Global and local stability analysis in a nonlinear discrete-time population model
© Ak Gümüş; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 10 July 2014
Accepted: 17 November 2014
Published: 28 November 2014
In this article, we investigate the local and global stability conditions of equilibrium points of discrete-time dynamic model with and without Allee effect. We conclude that the Allee effect decreases both the local stability and the global stability of equilibrium points of the population dynamic model. The results are confirmed with a numerical simulation.
MSC: 39A10, 39A30.
It is well known that the Allee effect plays an important role in the stability analysis of equilibrium points of a population dynamics model (see, for instance, [1–13]). The Allee effect, first introduced by Allee  in 1931, represents a negative density dependence when the population growth rate is reduced at low population size. It may be due to a number of sources including difficulties in finding mates, inbreeding depression, food exploitation, predator avoidance of defense, and social dysfunction at small population sizes.
Real-world problems can be solved by examining the models created via differential or difference equations. The population models in ecology and biology are generally confirmed by such equations (see, for instance, [9, 14–16]). To examine the dynamics of the population requires stability analysis. For local asymptotic stability, solutions must approach an equilibrium point under initial conditions close to the equilibrium point. In global asymptotic stability, solutions must approach to an equilibrium point under all initial conditions. The global asymptotic stability has been investigated in (see, for instance, [17–19]). Since a globally attractive equilibrium point is locally attractive, a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point is locally asymptotically stable. Also, if the function is continuous, global asymptotic stability and global attractiveness are equivalent. In this study, we are not concerned with global attractiveness, which is derived with the help of solutions of the equation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the local and global stability of an equilibrium point analytically with and without Allee effect and to compare the stability of these models. Therefore, this article exposes the impact of the Allee effect on the local and global stability of an equilibrium point in a nonlinear discrete-time population model. The positive equilibrium point of the model which is subject to an Allee effect can become either one of destabilization (see, for instance, [11, 13]) or of stabilization (see, for instance, [1, 5, 7, 10]). Namely, the local stability of a positive equilibrium point can be changed from the stable case to an unstable case or vice versa. It is also possible that even if the model is stable at an equilibrium point, to reach its equilibrium point may take a much longer time. This case has been referred to in the statement that the ‘Allee effect decreases the local stability of the equilibrium point’ (see, for instance, [6, 8, 12]).
Here, is the population density at time t, and r () is a growth rate. Unfortunately, this model neglects many important aspects of biological reality, since most of the parameters connected to the interactions among individuals are overlooked. Thus, nonlinear population models offer a more realistic approach than linear population models.
for ; i.e., as the density increases, f decreases continuously. Biologically speaking, social dysfunction never increases as the population size increases.
has a finite positive value.
If there are no partners, there is no reproduction. Mathematically speaking, the Allee function is zero when the population density is zero.
The Allee effect increases as the density increases. Mathematically speaking, the derivatives of the Allee function are always positive for all positive values.
The Allee effect disappears at high densities. Namely, the limit of the Allee function approaches 1 as the population size increases.
The remainder of the article is organized as follows: Section 2 is concerned with a local stability analysis of the equilibrium points of (1) with and without Allee effect. In Section 3, we give a global stability analysis of the equilibrium points of (1) with and without the Allee effect. In Section 4, we present numerical simulations to corroborate our results. The final section is devoted to conclusions and remarks.
2 Local stability analysis of (1) with and without Allee effect
We will begin by reviewing some definitions and theorems (see, for instance, ) which will be useful in our study of the stability analysis of (1).
We will examine the local stability of the equilibrium point of (1) with and without the Allee effect. Assume that (1) and (2) have an unique positive equilibrium point . Namely, there is no equilibrium point except such that .
We then obtain the following theorem.
Thus the inequality (3) is proved for . □
If the last inequality and inequality (5) are considered, then (4) is confirmed easily. □
Corollary 6 It can be seen from (3) and (4) that the Allee effect decreases the local stability of an equilibrium point of (1). Namely, it is easy to see that the local stability of an equilibrium point of (1) is stronger than the local stability of an equilibrium point of (2).
3 Global stability analysis of (1) with and without Allee effect
In this section, we will present the global stability analysis of an equilibrium point of (1) with and without Allee effect. We shall require the following global stability theorem and definition (see, for instance, ) for (1).
Definition 7 is said to be globally asymptotically stable if it is globally attractive and locally stable.
Theorem 8 Let the function F at (1) be continuous such that , , if for all , then the origin is globally asymptotically stable.
We then obtain the following theorem.
It follows that . By Theorem 8, the origin is globally asymptotically stable. Therefore, the equilibrium point of (1) is globally asymptotically stable. □
3.1 The Allee effect at time t
According to the information, has a unique positive equilibrium point .
We then obtain the following theorem.
Let us take , provided that . It is clear from Theorem 8 that the origin is globally asymptotically stable. Then is globally asymptotically stable. Note that is always true from Theorem 5. Namely, always. Since this inequality is related with , we must take this inequality as stability conditions. □
Corollary 11 The Allee effect at time t decreases the global stability of an equilibrium point. (If (6) and (8) are considered, it can easily be seen.)
holds. (The proof is clear from Theorems 4 and 9.)
4 Numerical simulations
5 Conclusions and remarks
This paper focused on the global and local stability analysis of the first-order discrete population models with and without the Allee effect, defined by (2) and (1), respectively. Firstly, local asymptotic stability conditions were investigated for the equilibrium points of both models. Secondly, the global stability of the equilibrium points of the models was also evaluated. Finally, we compared the global and local stability of the equilibrium points of these two models. Consequently, the Allee effect decreases the local stability and the global stability of the equilibrium points of (1).
The author would like to sincerely thank the anonymous referees for their careful reading of the manuscript and valuable suggestions.
- Fowler MS, Ruxton GD: Population dynamics consequences of Allee effects. J. Theor. Biol. 2002, 215: 39-46. 10.1006/jtbi.2001.2486MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jang SR-J: Allee effects in a discrete-time host-parasitoid model with stage structure in the host. Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., Ser. B 2007, 8: 145-159.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- López-Ruiz R, Fournier-Prunaret D: Indirect Allee effect, bistability and chaotic oscillations in a predator-prey discrete model of logistic type. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2005, 24: 85-101. 10.1016/j.chaos.2004.07.018MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- McCarthy MA: The Allee effect, finding mates and theoretical models. Ecol. Model. 1997, 103: 99-102. 10.1016/S0304-3800(97)00104-XView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Merdan H, Duman O: On the stability analysis of a general discrete-time population model involving predation and Allee effects. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2009, 40: 1169-1175. 10.1016/j.chaos.2007.08.081MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Ak Gümüş Ö, Köse H: On the stability of delay population dynamics related with Allee effects. Math. Comput. Appl. 2012, 17(1):56-67.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Ak Gümüş Ö, Köse H: Allee effect on a new delay population model and stability analysis. J. Pure Appl. Math. Adv. Appl. 2012, 7(1):21-31.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Merdan H, Ak Gümüş Ö: Stability analysis of a general discrete-time population model involving delay and Allee effects. Appl. Math. Comput. 2012, 219: 1821-1832. 10.1016/j.amc.2012.08.021MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Murray JD: Mathematical Biology. Springer, New York; 1993.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Scheuring I: Allee effect increases the dynamical stability of populations. J. Theor. Biol. 1999, 199: 407-414. 10.1006/jtbi.1999.0966View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou SR, Liu YF, Wang G: The stability of predator-prey systems subject to the Allee effects. Theor. Popul. Biol. 2005, 67: 23-31. 10.1016/j.tpb.2004.06.007View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Duman O, Merdan H: Stability analysis of continuous population model involving predation and Allee effect. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2009, 41: 1218-1222. 10.1016/j.chaos.2008.05.008MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Zu J, Mimura M: The impact of Allee effect on a predator-prey system with Holling II functional response. Appl. Math. Comput. 2010, 217: 3542-3556. 10.1016/j.amc.2010.09.029MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Allee WC: Animal Aggregations: A Study in General Sociology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago; 1931.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Allen LJS: An Introduction to Mathematical Biology. Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River; 2007.Google Scholar
- Elaydi S: An Introduction to Difference Equations. Springer, New York; 2006.Google Scholar
- Kocić VL, Ladas G: Global Behavior of Nonlinear Difference Equations of Higher Order with Applications. 1993.MATHGoogle Scholar
- Cull P: Local and global stability of discrete one-dimensional population models. In Biomathematics and Related Computational Problems. Edited by: Ricciardi LM. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht; 1988:271-278.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nenya OI, Tkachenko VI, Trafymchuk SI: On the global stability of one nonlinear difference equation. Nonlinear Oscil. 2004, 7: 473-480. 10.1007/s11072-005-0027-5MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brauer F, Castillo-Chavez C: Mathematical Models in Population Biology and Epidemiology. 2012.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.