) and \(k<0\), \(l>0\) such that
$$\begin{aligned} \int_{t_{0}}^{\infty}a(t)f \biggl(k-l \int_{t}^{\infty}b(s)\Delta s \biggr)\Delta t>- \frac{1}{2}, \end{aligned}$$
where \(l=g(\frac{3}{2})\). Let X be the set of all continuous and bounded real-valued functions \(x(t)\) on \([t_{1},\infty)_{\mathbb{T}}\) with the supremum norm \(\sup _{t\geq t_{1}}{ \vert x(t) \vert }\), which implies that X is a Banach space [29]. Let Y be the subset of X defined as
$$Y:=\biggl\{ x(t)\in X:1\leq x(t)\leq\frac{3}{2} , t\geq t_{1}\biggr\} . $$
It can be shown that Y satisfies the conditions of Theorem 1. Let us define the operator \(F:Y \rightarrow X\) by
$$ (Fx) (t)= 1- \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)f \biggl(k- \int_{s}^{\infty }b(u)g\bigl(x(u)\bigr)\Delta u \biggr) \Delta s. $$
First, we need to show that F is a mapping into itself, thats is, \(F:Y\rightarrow Y\). Indeed,
$$\begin{aligned} 1\leq(Fx) (t)\leq1- \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)f \biggl(k-g\biggl(\frac {3}{2} \biggr) \int_{t_{1}}^{s}b(u)\Delta u \biggr)\Delta s\leq \frac{3}{2} \end{aligned}$$
because \(x\in Y\) and (3) holds. Next, let us verify that F is continuous on Y. To this end, let \(x_{n}\) be a sequence in Y such that \(x_{n}\rightarrow x\), where \(x\in Y=\overline{Y}\). Then
$$\begin{aligned} & \bigl\vert (Fx_{n}) (t)-(Fx) (t) \bigr\vert \\ &\quad \leq \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s) \biggl\lvert f \biggl(k- \int_{s}^{\infty }b(u)g\bigl(x_{n}(u)\bigr) \Delta u \biggr)-f \biggl(k- \int_{s}^{\infty }b(u)g\bigl(x(u)\bigr)\Delta u \biggr) \biggr\lvert \Delta s. \end{aligned}$$
Therefore, the continuity of f and g and the Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem gives \(Fx_{n}\rightarrow Fx\) as \(n\rightarrow\infty \), which implies that F is continuous on Y. Finally, we prove that FY is equibounded and equicontinuous, that is, relatively compact. Because
$$\begin{aligned} 0&< (Fx)^{\Delta}(t)= a(t)f \biggl(k- \int_{t}^{\infty}b(u)g\bigl(x(u)\bigr)\Delta u \biggr) \\ & \leq a(t)f \biggl(k-l \int_{t_{1}}^{t}b(u)\Delta u \biggr)< \infty, \end{aligned}$$
we have that Fx is relatively compact. Hence, Theorem 1 implies that there exists \(\bar{x}\in Y\) such that \(\bar{x}=F\bar {x}\). Thus, we have \(\bar{x}>0\) eventually and \(\bar{x}(t)\rightarrow 1\) as \(t\rightarrow\infty\). Also
$$ \bar{x}^{\Delta}(t)=(F\bar{x})^{\Delta}(t)=a(t)f \biggl(k- \int _{t}^{\infty}b(u)g\bigl(\bar{x}(u)\bigr)\Delta u \biggr), \quad t\geq t_{1}. $$
$$ \bar{y}(t)=k- \int_{t}^{\infty}b(u)g\bigl(\bar{x}(u)\bigr)\Delta u< 0, \quad t\geq t_{1}, $$
and taking the derivative of (5) give \(\bar{y}^{\Delta}(t)=b(t)g(\bar{x}(t))\). So, we conclude that \((\bar{x},\bar{y})\) is a nonoscillatory solution of system (1). Finally, taking the limit of equation (5) results in \(\bar{y}(t)\rightarrow k\). Therefore, we get \(S^{-}_{B,B}\neq\emptyset\). □

Theorem 4

Suppose \(B(t_{0})<\infty\). \(S^{-}_{B,0}\neq\emptyset\) if and only if \(I_{1}<\infty\), where \(k=0\) and \(l>0\).


For necessity, suppose that there exists a solution \((x,y)\) in \(S^{-}_{B,0}\) such that x is positive and y is negative eventually. By the definition of \(S^{-}_{B,0}\) we have that \(x(t)\) tends to a positive finite constant \(c_{1}\) and \(y(t)\) tends to 0 as \(t\rightarrow \infty\). Since x is bounded, there exists \(t_{1}\geq t_{0}\) such that \(c_{1}\leq x(t)\leq x(t_{1})\), \(t\geq t_{1}\). Taking the integral of the last equation of (1) from t to ∞, we have
$$ y(t)\leq-g(c_{1}) \int_{t}^{\infty}b(s)\Delta s. $$
Then by the monotonicity of f, integrating the first equation of system (1), we get
$$\begin{aligned} c_{1}\leq x(t)=x(t_{1})+ \int_{t_{1}}^{t}a(s)f\bigl(y(s)\bigr)\Delta s\leq x(t_{1}). \end{aligned}$$
The latter inequality and (6) imply that
$$\begin{aligned} c_{1}-x(t_{1})\leq \int_{t_{1}}^{t}a(s)f \biggl(-g(c_{1}) \int _{t_{1}}^{t}b(u)\Delta u \biggr)\Delta s\leq0. \end{aligned}$$
Therefore, as \(t\rightarrow\infty\), the assertion follows for \(l=g(c_{1})\).
For sufficiency, suppose \(I_{1}<\infty\) holds for \(k=0\) and \(l>0\). Then choose \(t_{1}\geq t_{0}\) and \(l>0\) such that
$$ -\frac{1}{2}< \int_{t_{1}}^{\infty}a(t)f \biggl(-l \int _{t_{1}}^{t}b(s)\Delta s \biggr)\Delta t< 0, $$
where \(l=g(1)\). Let X be the partially ordered space of continuous functions on \([t_{0},\infty)_{\mathbb{T}}\) with the norm \(\sup _{t\geq t_{1}} \vert x(t) \vert \) and pointwise ordering ≤. Let Y be the subset of X defined by
$$ Y=\biggl\{ x\in X:\frac{1}{2}\leq x(t)\leq1\ t\geq t_{1}\biggr\} $$
and define the operator \(F:Y\rightarrow X\) by
$$ (Fx) (t)=\frac{1}{2}- \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)f \biggl(- \int_{s}^{\infty }b(u)g\bigl(x(u)\bigr)\Delta u \biggr) \Delta t,\quad t\geq t_{1}. $$
It can be easily verified that \(\inf\Omega_{1}\in Y\) and \(\sup\Omega _{1}\in Y\) for any subset \(\Omega_{1}\) of Y, which implies that \((Y,\leq )\) is a complete lattice. First, we show that \(F:Y\rightarrow Y\) is a mapping into itself. Since
$$\begin{aligned} \frac{1}{2}\leq(Fx) (t)\leq\frac{1}{2}- \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)f \biggl(-g(1) \int_{s}^{\infty}b(u)\Delta u \biggr)\Delta t\leq1,\quad t\geq t_{1}, \end{aligned}$$
we have that \(F:Y\rightarrow Y\). Showing that F is an increasing mapping can be done by the definition, that is, if \(x_{1}\leq x_{2}\), then \(Fx_{1}\leq Fx_{2}\). Then by Theorem 2 there exists a function \(\bar{x}\in\Omega\) such that \(\bar{x}=F\bar{x}\). Therefore, we obtain
$$ (F\bar{x})^{\Delta}(t)=a(t)f \biggl(- \int_{t}^{\infty}b(u)g\bigl(\bar {x}(u)\bigr)\Delta u \biggr),\quad t\geq t_{1}. $$
$$\bar{y}(t)=- \int_{t}^{\infty}b(u)g\bigl(\bar{x}(u)\bigr)\Delta u, $$
we have that \(\bar{y}^{\Delta}(t)= b(t)g(\bar{x}(t))\) and \((\bar {x},\bar{y})\) is a solution of system (1) such that tends to \(\frac{1}{2}\) and ȳ tends to zero, that is, \(S^{-}_{B,0}\neq\emptyset\). This finishes the proof. □

Theorem 5

Suppose \(A(t_{0})<\infty\). \(S^{-}_{0,B}\neq\emptyset\) if and only if \(I_{2}<\infty\) for \(m>0\).


The necessary condition can be proven similarly to the previous theorems. For sufficiency, suppose that \(I_{2}<\infty\) for \(m>0\). Let X be the partially ordered space of continuous functions with the supremum norm \(\sup _{t\geq t_{1}} \vert y(t) \vert \) and pointwise ordering ≤. Define the subset Y of X as
$$ Y:=\biggl\{ y\in X: -1\leq y(t)\leq-\frac{1}{2}\ t\geq t_{1}\biggr\} $$
and the operator \(F:Y\rightarrow X\) by
$$ (Fy) (t)=-\frac{1}{2}- \int_{t}^{\infty}b(s)g \biggl(- \int_{s}^{\infty }a(u)f\bigl(y(u)\bigr)\Delta u \biggr) \Delta s,\quad t\geq t_{1}. $$
As claimed in the previous theorem, it can be verified that \((Y,\leq)\) is a complete lattice and F is an increasing mapping. Therefore, let us show that F is a mapping into itself. Indeed,
$$\begin{aligned} -1\leq-\frac{1}{2}- \int_{t}^{\infty}b(s)g \biggl(-f\biggl(-\frac {1}{2} \biggr) \int_{s}^{\infty}a(u)\Delta u \biggr)\Delta t\leq(Fy) (t) \leq -\frac{1}{2},\quad t\geq t_{1}. \end{aligned}$$
Then by Theorem 2 there exists a function \(\bar {y}\in Y\) such that \(\bar{y}=F\bar{y}\). By taking the derivative of we have
$$ (F\bar{y})^{\Delta}(t)=b(t)g \biggl(- \int_{t}^{\infty}a(u)f\bigl(\bar {y}(u)\bigr)\Delta u \biggr),\quad t\geq t_{1}. $$
$$\bar{x}(t)=- \int_{t}^{\infty}a(u)f\bigl(\bar{y}(u)\bigr)\Delta u>0,\quad t\geq t_{1}, $$
gives us that \(\bar{x}^{\Delta}(t)= a(t)f(\bar{y}(t))\) and \((\bar {x},\bar{y})\) is a nonoscillatory solution of system in \(S^{-}_{0,B}\), which concludes the proof. □

Theorem 6

Suppose \(A(t_{0})<\infty\). \(S^{-}_{0,0}\neq\emptyset\) if \(I_{1}<\infty\) and \(I_{2}=\infty\) for \(k=0\), \(l<0\), and \(m>0\), provided that f is odd.


Suppose that \(I_{1}<\infty\) and \(I_{2}=\infty\). Then there exists \(t_{1}\geq t_{0}\) such that
$$\begin{aligned} \int_{t_{1}}^{\infty}a(s)f \biggl(-l \int_{s}^{\infty}b(u)\Delta u \biggr)\Delta s< 1 \end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \int_{t_{1}}^{\infty}b(s)g \biggl(m \int_{s}^{\infty}a(u)\Delta u \biggr)\Delta s> \frac{1}{2} \end{aligned}$$
for \(t\geq t_{1}\), \(l=-g(1)\). Let X be the space as in the proof of Theorem 4. Let Y be the subset of X given by
$$ Y:=\biggl\{ x\in X: c_{1} \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)\Delta s\leq x(t)\leq 1\ t\geq t_{1}\biggr\} , $$
where \(c_{1}=f(\frac{1}{2})\). Define the operator \(H:Y\rightarrow X\) by
$$ (Hx) (t)= \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)f \biggl( \int_{s}^{\infty }b(u)g\bigl(x(u)\bigr)\Delta u \biggr) \Delta t,\quad t\geq t_{1}. $$
As shown in the proof of Theorem 4, we can show that \((Y,\leq)\) is a complete lattice and H is an increasing mapping. Next, let us justify that \(H:Y\rightarrow Y\). Indeed,
$$\begin{aligned} (Hx) (t)\leq \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)f \biggl(g(1) \int_{s}^{\infty }b(u)\Delta u \biggr)\Delta t\leq1,\quad t\geq t_{1}, \end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} (Hx) (t)&\geq \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)f \biggl( \int_{s}^{\infty }b(u)g \biggl(c_{1} \int_{u}^{\infty}a(v)\Delta v \biggr)\Delta u \biggr) \Delta s \\ &\geq f\biggl(\frac{1}{2}\biggr) \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)\Delta s, \end{aligned}$$
where \(c_{1}=m\). Then by Theorem 2 there exists a function \(\bar{x}\in Y\) such that \(\bar{x}=H\bar{x}\). By taking the derivative of Hx̄ and using the fact that f is odd, we have
$$ (H\bar{x})^{\Delta}(t)=a(t)f \biggl(- \int_{t}^{\infty}b(u)g\bigl(\bar {x}(u)\bigr)\Delta u \biggr),\quad t\geq t_{1}. $$
$$\bar{y}(t)=- \int_{t}^{\infty}b(u)g\bigl(\bar{x}(u)\bigr)\Delta u $$
yields that \(\bar{y}^{\Delta}(t)= b(t)g(\bar{x}(t))\) and \((\bar {x},\bar{y})\) is a solution of system (1) in \(S^{-}_{0,0}\), that is, and ȳ both tend to zero. □

2.2 Nonexistence in \(S^{-}\)

In this section, we relax the monotonicity condition on f and g and assume that there exist positive constants F and G such that
$$ \frac{f(u)}{u}\geq F \quad\mbox{and}\quad\frac{g(u)}{u} \geq G\quad \mbox{for } u\neq0. $$
To show the nonexistence of nonoscillatory solutions in \(S^{-}\), note that we have already had the nonexistence of such solutions in \(S^{-}_{B,B}\), \(S^{-}_{B,0}\), \(S^{-}_{0,B}\) by using the monotonicity condition in the previous section. Now, we show similar results by relaxing the monotonicity condition of f and g. Let
$$\begin{aligned} &I_{3}= \int_{t_{0}}^{\infty}b(t) \biggl( \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)\Delta s \biggr)\Delta t, \\ &I_{4}= \int_{t_{0}}^{\infty}a(t) \biggl( \int_{t}^{\infty}b(s)\Delta s \biggr)\Delta t. \end{aligned}$$

Theorem 7

Let \(B(t_{0},\infty)<\infty\). If \(I_{3}=\infty\), then \(S^{-}_{B,B}= \emptyset\).


The proof is by contradiction. So assume that \(S^{-}_{B,B}\neq\emptyset \). Then there exists a nonoscillatory solution \((x,y)\) and \(t_{1}\geq t_{0}\) such that \(x(t)>0\) and \(y(t)<0\) for \(t\geq t_{1}\). Also, since x is decreasing and y is increasing eventually, we have \(c_{1}\leq x(t)\leq c_{2}\) and \(-d_{1}\leq y(t)\leq-d_{2}\) for \(t\geq t_{1}\). Integrating the first equation of system (1) from t to ∞, by condition (8) we have
$$ x(t)\geq c_{1}-F \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)y(s)\Delta s, \quad t\geq t_{1}. $$
Integrating the second equation from \(t_{1}\) to t, condition (8), and inequality (9) yield
$$\begin{aligned} y(t)&\geq y(t_{1})-FG \int_{t_{1}}^{t}b(s) \biggl( \int_{s}^{\infty }a(u)y(u)\Delta u \biggr)\Delta s \\ &\geq y(t_{1})+FGd_{2} \int_{t_{1}}^{t}b(s) \biggl( \int_{s}^{\infty }a(u)\Delta u \biggr)\Delta s, \quad t \geq t_{1}. \end{aligned}$$
Therefore, as \(t\rightarrow\infty\), we have a contradiction to the fact that \(y<0\) eventually. This completes the proof. □

Theorem 8

Suppose \(B(t_{0},\infty)<\infty\). If \(I_{4}=\infty\), then \(S^{-}_{B,0}=\emptyset\).


Assume the contrary. Then there exists a nonoscillatory solution \((x,y)\) in \(S^{-}_{B,0}\) and \(t\geq t_{1}\) such that \(x(t)>0\), \(y(t)<0\), and \(c_{1}\leq x(t)\leq c_{2}\) for \(t\geq t_{1}\). Integrating the second equation of system (1) from t to ∞ and using condition (8), we have
$$ y(t)\leq-G \int_{t}^{\infty}b(s)x(s)\Delta s, \quad t\geq t_{1}, \mbox{ where } G>0. $$
Next, integrating the second equation of system (1) from \(t_{1}\) to t, inequality (10), and the fact that x is bounded yield us
$$\begin{aligned} c_{1}-x(t_{1})\leq \int_{t_{1}}^{t}a(s)f\bigl(y(s)\bigr)\Delta s\leq-FG \int _{t_{1}}^{t}a(s) \biggl( \int_{s}^{\infty}b(u)\Delta u \biggr)\Delta s< 0, \quad t \geq t_{1}. \end{aligned}$$
Hence, we have a contradiction to \(I_{4}=\infty\) as \(t\rightarrow\infty \), which finishes the proof. □

The following theorem can be proven similarly to the previous theorems.

Theorem 9

Let \(A(t_{0},\infty)<\infty\). If \(I_{3}=\infty\), then \(S^{-}_{0,B}=\emptyset\).

3 Examples

Making a statement without examples can make the results muddy, whereas examples make results clearer and give more information to readers. Therefore, we give the following examples for validating our claims.

Theorem 10

([2, Theorem 1.79])

Let \(a,b\in{\mathbb{T}}\) and \(f\in\mathrm{C}_{\mathrm{rd}}\). If \([a,b]\) consists of only isolated points, then
$$ \int_{a}^{b}f(t)\Delta t=\sum _{t\in[a,b)_{\mathbb{T}}}\mu(t)f(t). $$

Example 1

Let \({\mathbb{T}}=q^{{\mathbb{N}}_{0}}\), \(q>1\). Consider the following system:
$$ \textstyle\begin{cases} \Delta x_{q}(t)=\frac{1}{qt^{\frac{8}{5}}(2t^{2}+1)^{\frac{1}{5}}}(y(t))^{\frac{1}{5}},\\ \Delta y_{q} (t)= \frac{q+1}{q^{2}t^{2}(t+1)}x(t), \end{cases} $$
where \(\Delta f_{q}(t)=\frac{f^{\sigma}(t)-f(t)}{\mu(t)}\) for \(f^{\sigma}(t)=f(\sigma(t))\), \(\sigma(t)=tq\), \(\mu(t)=(q-1)t\), and \(t=q^{n}\), \(s=q^{m}\); see [2]. First, we show \(B(t_{0},\infty)<\infty\) for \(t_{0}=1\). Indeed,
$$\begin{aligned} \int_{1}^{T}b(t)\Delta t=\sum _{t\in[1,T)_{q^{{\mathbb{N}}_{0}}}}\frac {q+1}{q^{2}t^{2}(t+1)}\cdot t. \end{aligned}$$
Therefore, as \(T\rightarrow\infty\), we have
$$\begin{aligned} \frac{q+1}{q^{2}}\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{}{q^{n}(q^{n}+1)}< \infty \end{aligned}$$
by the geometric series, that is, \(B(1,\infty)<\infty\). Next, let us show that \(I_{1}<\infty\) for \(k=-1\), \(l=1\). First, note that
$$\begin{aligned} \int_{t}^{T}b(s)\Delta s\leq\frac{q+1}{q^{2}}\sum _{s\in [t,T)_{q^{{\mathbb{N}}_{0}}}}\frac{1}{s^{2}}. \end{aligned}$$
Taking the limit as \(T\rightarrow\infty\), we get \(B(t,\infty)\leq \frac{1}{q-1}\frac{1}{t^{2}}\). Second,
$$\begin{aligned} \int_{1}^{T}a(t)f \biggl(-1- \int_{t}^{\infty}b(s)\Delta s \biggr)\Delta t&\geq \int_{1}^{T}a(t) \biggl(-1-\frac{1}{q-1} \frac {1}{t^{2}} \biggr) \\ &\geq-\frac{1}{q}\sum_{t\in[1,T)_{q^{{\mathbb{N}}_{0}}}} \frac {1}{t^{\frac{3}{5}}(2t^{2}+1)}. \end{aligned}$$
As \(T\rightarrow\infty\), we have that \(I_{1}\) is convergent by the geometric series and comparison theorem. Finally, we can show that \((1+\frac{1}{t}, -2-\frac{1}{t^{2}})\) is a solution of system (11) such that \(x\rightarrow1\) and \(\rightarrow-2\), that is, \(S^{-}_{B,B}\neq\emptyset\) by Theorem 3.

Example 2

Consider \({\mathbb{T}}={\mathbb{N}}_{0}^{2}=\{n^{2}: n\in{\mathbb {N}}_{0}\}\) with the system
$$ \textstyle\begin{cases} x^{\Delta}(t)=\frac{1}{t^{\frac{1}{3}}(\sqrt{t}+1)^{2}(t^{2}+1)^{\frac{1}{3}}} (y(t) )^{\frac{1}{3}},\\ y^{\Delta}(t)=\frac{(\sqrt{t}+1)^{4}-t^{2}}{t^{\frac{9}{5}}(\sqrt {t}+1)^{4}(1+2\sqrt{t})} (x(t) )^{\frac{1}{5}}, \end{cases} $$
where \(f^{\Delta}(t)=\frac{f(\sigma(t))-f(t)}{\mu(t)}\) for \(\sigma (t)=(\sqrt{t}+1)^{2}\) and \(\mu(t)=1+2\sqrt{t}\); see [2]. First, let us show that \(A(t_{0},\infty)<\infty\), where \(t_{0}\geq1\). We have
$$\begin{aligned} \int_{1}^{T}a(t)\Delta t=\sum _{t\in[1,T)_{{{\mathbb{N}}_{0}}^{2}}}\frac {1}{t^{\frac{1}{3}}(\sqrt{t}+1)^{2}(t^{2}+1)^{\frac{1}{3}}}\cdot(1+2\sqrt {t})\leq\sum _{t\in[1,T)_{{{\mathbb{N}}_{0}}^{2}}}\frac{1+2\sqrt{t}}{t^{2}}. \end{aligned}$$
Since \(t=n^{2}\), as \(T\rightarrow\infty\), we have
$$\begin{aligned} \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1+2n}{n^{4}}< \infty \end{aligned}$$
by the geometric series. Therefore, \(A(1,\infty)<\infty\) by the comparison test. Next, we show that \(I_{2}<\infty\). Since \(A(1,\infty )<\infty\), we have \(\int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)\Delta s<\alpha\) for \(t\geq1\) and \(0<\alpha<\infty\). Hence,
$$\begin{aligned} \int_{1}^{T}b(t)g \biggl( \int_{t}^{\infty}a(s)\Delta s \biggr)\Delta t&\leq\alpha \int_{1}^{T}b(t)\Delta t \\ &=\alpha\sum_{t\in[1,T)_{{{\mathbb{N}}_{0}}^{2}}}\frac{(\sqrt {t}+1)^{4}-t^{2}}{t^{\frac{9}{5}}(\sqrt{t}+1)^{4}(1+2\sqrt{t})}\cdot (1+2 \sqrt{t}) \\ &\leq\alpha\sum_{t\in[1,T)_{{{\mathbb{N}}_{0}}^{2}}}\frac{1}{t^{\frac{9}{5}}}. \end{aligned}$$
So, as T tends to infinity, we get
$$\begin{aligned} \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n^{\frac{18}{5}}}< \infty, \end{aligned}$$
that is, \(I_{2}<\infty\). Also, it is easy to verify that \((\frac {1}{t},-1-\frac{1}{t^{2}}) \) is a solution of system (12) in \(S^{-}\) such that x tends to zero whereas y tends to −1, that is, \(S^{-}_{0,B}\neq\emptyset\).

4 Conclusion

In this paper, we show the existence of solutions of system (1) rather than in advance assuming that there exist solutions. After guaranteeing the existence of such solutions, we examine the long-time behavior of nonoscillatory solutions of system (1). In general, it is not easy to construct an explicit solution for nonlinear systems. Therefore, providing examples with explicit solutions to our system makes the results more interesting and powerful. Tables 1 and 2 summarize the limit behavior of solutions in \(S^{-}\) by means of the improper integrals.
Table 1

Existence in \(\pmb{S^{-}}\)

\(S^{-}_{B,B} \)


\(I_{1}<\infty\), k<0, l>0

\(S^{-}_{B,0} \)


\(I_{1}<\infty\), k = 0, l>0

\(S^{-}_{0,B} \)


\(I_{2}<\infty\), m>0

\(S^{-}_{0,0} \)


\(I_{1}<\infty\), \(I_{2}=\infty\), k = 0, l<0, m>0

Table 2

Nonexistence in \(\pmb{S^{-}}\)

\(S^{-}_{B,B} \)



\(I_{3}=\infty \)

\(S^{-}_{0,B} \)



\(I_{3}=\infty \)

\(S^{-}_{B,0} \)



\(I_{4}=\infty \)


Authors’ contributions

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Competing interests

The author declares that they have no competing interests.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Giresun University, Giresun, Turkey


  1. Öztürk, Ö: Classification schemes of nonoscillatory solutions for two-dimensional time scale systems. Math. Inequal. Appl. 20(2), 377-387 (2017) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Bohner, M, Peterson, A: Dynamic Equations on Time Scales: An Introduction with Applications. Birkhäuser, Boston (2001) View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Bohner, M, Peterson, A: Advances in Dynamic Equations on Time Scales. Birkhäuser, Boston (2003) View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartolini, G, Pvdvnowski, P: Approximate linearization of uncertain nonlinear systems by means of continuous control. In: Proc. of the 30th Conference on Decision and Control, Brighton, England (1991) Google Scholar
  5. Bartolini, G, Pisano, A, Punta, E, Usai, E: A survey of applications of second-order sliding mode control to mechanical systems. Int. J. Control 76(9-10), 875-892 (2010) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartolini, G, Ferrara, A, Usai, E: Applications of a sub-optimal discontinuous control algorithm for uncertain second order systems. Int. J. Robust Nonlinear Control 7, 299-319 (1997) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Esmailzadeh, E, Mehri, B, Nakhaie, J: Periodic solution of a second order, autonomous, nonlinear system. Nonlinear Dyn. 10, 307-316 (1996) MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Li, X, Zhang, Z: Periodic solutions for some second order differential equations with singularity. Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 59, 400-415 (2008) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Fonda, A, Manásevich, R, Zanolin, F: Subharmonic solutions for some second-order differential equations with singularities. SIAM J. Math. Anal. 24(5), 1294-1311 (1993) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. Li, WT: Classification schemes for positive solutions of nonlinear differential systems. Math. Comput. Model. 36, 411-418 (2002) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheng, S, Li, HJ, Patula, WT: Bounded and zero convergent solutions of second order difference equations. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 141, 463-483 (1989) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Agarwal, RP, Li, WT, Pang, PYH: Asymptotic behavior of nonlinear difference systems. Appl. Math. Comput. 140, 307-316 (2003) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Cecchi, M, Došlá, Z, Marini, M: Unbounded solutions of quasi-linear difference equations. Comput. Math. Appl. 45, 1113-1123 (2003) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. Cecchi, M, Došlá, Z, Marini, M: Positive decreasing solutions of quasi-linear difference equations. Comput. Math. Appl. 42 1401-1410 (2001) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. Öztürk, Ö, Akın, E: Classification of nonoscillatory solutions of nonlinear dynamic equations on time scales. Dyn. Syst. Appl. 25, 219-236 (2016) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. Öztürk, Ö, Akın, E, Tiryaki, Uİ: On nonoscillatory solutions of Emden-Fowler dynamic systems on time scales. Filomat 31(6), 1529-1541 (2017) MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Öztürk, Ö, Akın, E: Nonoscillation criteria for two dimensional time scale systems. Nonauton. Dyn. Syst. 3, 1-13 (2016) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. Öztürk, Ö, Akın, E: On nonoscillatory solutions of two dimensional nonlinear delay dynamical systems. Opusc. Math. 36, 5 (2016) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. Thompson, W (Kelvin, L): On the convective equilibrium of temperature in the atmosphere. Manchester Philos. Soc. Proc. 2, 170-176 (1860-62); reprint, Math and Phys., Papers by Lord Kelvin, 3, pp. 255-260 (1890) Google Scholar
  20. Homerlane, IJ: On the theoretical temperature of the sun under the hypothesis of a gaseous mass maintaining its volume by its internal heat and depending on the laws of gases known to terrestial experiment. Am. J. Sci. Arts 4, 57-74 (1869-70) Google Scholar
  21. Chandrasekhar, S: Introduction to the Study of Steller Structure. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1939) Chapter 4. (Reprint: Dover, New York, 1957) Google Scholar
  22. Chandrasekhar, S: Principles of Stellar Dynamics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1942) Chap. V MATHGoogle Scholar
  23. Fowler, RH: The form near infinity of real, continuous solutions of a certain differential equation of the second order. Quart. J. Math. 45, 289-350 (1914) MATHGoogle Scholar
  24. Fowler, RH: The solution of Emden’s and similar differential equations. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 91, 63-91 (1930) View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. Fowler, RH: Some results on the form near infinity of real continuous solutions of a certain type of second order differential equations. Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 13, 341-371 (1914) MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  26. Fowler, RH: Further studies of Emden’s and similar differential equations. Quart. J. Math. 2, 259-288 (1931) View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. Zeidler, E: Nonlinear Functional Analysis and Its Applications - I: Fixed Point Theorems. Springer, New York (1986) View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. Knaster, B: Un théorème sur les fonctions d’ensembles. Ann. Soc. Pol. Math. 6, 133-134 (1928) MATHGoogle Scholar
  29. Ciarlet, PG: Linear and Nonlinear Functional Analysis with Applications. SIAM, Philadelphia (2013) MATHGoogle Scholar


© The Author(s) 2018