# Sums of finite products of Genocchi functions

## Abstract

In a previous work, it was shown that Faber-Pandharipande-Zagier and Miki’s identities can be derived from a polynomial identity which in turn follows from a Fourier series expansion of sums of products of Bernoulli functions. Motivated by this work, we consider three types of sums of finite products of Genocchi functions and derive Fourier series expansions for them. Moreover, we will be able to express each of them in terms of Bernoulli functions.

## Introduction

As is well known, the Bernoulli polynomials $$B_{m}(x)$$ are given by the generating function

$$\frac{t}{e^{t}-1}e^{xt}=\sum_{m=0} ^{\infty}B_{m}(x)\frac{t^{m}}{m!}.$$

The Genocchi polynomials $$G_{m}(x)$$ are given by the generating function

$$\frac{2t}{e^{t}+1}e^{xt} =\sum _{m=0}^{\infty}G_{m}(x) \frac{t^{m}}{m!} \quad(\mbox{see [1--12]}).$$
(1.1)

The first few Genocchi polynomials are as follows:

\begin{aligned}&G_{0}(x)=0,\qquad G_{1}(x)=1,\qquad G_{2}(x)=2x-1, \\ &G_{3}(x)=3x^{2}-3x,\qquad G_{4}(x)=4x^{3}-6x^{2}+1, \\ &G_{5}(x)=5x^{4}-10x^{3}+5x, \qquad G_{6}(x)=6x^{5}-15x^{4}+15x^{2}-3. \end{aligned}
(1.2)

From the relation $$G_{m}(x)=mE_{m-1}(x) (m\geq1)$$, the following facts are obtained:

\begin{aligned}& \deg G_{m}(x)=m-1\quad (m\geq1), \qquad G_{m}=mE_{m-1}\quad (m\geq1), \\ & G_{0}=0, \qquad G_{1} =1,\qquad G_{2m+1}=0\quad (m \geq1),\quad \mbox{and}\quad G_{2m}\neq 0\quad (m\geq1). \end{aligned}
(1.3)

\begin{aligned} & \frac{d}{dx} G_{m}(x)=mG_{m-1}(x) \quad (m\geq1), \\ & G_{m}(x+1)+G_{m}(x)=2mx^{m-1}\quad (m\geq0). \end{aligned}
(1.4)

From these, we immediately obtain

\begin{aligned} G_{m}(1)+G_{m}(0)=2 \delta_{m,1} \quad (m\geq0) \end{aligned}
(1.5)

and

\begin{aligned} \int_{0}^{1} G_{m}(x) \,dx &= \frac{1}{m+1} \bigl(G_{m+1}(1)-G_{m+1}(0) \bigr) \\ &= \frac{2}{m+1} \bigl(-G_{m+1}(0)+\delta_{m,0} \bigr) \\ & = \textstyle\begin{cases} 0& \text{if } m \textit{ is even}, \\ -\frac{2}{m+1}G_{m+1} & \text{if } m \textit{ is odd}. \end{cases}\displaystyle \end{aligned}
(1.6)

For any real number x, we let $$\langle x\rangle =x-[x]\in[0,1)$$ denote the fractional part of x.

In this paper, we will consider three types of sums of finite products of Genocchi functions and derive the Fourier series expansions for them. Moreover, we will be able to express each of them in terms of Bernoulli functions $$B_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$:

1. (1)

$$\alpha_{m}(\langle x\rangle )=\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} G_{i_{1}}(\langle x\rangle )\cdots G_{i_{r}}(\langle x\rangle ) (m>r\geq1)$$;

2. (2)

$$\beta_{m}(\langle x\rangle )= \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}}(\langle x\rangle ) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(\langle x\rangle ) (m>r\geq1)$$;

3. (3)

$$\gamma_{m}(\langle x\rangle )=\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}\cdots i_{r}}G_{i_{1}}(\langle x\rangle )\cdots G_{i_{r}}(\langle x\rangle ) (m>r\geq1)$$.

For elementary facts about Fourier analysis, the reader may refer to any book (for example, see [13, 14]).

As to $$\gamma_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$, we note that the polynomial identity (1.7) follows immediately from Theorems 4.1 and 4.2, which are in turn derived from the Fourier series expansion of $$\gamma_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$.

\begin{aligned} & \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1} i_{2}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}}(x)G_{i_{2}}(x)\cdots G_{i_{r}}(x) \\ &\quad =\frac{1}{m} \Lambda_{m+1} + \frac{1}{m} \sum _{j=1}^{m-r}\binom{m}{j} \Lambda_{m-j+1}B_{j}(x), \end{aligned}
(1.7)

where, for $$l>r$$,

\begin{aligned} \Lambda_{l} ={}& \sum _{0\leq a \leq r}\binom{r}{a} (-1)^{a} 2^{r-a} \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{a}=l+a-r, i_{1},\ldots,i_{a} \geq1} \frac{G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}}\cdots G_{i_{a}}}{i_{1}i_{2} \cdots i_{a}} \\ &{} -\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=l, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \frac{G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}}\cdots G_{i_{r}}}{i_{1}i_{2} \cdots i_{r}}. \end{aligned}
(1.8)

The obvious polynomial identities can be derived also for $$\alpha _{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ and $$\beta_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ from Theorems 2.1 and 2.2, and Theorems 3.1 and 3.2, respectively. It is noteworthy that from the Fourier series expansion of the function

$$\sum_{k=1}^{m-1} \frac{1}{k(m-k)}B_{k} \bigl( \langle x \rangle \bigr)B_{m-k} \bigl( \langle x \rangle \bigr)$$
(1.9)

we can derive the Faber-Pandharipande-Zagier identity (see [1, 1520]) and the Miki identity (see ). In case of $$r=2$$, $$\gamma_{m}(\langle x\rangle )=\sum_{k=1}^{m-1} \frac{1}{k(m-k)}G_{k}( \langle x \rangle )G_{m-k}( \langle x \rangle )$$, and hence our problem here is a natural extension of the previous work, which leads to a simple proof for the important Faber-Pandharipande-Zagier and Miki identities (see [16, 22]). We will give an outline below, and this may be viewed as the main motivation for the present study.

The following polynomial identity follows immediately from the Fourier series expansion of the function in (1.9):

\begin{aligned} & \sum_{k=1}^{m-1} \frac{1}{k (m-k )}B_{k} (x )B_{m-k} (x ) \\ &\quad = \frac{2}{m^{2}} \biggl(B_{m}+\frac{1}{2} \biggr)+ \frac{2}{m}\sum_{k=1}^{m-2} \frac{1}{m-k}\dbinom{m}{k}B_{m-k}B_{k} (x )+ \frac{2}{m}H_{m-1}B_{m} (x ) \quad (m\geq2), \end{aligned}
(1.10)

where $$H_{m}=\sum_{j=1}^{m}\frac{1}{j}$$ are the harmonic numbers.

Simple modification of (1.10) yields

\begin{aligned} & \sum_{k=1}^{m-1} \frac{1}{2k (2m-2k )}B_{2k} (x )B_{2m-2k} (x )+\frac{2}{2m-1}B_{1} (x )B_{2m-1} (x ) \\ &\quad = \frac{1}{m}\sum_{k=1}^{m} \frac{1}{2k}\dbinom {2m}{2k}B_{2k}B_{2m-2k} (x )+ \frac{1}{m}H_{2m-1}B_{2m} (x ) \\ &\qquad{}+\frac{2}{2m-1}B_{1} (x )B_{2m-1}\quad (m\ge2 ). \end{aligned}
(1.11)

Letting $$x=0$$ in (1.11) gives a slightly different version of the well-known Miki identity (see ):

\begin{aligned} & \sum_{k=1}^{m-1} \frac{1}{2k (2m-2k )}B_{2k}B_{2m-2k} \\ &\quad = \frac{1}{m}\sum_{k=1}^{m} \frac{1}{2k}\dbinom {2m}{2k}B_{2k}B_{2m-2k}+ \frac{1}{m}H_{2m-1}B_{2m} \quad (m\ge 2 ). \end{aligned}
(1.12)

Setting $$x=\frac{1}{2}$$ in (1.12) with $$\overline{B}_{m}= (\frac{1-2^{m-1}}{2^{m-1}} )B_{m}= (2^{1-m}-1 )B_{m}=B_{m} (\frac{1}{2} )$$, we have

\begin{aligned} & \sum_{k=1}^{m-1} \frac{1}{2k (2m-2k )} \overline {B}_{2k}\overline{B}_{2m-2k} \\ &\quad = \frac{1}{m}\sum_{k=1}^{m} \frac{1}{2k}\dbinom {2m}{2k}B_{2k}\overline{B}_{2m-2k}+ \frac{1}{m}H_{2m-1}\overline {B}_{2m}\quad (m\ge2 ), \end{aligned}
(1.13)

which is the Faber-Pandharipande-Zagier identity (see ). Some of the different proofs of Miki’s identity can be found in [15, 2123]. Miki in  exploits a formula for the Fermat quotient $$\frac{a^{p}-a}{p}$$ modulo $$p^{2}$$, Shiratani-Yokoyama in  employs p-adic analysis, Gessel in  bases his work on two different expressions for Stirling numbers of the second kind $$S_{2} (n,k )$$, and Dunne-Schubert in  uses the asymptotic expansion of some special polynomials coming from the quantum field theory computations. As we can see, all of these proofs are quite involved. On the other hand, our proof of Miki’s and Faber-Pandharipande-Zagier’s identities follow from the polynomial identity (1.10), which in turn follows immediately from the Fourier series expansion of (1.9), together with the elementary manipulations outlined in (1.11)-(1.13). Some related recent work can be found in [10, 2426].

## The first type of sums of finite products

In this section, we will derive the Fourier series of the first type of sums of products of Genocchi functions. Let us denote

$$\alpha_{m}(x)=\sum _{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} G_{i_{1}}(x)G_{i_{2}}(x)\cdots G_{i_{r}}(x)\quad (m>r\geq1).$$
(2.1)

Here the sum runs over all positive integers $$i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}$$ with $$i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, (m>r\geq1)$$. Note here that $$\deg\alpha_{m} (x)=m-r\geq1$$. Then we will consider the function

$$\alpha_{m} \bigl(\langle x \rangle \bigr)= \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} G_{i_{1}} \bigl( \langle x\rangle \bigr)G_{i_{2}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)\cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigl( \langle x\rangle \bigr)\quad (m>r\geq1),$$
(2.2)

defined on $$\mathbb{R}$$, which is periodic with period 1. The Fourier series of $$\alpha_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is

$$\sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty}A_{n}^{(m)} e^{2\pi i n x},$$
(2.3)

where

$$A_{n}^{(m)}= \int_{0}^{1} \alpha_{m} \bigl(\langle x \rangle \bigr) e^{-2\pi inx} \,dx= \int_{0}^{1} \alpha _{m} (x) e^{-2\pi inx} \,dx.$$
(2.4)

Before proceeding, we note the following:

\begin{aligned} \alpha_{m}'(x)={}& \sum _{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}\geq 2, i_{2},\ldots ,i_{r}\geq1} i_{1}G_{i_{1}-1}(x)G_{i_{2}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(x) \\ &{} +\cdots+ \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r-1}\geq 1,i_{r}\geq2} i_{r} G_{i_{1}}(x)\cdots G_{i_{r-1}}G_{{i_{r}}-1}(x) \\ ={}& \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m-1, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} (i_{1}+1)G_{i_{1}}(x)G_{i_{2}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(x) \\ &{} +\cdots+ \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m-1, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq 1}(i_{r}+1) G_{i_{1}}(x)G_{i_{2}}(x)\cdots G_{i_{r}}(x) \\ ={}&(m+r-1)\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m-1, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} G_{i_{1}}(x)G_{i_{2}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(x) \\ ={}&(m+r-1) \alpha_{m-1}(x). \end{aligned}
(2.5)

So, $$\alpha_{m}'(x)=(m+r-1)\alpha_{m-1}(x)$$, and from this, we obtain

$$\biggl( \frac{\alpha_{m+1}(x)}{m+r} \biggr)' = \alpha_{m}(x)$$
(2.6)

and

$$\int_{0}^{1} \alpha_{m}(x) \,dx = \frac{1}{m+r} \bigl(\alpha_{m+1}(1)-\alpha_{m+1}(0) \bigr).$$
(2.7)

We put $$\Delta_{m}=\alpha_{m}(1)- \alpha_{m}(0)$$, for $$m>r$$. Then we have

\begin{aligned} \Delta_{m} ={}& \alpha_{m}(1)- \alpha_{m}(0) \\ ={}& \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \bigl(G_{i_{1}}(1)G_{i_{2}}(1) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(1) - G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}}\cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigr) \\ ={}& \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \bigl( (-G_{i_{1}} +2 \delta_{i_{1},1} )\cdots (-G_{i_{r}}+2 \delta _{i_{r},1} ) -G_{i_{1}}\cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigr) \\ ={}&\sum_{0\leq a \leq r} \binom{r}{a} \sum _{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{a}=m+a-r, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{a}\geq1}(-1)^{a} 2^{r-a} G_{i_{1}} \cdots G_{i_{a}} \\ &{} - \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}} \cdots G_{i_{r}}, \end{aligned}
(2.8)

where we understand that, for $$a=0$$, the inner sum is $$2^{r} \delta _{m,r}$$. Observe here that the sums over all $$i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m\ (i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1)$$ of any term with a of $$-G_{i_{e}}$$ and b of $$2\delta_{i_{f},1}\ (1\leq e, f\leq r, a+b=r)$$ all give

\begin{aligned} &\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} (-G_{i_{1}} ) \cdots (-G_{i_{a}} ) (2\delta _{i_{a+1},1}) \cdots(2\delta_{i_{a+b},1}) \\ &\quad=\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{a}=m+a-r, i_{1},\ldots, i_{a}\geq1} (-1)^{a} 2^{r-a} G_{i_{1}}\cdots G_{i_{a}}. \end{aligned}
(2.9)

Note that, as $$i_{1}+\cdots+i_{a}=m+a-r>a$$, the above sum is not empty. From the definition of $$\Delta_{m}$$, we have

\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} &\alpha_{m}(0)= \alpha_{m}(1) \quad\Longleftrightarrow\quad \Delta_{m} =0, \\ & \int_{0}^{1} \alpha_{m}(x) \,dx = \frac{1}{m+r}\Delta_{m+1}. \end{aligned} \end{aligned}
(2.10)

Now, we want to determine the Fourier coefficients $$A_{n}^{(m)}$$.

Case 1: $$n\neq0$$. We have

\begin{aligned} A_{n}^{(m)} &= \int_{0}^{1} \alpha_{m} (x) e^{-2\pi inx} \,dx \\ &= -\frac{1}{2\pi in } \bigl[ \alpha_{m} (x) e^{-2\pi inx} \bigr]_{0}^{1} + \frac{1}{2\pi in } \int_{0}^{1} \alpha_{m}' (x) e^{-2\pi inx} \,dx \\ &= -\frac{1}{2\pi in } \bigl(\alpha_{m} (1)-\alpha_{m} (0) \bigr)+ \frac {m+r-1}{2\pi in} \int_{0}^{1} \alpha_{m-1}(x) e^{-2\pi in x}\,dx \\ &= \frac{m+r-1}{2\pi in} A_{n}^{(m-1)}- \frac{1}{2\pi in} \Delta_{m} \\ &=\frac{m+r-1}{2\pi in } \biggl(\frac{m+r-2}{2\pi in} A_{n}^{(m-2)}- \frac{1}{2\pi in} \Delta_{m-1} \biggr) - \frac{1}{2\pi in} \Delta_{m} \\ &=\frac{(m+r-1)_{2}}{(2\pi in)^{2} } A_{n}^{(m-2)} - \sum _{j=1}^{2} \frac {(m+r-1)_{j-1}}{(2\pi in)^{j} } \Delta_{m-j+1} \\ &= \cdots \\ &=\frac{(m+r-1)_{m-r}}{(2\pi in)^{m-r} } A_{n}^{(r)} - \sum _{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{(m+r-1)_{j-1}}{(2\pi in)^{j} } \Delta_{m-j+1} \\ &=-\frac{1}{m+r}\sum_{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{(m+r)_{j}}{(2\pi in)^{j}}\Delta_{m-j+1}, \end{aligned}
(2.11)

where

$$A_{n}^{(r)}= \int_{0}^{1} e^{-2\pi in x} \,dx=0.$$
(2.12)

Case 2: $$n=0$$. We have

$$A_{0}^{(m)} = \int_{0}^{1} \alpha_{m}(x) \,dx= \frac{1}{m+r}\Delta_{m+1}.$$
(2.13)

We recall the following facts about Bernoulli functions $$B_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$:

1. (a)

for $$m\geq2$$,

\begin{aligned} B_{m } \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) = -m! \sum_{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\frac{e^{2\pi inx}}{(2\pi in)^{m}}, \end{aligned}
(2.14)
2. (b)

for $$m=1$$,

\begin{aligned} -\sum_{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\frac{e^{2\pi inx}}{2\pi in} = \textstyle\begin{cases} B_{1}(\langle x\rangle ) & \text{for } x \in\mathbb{Z}^{c}, \\ 0 & \text{for } x \in\mathbb{Z}, \end{cases}\displaystyle \end{aligned}
(2.15)

where $$\mathbb{Z}^{c}=\mathbb{R}-\mathbb{Z}$$. $$\alpha_{m}(\langle x\rangle )\ (m>r\geq1)$$ is piecewise $$C^{\infty}$$. Moreover, $$\alpha_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is continuous for those positive integers $$m>r$$ with $$\Delta_{m}=0$$ and discontinuous with jump discontinuities at integers for those positive integers $$m>r$$ with $$\Delta_{m}\neq0$$. Assume first that $$\Delta_{m}=0$$, for a positive integer $$m>r$$. Then $$\alpha_{m}(0)=\alpha_{m}(1)$$. Hence $$\alpha_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is piecewise $$C^{\infty}$$, and continuous. Thus, the Fourier series of $$\alpha_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ converges uniformly to $$\alpha_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$, and

\begin{aligned} &\alpha_{m} \bigl(\langle x \rangle \bigr) \\ &\quad= \frac{1}{m+r}\Delta_{m+1} + \sum _{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\Biggl( -\frac{1}{m+r}\sum _{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{(m+r)_{j}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Delta_{m-j+1} \Biggr)e^{2\pi in x} \\ &\quad= \frac{1}{m+r}\Delta_{m+1} + \frac{1}{m+r} \sum _{j=1}^{m-r}\binom {m+r}{j} \Delta_{m-j+1} \Biggl( -j! \sum_{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\frac{e^{2\pi i nx}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Biggr) \\ &\quad= \frac{1}{m+r}\Delta_{m+1} + \frac{1}{m+r} \sum _{j=2}^{m-r}\binom {m+r}{j} \Delta_{m-j+1} B_{j} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ &\qquad{} + \Delta_{m} \times \textstyle\begin{cases} B_{1}(\langle x\rangle ) & \text{for } x \in\mathbb{Z}^{c}, \\ 0 & \text{for }x \in\mathbb{Z}. \end{cases}\displaystyle \end{aligned}
(2.16)

Now, we can state our first result.

### Theorem 2.1

For each positive integer l, with $$l>r$$, we let

\begin{aligned} \Delta_{l} ={}& \sum _{0\leq a \leq r} \binom{r}{a} \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots +i_{a}=l+a-r, i_{1},\ldots,i_{a}\geq1} (-1)^{a}2^{r-a}G_{i_{1}}\cdots G_{i_{a}} \\ &{} - \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=l, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r} \geq1} G_{i_{1}}\cdots G_{i_{r}}. \end{aligned}
(2.17)

Assume that $$\Delta_{m}=0$$, for a positive integer $$m> r$$. Then we have the following:

1. (a)

$$\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1}G_{i_{1}}(\langle x\rangle ) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(\langle x\rangle )$$ has the Fourier series expansion

\begin{aligned} &\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1}G_{i_{1}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ &\quad= \frac{1}{m+r}\Delta_{m+1} + \sum _{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\Biggl(- \frac{1}{m+r} \sum _{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{(m+r)_{j}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Delta_{m-j+1} \Biggr)e^{2\pi in x}, \end{aligned}
(2.18)

for all $$x\in\mathbb{R}$$, where the convergence is uniform,

2. (b)
\begin{aligned} &\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1}G_{i_{1}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ &\quad = \frac{1}{m+r}\Delta_{m+1} +\frac{1}{m+r} \sum _{j=2}^{m-r} \binom {m+r}{j} \Delta_{m-j+1}B_{j} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr), \end{aligned}
(2.19)

for all $$x\in\mathbb{R}$$, where $$B_{j}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is the Bernoulli function.

Assume next that $$\Delta_{m}\neq0$$, for a positive integer $$m>r$$. Then $$\alpha_{m}(0)\neq\alpha_{m}(1)$$. Hence $$\alpha_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is piecewise $$C^{\infty}$$, and discontinuous with jump discontinuities at integers. The Fourier series of $$\alpha _{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ converges pointwise to $$\alpha_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$, for $$x \in\mathbb{Z}^{c}$$, and it converges to

$$\frac{1}{2} \bigl( \alpha_{m}(0)+ \alpha_{m}(1) \bigr)= \alpha_{m}(0)+ \frac {1}{2} \Delta_{m},$$
(2.20)

for $$x\in\mathbb{Z}$$. Now, we can state our second result.

### Theorem 2.2

For each positive integer l, with $$l>r$$, we let

\begin{aligned} \Delta_{l} ={}& \sum _{0\leq a\leq r } \binom{r}{a} \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots +i_{a}=l+a-r, i_{1},\ldots,i_{a}\geq1} (-1)^{a}2^{r-a} G_{i_{1}} \cdots G_{i_{a}} \\ &{} - \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=l, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} G_{i_{1}} \cdots G_{i_{r}}. \end{aligned}
(2.21)

Assume that $$\Delta_{m} \neq0$$, for a positive integer $$m> r$$. Then we have the following:

1. (a)
\begin{aligned} & \frac{1}{m+r}\Delta_{m+1} + \sum _{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\Biggl(-\frac{1}{m+r} \sum _{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{(m+r)_{j}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Delta_{m-j+1} \Biggr) e^{2\pi inx} \\ & \quad= \textstyle\begin{cases} \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} G_{i_{1}}(\langle x\rangle ) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(\langle x\rangle ) & \textit{for } x \in\mathbb{Z}^{c}, \\ \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} G_{i_{1}} \cdots G_{i_{r}} +\frac{1}{2}\Delta_{m} & \textit{for }x \in\mathbb{Z}, \end{cases}\displaystyle \end{aligned}
(2.22)
2. (b)
\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} & \frac{1}{m+r} \Delta_{m+1} + \frac{1}{m+r} \sum_{j=1}^{m-r} \binom{m+r}{j} \Delta_{m-j+1} B_{j} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ &\quad = \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} G_{i_{1}} \bigl(\langle x \rangle \bigr) \cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr), \quad \textit{for } x\in \mathbb{Z}^{c}, \end{aligned} \end{aligned}
(2.23)
\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} & \frac{1}{m+r} \Delta_{m+1} + \frac{1}{m+r} \sum_{j=2}^{m-r} \binom{m+r}{j} \Delta_{m-j+1} B_{j} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ &\quad=\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} G_{i_{1}} \cdots G_{i_{r}}+ \frac{1}{2}\Delta_{m}, \quad x\in\mathbb{Z}. \end{aligned} \end{aligned}
(2.24)

## The second type of sums of finite products

Let $$\beta_{m}(x)=\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1}\frac {1}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!} G_{i_{1}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(x)\ (m>r\geq1)$$. Here the sum runs over all positive integers $$i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}$$ with $$i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m\ (r\geq1)$$. Then we will consider the function

$$\beta_{m} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)= \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \frac {1}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}} \bigl( \langle x\rangle \bigr) \cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr),$$
(3.1)

defined on $$\mathbb{R}$$, which is periodic with period 1. The Fourier series of $$\beta_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is

$$\sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty}B_{n}^{(m)} e^{2\pi inx},$$
(3.2)

where

$$B_{n}^{(m)} = \int_{0}^{1} \beta_{m} \bigl(\langle x \rangle \bigr) e^{-2\pi inx} \,dx= \int_{0}^{1} \beta _{m}(x) e^{-2\pi inx} \,dx.$$
(3.3)

Before proceeding, we need to observe the following:

\begin{aligned} \beta_{m}'(x)={}& \sum _{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \biggl\{ \frac{i_{1}}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}-1}(x)G_{i_{2}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(x) +\cdots \\ &{}+\frac{i_{r}}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r-1}}(x)G_{i_{r}-1}(x) \biggr\} \\ ={}& \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}\geq2, i_{2} ,\ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac {1}{(i_{1}-1)!i_{2}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}-1}(x) G_{i_{2}}(x)\cdots G_{i_{r}}(x) \\ &{} +\cdots+\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, i_{2} ,\ldots, i_{r-1} \geq1, i_{r}\geq2}\frac{1}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r-1}!(i_{r}-1)!} G_{i_{1}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r-1}}(x)G_{i_{r}-1}(x) \\ ={}& \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m-1, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \frac {1}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(x) \\ &{} +\cdots+\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m-1, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(x) \\ ={}& r \beta_{m-1} (x). \end{aligned}
(3.4)

Thus $$\beta_{m}'(x) = r \beta_{m-1} (x)$$, and, from this, we obtain

$$\biggl( \frac{\beta_{m+1}(x)}{r} \biggr)' = \beta_{m}(x)$$
(3.5)

and

$$\int_{0}^{1} \beta_{m} (x) \,dx= \frac{1}{r} \bigl(\beta_{m+1}(1)- \beta_{m+1}(0) \bigr).$$
(3.6)

For $$m>r$$, let

\begin{aligned} \Omega_{m}={}& \beta_{m}(1)- \beta_{m}(0) \\ ={}& \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \frac {1}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}}(1) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(1) \\ &{} -\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac {1}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}} \cdots G_{i_{r}} \\ ={}& \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \frac {1}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!}(-G_{i_{1}}+2 \delta_{i_{1},1}) \cdots(- G_{i_{r}}+2\delta_{i_{r},1}) \\ & {}-\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac {1}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}} \cdots G_{i_{r}} \\ ={}& \sum_{0\leq a\leq r} \binom{r}{a} \sum _{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{a}=m+a-r, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{a}\geq1}(-1)^{a} 2^{r-a} \frac{G_{i_{1}} G_{i_{2}}\cdots G_{i_{a}} }{ i_{1}!\cdots i_{a}!} \\ &{} -\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac {1}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}} G_{i_{2}}\cdots G_{i_{r}}, \end{aligned}
(3.7)

where we understand that, for $$a=0$$, the inner sum is $$2^{r}\delta_{m,r}$$. Observe that the sums over all $$i_{1}+ \cdots+i_{r}=m\ (i_{1}, \ldots i_{r}\geq 1)$$ of any term with a of $$-G_{i_{e}}$$ and b of $$2\delta_{i_{f},1}\ (1\leq e,f \leq r, a+b=r)$$ all give

\begin{aligned} &\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{r}!}(-G_{i_{1}}) \cdots(-G_{i_{a}}) (2 \delta_{i_{a+1},1})\cdots(2\delta _{i_{a+b},1}) \\ &\quad= \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{a}=m+a-r, i_{1}, \ldots,i_{a}\geq1} \frac{ (-1)^{a} 2^{r-a}}{i_{1}!\cdots i_{a}!} G_{i_{1}} \cdots G_{i_{a}}. \end{aligned}
(3.8)

From the definition of $$\Omega_{m}$$, we have

\begin{aligned} &\beta_{m}(0)= \beta_{m}(1) \quad\Longleftrightarrow \quad \Omega_{m} =0, \\ & \int_{0}^{1} \beta_{m}(x) \,dx = \frac{1}{r}\Omega_{m+1}. \end{aligned}
(3.9)

Next, we want to determine the Fourier coefficients $$B_{n}^{(m)}$$.

Case 1: $$n \neq0$$. We have

\begin{aligned} B_{n}^{(m)} ={}& \int_{0}^{1} \beta_{m} (x) e^{-2\pi inx} \,dx \\ ={}&- \frac{1}{2 \pi in} \bigl[\beta_{m}(x)e^{-2 \pi inx} \bigr]_{0}^{1} + \frac{1}{2 \pi in} \int_{0}^{1} \beta_{m}' (x) e^{-2\pi inx} \,dx \\ ={}&{-} \frac{1}{2 \pi in} \bigl(\beta_{m}(1)- \beta_{m}(0) \bigr) \\ &{} + \frac{r}{ 2\pi in} \int_{0}^{1} \beta_{m-1} (x) e^{-2\pi inx} \,dx \\ ={}& \frac{r}{ 2\pi in}B_{n}^{(m-1)}- \frac{1}{2\pi in} \Omega_{m} \\ ={}& \frac{r}{ 2\pi in} \biggl( \frac{r}{ 2\pi in}B_{n}^{(m-2)} - \frac {1}{2\pi in}\Omega_{m-1} \biggr) - \frac{1}{2\pi in} \Omega_{m} \\ ={}& \biggl(\frac{r}{2 \pi in} \biggr)^{2}B_{n}^{(m-2)} -\sum_{j=1}^{2} \frac {r^{j-1}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Omega_{m-j+1} \\ ={}& \cdots \\ ={} &\biggl( \frac{r}{ 2\pi in} \biggr)^{m-r}B_{n}^{(r)}- \sum_{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{r^{j-1}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Omega_{m-j+1} \\ ={} &- \sum_{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{r^{j-1}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Omega_{m-j+1}, \end{aligned}
(3.10)

where

$$B_{n}^{(r)}= \int_{0}^{1} e^{-2\pi inx} \,dx=0.$$
(3.11)

Case 2: $$n=0$$. We have

$$B_{0}^{(m)}= \int_{0}^{1} \beta_{m}(x) \,dx= \frac{1}{r}\Omega_{m+1}.$$
(3.12)

$$\beta_{m}(\langle x\rangle )\ (m>r \geq1)$$ is piecewise $$C^{\infty}$$. Moreover, $$\beta_{m} (\langle x\rangle )$$ is continuous for those positive integers $$m>r$$ with $$\Omega_{m}=0$$ and discontinuous with jump discontinuities at integers for those integers $$m>r$$ with $$\Omega _{m}\neq0$$.

Assume first that $$\Omega_{m}=0$$, for a positive integer $$m>r$$. Then $$\beta_{m}(0)=\beta_{m}(1)$$. Hence $$\beta_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is piecewise $$C^{\infty}$$, and continuous. Thus the Fourier series of $$\beta_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ converges uniformly to $$\beta_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$, and

\begin{aligned} \beta_{m} \bigl(\langle x \rangle \bigr)&= \frac{1}{r} \Omega_{m+1} + \sum_{n=-\infty, n\neq 0}^{\infty}\Biggl(- \sum_{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{r^{j-1}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Omega_{m-j+1} \Biggr)e^{2 \pi in x} \\ &= \frac{1}{r} \Omega_{m+1} + \sum_{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{r^{j-1}}{j!} \Omega_{m-j+1} \Biggl( -j!\sum _{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\frac{e^{2 \pi inx} }{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Biggr) \\ &= \frac{1}{r} \Omega_{m+1} + \sum_{j=2}^{m-r} \frac{r^{j-1}}{j!} \Omega_{m-j+1}B_{j} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) +\Omega_{m} \times \textstyle\begin{cases} B_{1}(\langle x\rangle ) & \text{for } x \in\mathbb{Z}^{c}, \\ 0 & \text{for }x \in\mathbb{Z}. \end{cases}\displaystyle \end{aligned}
(3.13)

Now, we can state our first result.

### Theorem 3.1

For each positive integer l, with $$l>r$$, we let

\begin{aligned} \Omega_{l} ={}& \sum _{0\leq a \leq r} \binom{r}{a} (-1)^{a} 2^{r-a} \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{a}=l+a-r, i_{1},\ldots,i_{a}\geq1} \frac{G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}}\cdots G_{i_{a}}}{i_{1}!i_{2}!\cdots i_{a}!} \\ &{} - \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=l, i_{1},\ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}}\cdots G_{i_{r}}}{i_{1}!i_{2}!\cdots i_{r}!}. \end{aligned}
(3.14)

Assume that $$\Omega_{m}=0$$, for a positive integer $$m>r$$. Then we have the following:

1. (a)

$$\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}! i_{2}!\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}}(\langle x\rangle )G_{i_{2}}(\langle x\rangle )\cdots G_{i_{r}}(\langle x\rangle )$$ has the Fourier series expansion

\begin{aligned} &\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}! i_{2}!\cdots i_{r}!} G_{i_{1}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)G_{i_{2}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)\cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ &\quad = \frac{1}{r}\Omega_{m+1} + \sum _{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\Biggl(- \sum _{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{r^{j-1}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Omega_{m-j+1} \Biggr)e^{2\pi in x}, \end{aligned}
(3.15)

for all $$x\in\mathbb{R}$$, where the convergence is uniform,

2. (b)
\begin{aligned} &\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}! i_{2}!\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)G_{i_{2}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)\cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ &\quad= \frac{1}{r}\Omega_{m+1} +\sum _{j=2}^{m-r} \frac{r^{j-1}}{j!} \Omega_{m-j+1}B_{j} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr), \end{aligned}
(3.16)

for all $$x\in\mathbb{R}$$, where $$B_{j}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is the Bernoulli function.

Assume next that $$\Omega_{m} \neq0$$, for a positive integer $$m>r$$. Then $$\beta_{m}(0)\neq\beta_{m}(1)$$. Thus $$\beta_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is piecewise $$C^{\infty}$$, and discontinuous with jump discontinuities at integers. The Fourier series of $$\beta_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ converges pointwise to $$\beta_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$, for $$x \in\mathbb{Z}^{c}$$, and it converges to

\begin{aligned} \frac{1}{2} \bigl( \beta_{m}(0)+ \beta_{m}(1) \bigr)={}& \beta_{m}(0)+ \frac {1}{2} \Omega_{m} \\ ={}&\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}! i_{2}!\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}} \cdots G_{i_{r}}+\frac{1}{2} \Omega_{m}, \end{aligned}
(3.17)

for $$x \in\mathbb{Z}$$. Now, we can state our second theorem.

### Theorem 3.2

For each positive integer l, with $$l>r$$, we let

\begin{aligned} \Omega_{l} ={}& \sum _{0\leq a \leq r} \binom{r}{a} (-1)^{a} 2^{r-a} \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{a}=l+a-r, i_{1},\ldots,i_{a}\geq1} \frac{G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}} \cdots G_{i_{a}}}{i_{1}!i_{2}!\cdots i_{a}!} \\ &{} - \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=l, i_{1},\ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}} \cdots G_{i_{r}}}{i_{1}!i_{2}!\cdots i_{r}!}. \end{aligned}
(3.18)

Assume that $$\Omega_{m} \neq0$$, for a positive integer $$m>r$$. Then we have the following:

1. (a)
\begin{aligned} &\frac{1}{r}\Omega_{m+1} + \sum _{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\Biggl(-\sum _{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{r^{j-1}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Omega_{m-j+1} \Biggr) e^{2\pi inx} \\ &\quad = \textstyle\begin{cases} \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}!i_{2}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}}(\langle x\rangle )G_{i_{2}}(\langle x\rangle ) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(\langle x\rangle ) & \textit{for } x \in\mathbb{Z}^{c}, \\ \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}!i_{2}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}}\cdots G_{i_{r}}+\frac {1}{2}\Omega_{m} & \textit{for } x \in\mathbb{Z}, \end{cases}\displaystyle \end{aligned}
(3.19)
2. (b)
\begin{aligned} & \frac{1}{r}\Omega_{m+1}+ \sum _{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{r^{j-1}}{j!} \Omega_{m-j+1}B_{j} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ &\quad =\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}!i_{2}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)G_{i_{2}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)\cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr), \end{aligned}
(3.20)

for $$x\in\mathbb{Z}^{c}$$, and

\begin{aligned} & \frac{1}{r}\Omega_{m+1}+ \sum _{j=2}^{m-r} \frac{r^{j-1}}{j!} \Omega_{m-j+1}B_{j} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ & \quad =\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}!i_{2}!\cdots i_{r}!}G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}} \cdots G_{i_{r}} + \frac {1}{2}\Omega_{m}, \end{aligned}
(3.21)

for $$x\in\mathbb{Z}$$.

## The third type of sums of finite products

Let $$\gamma_{m}(x)=\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1},\ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1}i_{2}\cdots i_{r}}G_{i_{1}}(x)\cdots G_{i_{r}}(x)\ (m>r\geq1)$$. Here the sum runs over all positive integers $$i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}$$, with $$i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m$$. Before proceeding, we observe the following:

\begin{aligned} \gamma_{m}'(x) ={}& \sum _{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}\geq2, i_{2},\ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{2}\cdots i_{r}}G_{i_{1}-1}(x)G_{i_{2}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r}} (x) \\ & {}+ \cdots \\ &{} + \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{r}\geq2, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r-1}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1} \cdots i_{r-1}}G_{i_{1}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r-1}}(x) G_{i_{r}-1} (x) \\ ={}& \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m-1, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{2}\cdots i_{r}}G_{i_{1}}(x)G_{i_{2}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r}} (x) \\ &{} +\cdots \\ & {}+ \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m-1, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1} \cdots i_{r-1}}G_{i_{1}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r}} (x) \\ ={}&\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m-1, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \biggl\{ \frac{1}{i_{2}\cdots i_{r}}+ \frac{1}{i_{1}i_{3}\cdots i_{r}}+\cdots +\frac{1}{i_{1}\cdots i_{r-1}} \biggr\} G_{i_{1}}(x)G_{i_{2}}(x) \cdots G_{i_{r}} (x) \\ ={}& (m-1) \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m-1, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1}\frac {1}{i_{1}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}}(x)G_{i_{2}}(x)\cdots G_{i_{r}} (x) \\ ={}&(m-1)\gamma_{m-1}(x). \end{aligned}
(4.1)

So, $$\gamma_{m}'(x)=(m-1)\gamma_{m-1}(x)$$, and from this, we get

$$\biggl(\frac{\gamma_{m+1}(x)}{m} \biggr)'= \gamma_{m}(x)$$
(4.2)

and

\begin{aligned} & \int_{0}^{1} \gamma_{m}(x) \,dx= \frac{1}{m} \bigl(\gamma_{m+1}(1)-\gamma_{m+1}(0) \bigr). \end{aligned}
(4.3)

For $$m>r$$, we let

\begin{aligned} \Lambda_{m} ={}& \gamma_{m}(1)- \gamma_{m}(0) \\ ={}& \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1}\frac {1}{i_{1}\cdots i_{r}} \bigl(G_{i_{1}}(1)\cdots G_{i_{r}} (1)-G_{i_{1}}\cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigr) \\ ={}& \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1}\frac {1}{i_{1}\cdots i_{r}} (-G_{i_{1}}+2 \delta_{i_{1},1})\cdots(-G_{i_{r}}+2 \delta_{i_{r},1}) \\ &{} - \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1}\frac {1}{i_{1}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}} \cdots G_{i_{r}} \\ ={}& \sum_{0\leq a\leq r} \binom{r}{a} (-1)^{a} 2^{r-a} \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots +i_{a}=m+a-r, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{a}\geq1} \frac{G_{i_{1}}G_{2}\cdots G_{i_{a}}}{i_{1}\cdots i_{a}} \\ &{} - \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1}\frac {1}{i_{1}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}} \cdots G_{i_{r}}, \end{aligned}
(4.4)

where we understand that, for $$a=0$$, the inner sum is $$2^{r}\delta _{m,r}$$. Note that

$$\gamma_{m}(0)= \gamma_{m}(1)\quad \Longleftrightarrow \quad \Lambda_{m}=0$$
(4.5)

and

\begin{aligned} \int_{0}^{1} \gamma_{m}(x) \,dx = \frac{1}{m} \Lambda_{m+1}. \end{aligned}
(4.6)

We are now going to consider the function

$$\gamma_{m} \bigl(\langle x \rangle \bigr)= \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1}\frac {1}{i_{1}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}} \bigl( \langle x\rangle \bigr)\cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr),$$
(4.7)

defined on $$\mathbb{R}$$, which is periodic with period 1. The Fourier series of $$\gamma_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is

\begin{aligned} \sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty}C_{n}^{(m)} e^{2\pi i n x}, \end{aligned}
(4.8)

where

$$C_{n}^{(m)} = \int_{0}^{1} \gamma_{m} \bigl(\langle x \rangle \bigr) e^{-2\pi inx} \,dx= \int_{0}^{1} \gamma _{m} (x) e^{-2\pi inx} \,dx.$$
(4.9)

Now, we would like to determine the Fourier coefficients $$C_{n}^{(m)}$$.

Case 1: $$n\neq0$$. We have

\begin{aligned} C_{n}^{(m)}&= -\frac{1}{2\pi in} \bigl[\gamma_{m}(x)e^{-2\pi in x} \bigr]_{0}^{1} + \frac{1}{2\pi in} \int_{0}^{1} \gamma_{m}'(x) e^{-2\pi in x} \,dx \\ &=- \frac{1}{2\pi in } \bigl(\gamma_{m}(1)-\gamma_{m}(0) \bigr) + \frac{m-1}{2\pi in } \int_{0}^{1} \gamma_{m-1}(x) e^{-2\pi in x}\,dx \\ &=\frac{m-1}{2\pi in }C_{n}^{(m-1)}- \frac{1}{2\pi in } \Lambda_{m} \\ &=\frac{m-1}{2\pi in } \biggl( \frac{m-2}{2\pi in}C_{n}^{(m-2)}- \frac {1}{2\pi in}\Lambda_{m-1} \biggr)- \frac{1}{2\pi in } \Lambda_{m} \\ &=\frac{(m-1)_{2}}{(2\pi in)^{2} }C_{n}^{(m-2)}-\sum _{j=1}^{2} \frac {(m-1)_{j-1}}{(2\pi in)^{j}}\Lambda_{m-j+1} \\ &= \cdots \\ &= \frac{(m-1)_{m-r}}{(2\pi in)^{m-r} }C_{n}^{(r)}-\sum _{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{(m-1)_{j-1}}{(2\pi in)^{j}}\Lambda_{m-j+1} \\ &=-\frac{1}{m}\sum_{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{(m)_{j}}{(2\pi in)^{j}}\Lambda_{m-j+1}. \end{aligned}
(4.10)

Note that

\begin{aligned} C_{n}^{(r)} = \int_{0}^{1} e^{-2 \pi inx}\,dx =0. \end{aligned}
(4.11)

Case 2: $$n=0$$. We have

\begin{aligned} C_{0}^{(m)} = \int_{0}^{1} \gamma_{m}(x) \,dx= \frac{1}{m} \Lambda_{m+1}. \end{aligned}
(4.12)

$$\gamma_{m}(\langle x\rangle ), (m>r \geq1)$$ is piecewise $$C^{\infty}$$. Moreover, $$\gamma_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is continuous for those integers $$m>r$$ with $$\Lambda_{m} =0$$, and discontinuous with jump discontinuities at integers for those integers $$m>r$$ with $$\Lambda_{m} \neq0$$.

Assume first that $$\Lambda_{m}=0$$, for a positive integer $$m>r$$. Then $$\gamma_{m}(0)=\gamma_{m}(1)$$. Hence $$\gamma_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is piecewise $$C^{\infty}$$, and continuous. So the Fourier series of $$\gamma_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ converges uniformly to $$\gamma_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$, and

\begin{aligned} &\gamma_{m} \bigl(\langle x \rangle \bigr) \\ &\quad= \frac{1}{m} \Lambda_{m+1}+ \sum _{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\Biggl( - \frac{1}{m} \sum _{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{(m)_{j}}{(2\pi in)^{j}}\Lambda_{m-j+1} \Biggr)e^{2\pi inx} \\ &\quad=\frac{1}{m} \Lambda_{m+1}+ \frac{1}{m} \sum _{j=1}^{m-r}\binom {m}{j}\Lambda_{m-j+1} \Biggl( -j! \sum_{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\frac{e^{2\pi inx}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Biggr) \\ &\quad= \frac{1}{m} \Lambda_{m+1} + + \frac{1}{m} \sum _{j=2}^{m-r}\binom{m}{j} \Lambda_{m-j+1}B_{j} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ &\qquad{} +\Lambda_{m} \times \textstyle\begin{cases} B_{1}(\langle x\rangle ) & \text{for } x \in\mathbb{Z}^{c}, \\ 0, & \text{for } x \in\mathbb{Z}. \end{cases}\displaystyle \end{aligned}
(4.13)

We are now ready to state our first theorem.

### Theorem 4.1

For each positive integer l, with $$l>r$$, we let

\begin{aligned} \Lambda_{l} ={}& \sum _{0\leq a \leq r } \binom{r}{a}(-1)^{a}2^{r-a} \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{a}=l+a-r, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{a}\geq1} \frac{G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}}\cdots G_{i_{a}}}{i_{1}i_{2}\cdots i_{a}} \\ &{} - \sum _{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=l, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}}\cdots G_{i_{r}}}{i_{1}i_{2}\cdots i_{r}}. \end{aligned}
(4.14)

Assume that $$\Lambda_{m} =0$$, for a positive integer $$m>r$$. Then we have the following:

1. (a)

$$\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1}\frac{1}{i_{1} i_{2}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}}(\langle x\rangle )G_{i_{2}}(\langle x\rangle ) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(\langle x\rangle )$$ has the Fourier series expansion

\begin{aligned} &\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1} i_{2}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)G_{i_{2}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)\cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ &\quad=\frac{1}{m} \Lambda_{m+1}+ \sum _{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\Biggl( - \frac{1}{m}\sum _{j=1}^{m-r} \frac{(m)_{j}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Lambda_{m-j+1} \Biggr) e^{2\pi in x}, \end{aligned}
(4.15)

for all $$x\in\mathbb{R}$$, where the convergence is uniform,

2. (b)

we have

\begin{aligned} &\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1} \frac{1}{i_{1} i_{2}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)G_{i_{2}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)\cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ &\quad=\frac{1}{m} \Lambda_{m+1}+ \frac{1}{m}\sum _{j=2}^{m-r} \binom{m}{j} \Lambda_{m-j+1} B_{j} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr), \end{aligned}
(4.16)

for all $$x\in\mathbb{R}$$, where $$B_{j}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is the Bernoulli function.

Assume next that $$\Lambda_{m}\neq0$$, for a positive integer $$m>r$$. Then $$\gamma_{m}(0)\neq\gamma_{m}(1)$$. Hence $$\gamma_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ is piecewise $$C^{\infty}$$, and discontinuous with jump discontinuities at integers. The Fourier series of $$\gamma _{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$ converges pointwise to $$\gamma_{m}(\langle x\rangle )$$, for $$x\in\mathbb{Z}^{c}$$, and it converges to

\begin{aligned} \frac{1}{2} \bigl( \gamma_{m}(0)+ \gamma_{m}(1) \bigr) &=\gamma_{m}(0)+ \frac{1}{2} \Lambda_{m} \\ &=\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1}\frac{1}{i_{1} i_{2}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}} \cdots G_{i_{r}} + \frac{1}{2}\Lambda_{m}, \end{aligned}
(4.17)

for $$x\in\mathbb{Z}$$. Now, we state our second result.

### Theorem 4.2

For each positive integer l, with $$l>r$$, we let

\begin{aligned} \Lambda_{l} ={}& \sum _{0\leq a \leq r}\binom{r}{a} (-1)^{a} 2^{r-a} \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{a}=l+a-r, i_{1},\ldots,i_{a} \geq1} \frac{G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}} \cdots G_{i_{a}}}{i_{1}i_{2} \cdots i_{a}} \\ &{} -\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=l, i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}\geq1} \frac{G_{i_{1}} G_{i_{2}}\cdots G_{i_{r}}}{i_{1}i_{2} \cdots i_{r}}. \end{aligned}
(4.18)

Assume that $$\Lambda_{m} \neq0$$, for a positive integer $$m>r$$. Then we have the following:

1. (a)
\begin{aligned} &\frac{1}{m} \Lambda_{m+1}+ \sum _{n=-\infty, n\neq0}^{\infty}\Biggl( - \frac{1}{m} \sum _{j=1}^{m-r}\frac{(m)_{j}}{(2\pi in)^{j}} \Lambda_{m-j+1} \Biggr) e^{2\pi in x} \\ &\quad = \textstyle\begin{cases} \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1}\frac{1}{i_{1} i_{2}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}}(\langle x\rangle ) G_{i_{2}}(\langle x\rangle ) \cdots G_{i_{r}}(\langle x\rangle )& \textit{for } x \in\mathbb{Z}^{c}, \\ \sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1}\frac{1}{i_{1} i_{2}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}}\cdots G_{i_{r}} + \frac{1}{2}\Lambda_{m} & \textit{for } x \in\mathbb{Z}, \end{cases}\displaystyle \end{aligned}
(4.19)
2. (b)
\begin{aligned} & \frac{1}{m} \Lambda_{m+1} + \frac{1}{m} \sum_{j=1}^{m-r} \binom{m}{j} \Lambda_{m-j+1}B_{j} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ &\quad =\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1}\frac{1}{i_{1} i_{2}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr)G_{i_{2}} \bigl(\langle x \rangle \bigr)\cdots G_{i_{r}} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr), \end{aligned}
(4.20)

for $$x\in\mathbb{Z}^{c}$$, and

\begin{aligned} & \frac{1}{m} \Lambda_{m+1} + \frac{1}{m} \sum_{j=2}^{m-r} \binom {m}{j} \Lambda_{m-j+1} B_{j} \bigl(\langle x\rangle \bigr) \\ & \quad =\sum_{i_{1}+\cdots+i_{r}=m, i_{1}, \ldots, i_{r}\geq1}\frac{1}{i_{1} i_{2}\cdots i_{r}} G_{i_{1}}G_{i_{2}} \cdots G_{i_{r}} + \frac{1}{2} \Lambda_{m}, \end{aligned}
(4.21)

for $$x\in\mathbb{Z}$$.

## References

1. 1.

Araci, S, Sen, E, Acikgoz, M: Theorems on Genocchi polynomials of higher order arising from Genocchi basis. Taiwan. J. Math. 18(2), 473-482 (2014)

2. 2.

Bayad, A, Chikhi, J: Apostol-Euler polynomials and asymptotics for negative binomial reciprocals. Adv. Stud. Contemp. Math. (Kyungshang) 24(1), 33-37 (2014)

3. 3.

Cangul, IN, Kurt, V, Ozden, H, Simsek, Y: On the higher-order w-q-Genocchi numbers. Adv. Stud. Contemp. Math. (Kyungshang) 19(1), 39-57 (2009)

4. 4.

Cenkci, M, Can, M, Kurt, V: q-Extensions of Genocchi numbers. J. Korean Math. Soc. 43, 183-198 (2006)

5. 5.

Gaboury, S, Tremblay, R, Fugere, B-J: Some explicit formulas for certain new classes of Bernoulli, Euler and Genocchi polynomials. Proc. Jangjeon Math. Soc. 17(1), 115-123 (2014)

6. 6.

Ge, JK, Luo, QM: An elliptic extension of the Genocchi polynomials. Filomat 30(7), 1899-1909 (2016)

7. 7.

He, Y, Araci, S, Srivastava, HM, Acikgoz, M: Some new identities for the Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials and the Apostol-Genocchi polynomials. Appl. Math. Comput. 262, 31-41 (2015)

8. 8.

Kim, T: Some identities for the Bernoulli, the Euler and Genocchi numbers and polynomials. Adv. Stud. Contemp. Math. 20(1), 23-28 (2015)

9. 9.

Luo, QM: Fourier expansions and integral representations for Genocchi polynomials. J. Integer Seq. 12, Article 09.1.4 (2009)

10. 10.

Marsden, JE: Elementary Classical Analysis. Freeman, New York (1974)

11. 11.

Shiratani, K, Yokoyama, S: An application of p-adic convolutions. Mem. Fac. Sci., Kyushu Univ., Ser. A, Math. 36(1), 73-83 (1982)

12. 12.

Zill, DG, Cullen, MR: Advanced Engineering Mathematics. Jones & Bartlett, Boston (2006)

13. 13.

Miki, H: A relation between Bernoulli numbers. J. Number Theory 10(3), 297-302 (1978)

14. 14.

Kim, T, Kim, DS, Jang, L-C, Jang, G-W: Fourier series of sums of products of Bernoulli functions and their applications. J. Nonlinear Sci. Appl. 10, 2798-2815 (2017)

15. 15.

Dunne, GV, Schubert, C: Bernoulli number identities from quantum field theory and topological string theory. Commun. Number Theory Phys. 7(2), 225-249 (2013)

16. 16.

Faber, C, Pandharipande, R: Hodge integrals and Gromov-Witten theory. Invent. Math. 139(1), 173-199 (2000)

17. 17.

Kim, DS, Kim, T: Identities arising from higher-order Daehee polynomial bases. Open Math. 13, 196-208 (2015)

18. 18.

Kim, DS, Kim, T: Euler basis, identities, and their applications. Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 2012, Article ID 343981 (2012)

19. 19.

Kim, DS, Kim, T: Bernoulli basis and the product of several Bernoulli polynomials. Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 2012, Article ID 463659 (2012)

20. 20.

Kim, DS, Kim, T: Some identities of higher order Euler polynomials arising from Euler basis. Integral Transforms Spec. Funct. 24(9), 734-738 (2013)

21. 21.

Gessel, IM: On Miki’s identities for Bernoulli numbers. J. Number Theory 110(1), 75-82 (2005)

22. 22.

Rim, S-H, Lee, SJ, Moon, EJ, Jin, JH: On the q-Genocchi numbers and polynomials associated with q-zeta function. Proc. Jangjeon Math. Soc. 12(3), 261-267 (2009)

23. 23.

Srivastava, HM: Some generalizations and basic extensions of the Bernoulli, Euler and Genocchi polynomials. Appl. Math. Inf. Sci. 5(3), 390-414 (2011)

24. 24.

Jang, G-W, Kim, DS, Kim, T, Mansour, T: Fourier series functions related Bernoulli polynomials. Adv. Stud. Contemp. Math. (Kyungshang) 27, 49-62 (2017)

25. 25.

Kim, T, Kim, DS, Rim, S-H, Dolgy, DV: Fourier series of higher-order Bernoulli functions and their applications. J. Inequal. Appl. 2017(2017), 8 (2017)

26. 26.

Liu, H, Wang, W: Some identities on the Bernoulli, Euler and Genocchi polynomials via power sums and alternate power sums. Discrete Math. 309, 3346-3363 (2009)

## Author information

Authors

### Corresponding author

Correspondence to Taekyun Kim.

### Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

### Authors’ contributions

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

### Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

## Rights and permissions 