Multi-dimensional discrete Halanay inequalities and the global stability of the disease free equilibrium of a discrete delayed malaria model
- Chunqing Wu^{1} and
- Patricia JY Wong^{2}Email author
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13662-016-0840-4
© Wu and Wong 2016
Received: 25 November 2015
Accepted: 11 April 2016
Published: 23 April 2016
Abstract
In this paper, we establish two multi-dimensional discrete Halanay-type inequalities. As an application, we consider a malaria transmission model with two delays and employ the two discrete Halanay-type inequalities to establish the global (exponential) asymptotical stability of the disease free equilibrium of the model. It is further shown that the disease free equilibrium of the delayed model is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number of the model is less than 1.
Keywords
1 Introduction
The Halanay inequality was first introduced in [1] and many generalizations of this inequality have been obtained due to their significance in the analysis of delayed dynamical systems [2–9], and especially in proving the global exponential stability of the equilibria of mathematical models proposed in neural networks and biology with time delays [8–11]. The original form of the Halanay inequality and some of its generalizations are for continuous dynamical systems with only one unknown scalar function involved in the system [1, 6, 9], i.e., the one-dimensional case. In [9], Halanay inequality was generalized to a multi-dimensional form to deal with the stability of the equilibria of continuous dynamical systems in neural networks with impulses.
Along with the development of Halanay-type inequalities for continuous-time dynamical systems, discrete-time Halanay inequalities have also been established to handle the stability of discrete dynamical systems with delays [12–20]. For example, the following result was obtained in [15].
Theorem 1.1
(Theorem 1 in [15])
Based on Theorem 1.1, different generalizations of discrete Halanay-type inequalities have been developed [12, 13, 16, 19]. However, the generalizations are mostly dealing with one-dimensional functions, such as the sequence \(\{x(n)\}\) in Theorem 1.1; while generalizations of discrete Halanay-type inequalities for multi-dimensional sequences \(\{X(n)\}=\{(x_{1}(n), x_{2}(n), \ldots, x_{m}(n))^{T}\}\) are hardly developed. Motivated by this, the first aim of our present work is to develop certain multi-dimensional discrete Halanay-type inequalities.
On the other hand, the global stability of the equilibria of epidemic models is a key research topic in the quantitative analysis of the transmission of infectious diseases. Much research on this topic has been done on compartmental models of infectious diseases such as influenza, malaria, dengue, cholera, etc. [21–25]. Usually, a compartmental infectious disease model has a disease free equilibrium, which is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number \(R_{0}\) of the model is less than 1, and it has a positive equilibrium which is globally asymptotically stable when \(R_{0}>1\) [26]. Time delays are frequently involved in these infectious disease models [21–23, 27] and their presence poses great difficulty in stability analysis, especially in analyzing the global asymptotical stability of the equilibria of these models. For infectious disease models with two or more delays involved, the local asymptotical stability of the equilibrium can be obtained through the analysis of the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix of the linearized model at the corresponding equilibrium, but the global asymptotical stability of the equilibria of some of these infectious disease models with several delays remains unsolved at present [22, 23]. Hence, another aim of this work is to establish the global asymptotical stability of the disease free equilibrium of a malaria transmission model with two delays. We shall tackle this by applying the multi-dimensional discrete Halanay inequalities developed in this paper. Moreover, we shall show that the disease free equilibrium of the model is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number \(R_{0}\) is less than 1, which is well consistent with the threshold property of the basic reproduction number.
The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we present two generalizations of Theorem 1.1 to multi-dimensional case. Applications of these two generalizations are given in Section 3 to obtain the global asymptotical stability of the disease free equilibrium of a malaria transmission model with two delays. Finally, some concluding remarks are given in Section 4.
2 Generalized discrete Halanay-type inequalities
Our first generalization of Theorem 1.1 is the following result.
Theorem 2.1
Proof
Corollary 2.2
Proof
Set \(k_{i}=\max_{s\in\mathbb{S}_{1}} \{0, x_{i}^{(s)}\}\), \(i\in\mathbb{I}\) and \(\lambda=\max\{\lambda_{1}, \lambda_{2}, \ldots, \lambda_{m}\}\), where \(\lambda_{i}\) has the same meaning as in Theorem 2.1. It is immediate from Theorem 2.1 that \(X(n)\le\mathcal{K}\lambda^{n}\), \(n\ge0\). □
Corollary 2.3
Proof
In the sequel, we shall generalize Theorem 1.1 to another multi-dimensional case by applying the theory of nonsingular M-matrix. The following lemma on nonsingular M-matrix [29] will be needed later.
Lemma 2.4
[29]
- (1)
All the successive principal minors of C are positive.
- (2)
\(c_{ii}>0\) and there exists a positive vector \(z>0\) such that \(Cz>0\).
- (3)
\(C=D-M\) and \(\rho(D^{-1}M)<1\), where \(M\ge0\), \(D=\operatorname{diag}(d_{1}, d_{2}, \dots, d_{m})\) and \(\rho(D^{-1}M)\) is the spectral radius of the matrix \(D^{-1}M\).
Remark 2.5
The second generalization of Theorem 1.1 is stated as follows.
Theorem 2.6
Proof
Corollary 2.7
Proof
By setting \(\bar{n}=n-n_{0}\), the result is an immediate consequence of Theorem 2.6. □
Remark 2.8
Comparing (2.23) with (2.1), we see that \(P=A+E\) and \(Q=B\). If we set \(C=-(A+B)\), \(D=E\), and \(M=E-(-(A+B))\), then \(D^{-1}M=M=E+A+B=P+Q\). Hence, the condition \(\rho(P+Q)<1\) is equivalent to the condition that \(-(A+B)\) is a nonsingular M-matrix (according to (3) of Lemma 2.4).
The next theorem shows that the estimation of \(\{X(n)\}\) similar to (2.17) still holds without the assumption (2.15), which imposes a condition on the initial values of (2.1).
Theorem 2.9
Proof
Remark 2.10
The results of Theorems 2.1, 2.6, and 2.9 can be applied to obtain the global exponential stability of the zero solution of (2.1). As such, we can make use of these theorems to analyze the global exponential stability [27, 30] of the equilibrium of a discrete dynamical system with time delays. It is well known that the equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if it is globally exponentially stable [30]. Hence, the global asymptotical stability of the equilibria of some discrete dynamical systems with time delays may be established via the results obtained in this section. We shall give such applications in the next section.
3 Global asymptotical stability of equilibrium
In this section, we shall obtain the global stability of the disease free equilibrium of an infectious disease model with two delays that describes malaria transmission. Our proofs employ the generalizations of Halanay-type inequalities obtained in Section 2.
Remark 3.1
Remark 3.2
Lemma 3.3
Proof
Similarly, we can prove that \(0< y(n)<1\) for \(0< n\le r\). By assuming that \(0< x(n)<1\) and \(0< y(n)<1\) for \((k-1)r< n\le kr\), using a similar technique we can show that \(0< x(n)<1\) and \(0< y(n)<1\) for \(kr< n\le (k+1)r\). Hence, it is shown by induction that \(0< x(n)<1\) and \(0< y(n)<1\) for \(n\ge0\). □
Remark 3.4
The following lemma is about the existence of the equilibrium of model (3.2), which is obtained by direct computation.
Lemma 3.5
- (1)
There exists only the disease free equilibrium \(E_{0}=(0, 0)\) of (3.2) if \(R_{0}\le 1\).
- (2)There exist two equilibria of (3.2) if \(R_{0}>1\), namely the disease free equilibrium \(E_{0}\) and the positive equilibrium \(E^{*}=(x^{*}, y^{*})\), where$$ x^{*}=\frac{R_{0}-1}{R_{0}+R_{01}},\qquad y^{*}=\frac{R_{0}-1}{R_{0}+R_{02}}. $$(3.9)
We shall now employ Theorem 2.1 to obtain the global asymptotical stability of the disease free equilibrium \(E_{0}\) of model (3.2).
Theorem 3.6
Suppose that (3.5), (3.6), and (3.7) hold. Then the disease free equilibrium \(E_{0}\) of (3.2) with (3.3) is globally asymptotically stable.
Proof
In view of (3.12), the zero solution of (3.2), which is the disease free equilibrium \(E_{0}\), is globally exponentially stable. Noting Remark 2.10, it follows that \(E_{0}\) is also globally asymptotically stable. □
Remark 3.7
When the conditions of Theorem 3.6 are satisfied, noting (3.12) the exponential convergence rate of the solutions of (3.2) with (3.3) to the disease free equilibrium is \(\min\{-\ln\lambda_{1}, -\ln\lambda _{2}\}\).
Remark 3.8
Condition (3.7) implies that \(R_{0}=R_{01}R_{02}<1\), but \(R_{0}<1\) may not imply (3.7). In the literature of compartmental infectious disease models, usually \(E_{0}\) is globally asymptotically stable when \(R_{0}<1\). This expected result is not obtained when Theorem 2.1 is applied to model (3.2). As such, in the sequel we shall apply Theorem 2.9 to model (3.2) to see whether \(E_{0}\) is globally asymptotically stable when \(R_{0}<1\).
Theorem 3.9
Proof
We shall now give an example to illustrate Theorem 3.9 and Remark 3.4.
Example 3.10
In this example, we note that (3.7) is not satisfied since \(R_{02}>1\). However, it is observed from Figure 1 that the solution of (3.14) is positive and bounded. This illustrates Remark 3.4 and shows that even if (3.7) does not hold, the set Ω (see (3.8)) may not be empty.
4 Concluding remarks
Halanay-type inequalities, whether continuous or discrete, have been widely applied to obtain the global exponential (asymptotical) stability of the equilibria of dynamical systems with several delays, especially dynamical systems of neural networks. In this paper, we have derived two generalizations of multi-dimensional discrete Halanay-type inequalities. Further, the generalizations are applied to a discrete malaria transmission model with two delays. We have shown that the disease free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number \(R_{0}\) is less than 1, which is well consistent with the threshold property of the basic reproduction number.
The global asymptotical stability of the equilibria of infectious disease models with time delays is usually obtained via the construction of suitable Lyapunov functionals together with Razumikhin-type theorem and/or LaSalle invariant sets. However, a suitable Lyapunov functional is somewhat difficult to construct for a delayed dynamical system. Hence, it is reasonable to try other methods to obtain the global asymptotical stability of equilibria of dynamical systems with time delays. From our present work, we have observed that it is direct and simple to obtain the global asymptotical stability of equilibria of dynamical systems with time delays via Halanay-type inequalities.
When using Halanay-type inequalities established in this paper to obtain the global asymptotical stability of the equilibrium of a discrete dynamical system with time delays, the positivity of the solutions should be initially guaranteed. This can be proved for many kinds of compartmental infectious disease models. Hence, it is direct to obtain the global asymptotical stability of the disease free equilibria of dynamical systems with time delays by applying Halanay-type inequalities. It is well known that, in order to obtain the global asymptotical stability of the positive equilibrium \((x^{*}, y^{*})\) of a dynamical system with time delays, the change of variables \(\bar{x}=x-x^{*}\) and \(\bar{y}=y-y^{*}\) is usually applied to transfer the global asymptotical stability of the positive equilibrium to the global asymptotical stability of the zero solution of the system with respect to x̄ and ȳ. However, after the change of variables, the positivity of x̄ and ȳ cannot be guaranteed. Hence, if one intends to employ Halanay-type inequalities to obtain the global asymptotical stability of the positive equilibrium, new techniques are needed to deal with x̄ and ȳ. This remains as future work.
Declarations
Acknowledgements
The research of Chunqing Wu is sponsored by the Jiangsu Overseas Research & Training Program. The authors would like to thank the referees for their comments which help to improve the paper.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Authors’ Affiliations
References
- Halanay, A: Differential Equations: Stability, Oscillations, Time Lags. Academic Press, New York (1966) MATHGoogle Scholar
- Adivar, M, Bohber, EA: Halanay type inequalities on time scales with applications. Nonlinear Anal. 74, 7519-7531 (2011) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Baker, CTH: Development and application of Halanay-type theory: evolutionary differential and difference equations with time lag. J. Comput. Appl. Math. 234, 2663-2682 (2010) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Liu, B, Lu, W, Chen, T: Generalized Halanay inequalities and their applications to neural networks with unbounded time-varying delays. IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 22, 1508-1513 (2011) View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mohamad, S, Gopalsamy, K: Continuous and discrete Halanay-type inequalities. Bull. Aust. Math. Soc. 61, 371-385 (2000) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Wang, W: A generalized Halanay inequality for stability of nonlinear neutral functional differential equations. J. Inequal. Appl. 2010, 475109 (2010) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Wen, L, Yu, Y, Wang, W: Generalized Halanay inequalities for dissipativity of Volterra functional differential equations. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 347, 169-178 (2008) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Wu, Q, Zhang, H, Xiang, L, Zhou, J: A generalized Halanay inequality on impulse delayed dynamical systems and its applications. Chaos Solitons Fractals 45, 56-62 (2012) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Xu, DY, Yang, Z: Impulsive delay differential inequality and stability of neural networks. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 305, 107-120 (2005) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Duan, S, Hu, W, Li, C, Wu, S: Exponential stability of discrete-time delayed Hopfield neural networks with stochastic perturbations and impulses. Results Math. 62, 73-87 (2012) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Sariyasa: Application of Halanay inequality to the establishment of the exponential stability of delayed compartmental system. J. Indones. Math. Soc. 13, 191-196 (2007) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Agarwal, RP, Kim, YH, Sen, SK: Advanced discrete Halanay-type inequalities: stability of difference equations. J. Inequal. Appl. 2009, 535849 (2009) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Agarwal, RP, Kim, YH, Sen, SK: New discrete Halanay-type inequalities: stability of difference equations. Commun. Appl. Anal. 12, 83-90 (2008) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Chen, Y, Tian, R: Exponential stability of impulsive discrete systems with multiple delays. J. Netw. 8, 2564-2571 (2013) Google Scholar
- Liz, E, Ferreiro, JB: A note on the global stability of generalized difference equations. Appl. Math. Lett. 15, 655-659 (2002) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Liz, E, Ivanov, A, Ferreiro, JB: Discrete Halanay-type inequalities and applications. Nonlinear Anal. 55, 669-678 (2003) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Song, Y, Shen, Y, Yin, Q: New discrete Halanay-type inequalities and applications. Appl. Math. Lett. 26, 258-263 (2013) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Udpin, S, Niamsup, P: New discrete type inequalities and global stability of nonlinear difference equations. Appl. Math. Lett. 22, 856-859 (2009) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Xu, L: Generalized discrete Halanay inequalities and the asymptotical behavior of nonlinear discrete systems. Bull. Korean Math. Soc. 50, 1555-1565 (2013) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Zhu, W, Xu, DY, Yang, Z: Global exponential stability of impulsive delay difference equation. Appl. Math. Comput. 181, 65-72 (2006) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Qi, L, Cui, J: The stability of an SEIRS model with nonlinear incidence rate, vertical transmission and time delay. Appl. Math. Comput. 221, 360-366 (2013) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Ruan, SG, Xiao, D, Beier, JC: On the delayed Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. Bull. Math. Biol. 70, 1098-1114 (2008) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Wan, H, Cui, J: A malaria model with two delays. Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2013, 601265 (2013) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Wei, J, Cui, J: Dynamics of SIS epidemic model with the standard incidence rate and saturated treatment function. Int. J. Biomath. 5, (2012) 12603 MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Zhou, X, Cui, J, Zhang, Z: Global results for a cholera model with imperfect vaccination. J. Franklin Inst. 349, 770-791 (2012) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Hethcote, HW: The mathematics of infectious diseases. SIAM Rev. 42, 599-653 (2000) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Gopalsamy, K: Stability and Oscillations in Delay Differential Equations of Population Dynamics. Springer, Berlin (1993) MATHGoogle Scholar
- Agarwal, RP, Wong, PJY: Advanced Topics in Difference Equations. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1997) View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Plemmons, RJ: M-matrix characterizations I: Nonsingular M-matrices. Linear Algebra Appl. 18, 175-188 (1977) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Gu, K, Kharitonov, VL, Chen, J: Stability of Time Delay Systems. Springer, Berlin (2003) View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Mickens, RE: Dynamic consistency: a fundamental principle for constructing nonstandard finite difference schemes for differential equations. J. Differ. Equ. Appl. 11, 645-653 (2005) MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar