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# Domain of the double sequential band matrix in the spaces of convergent and null sequences

- Murat Candan
^{1}Email author

**2014**:163

https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-1847-2014-163

© Candan; licensee Springer. 2014

**Received:**14 January 2014**Accepted:**26 May 2014**Published:**4 June 2014

## Abstract

What stands out in this article is the sequence spaces of a new brand ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$, derived by using a double sequential band matrix $B(\tilde{r},\tilde{s})$ which generalizes the previous work of Sönmez and Başar (Abstr. Appl. Anal. 2012:435076, 2012), where ${({r}_{n})}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ and ${({s}_{n})}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ are given convergent sequences of positive real numbers. The aforementioned spaces are in fact the *BK*-spaces of non-absolute type. Moreover, they are norm isomorphic to the spaces ${c}_{0}$ and *c*, respectively. Then, some inclusion relations are derived to determine the *α*-, *β*- and *γ*-duals of these spaces. Next, their Schauder bases are constructed. In conclusion, some matrix classes from the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ to the spaces ${\ell}_{p}$, ${c}_{0}$ and *c* are characterized. When compared with the corresponding results in the literature, it is seen that the results of the present study are more general and more inclusive.

**MSC:**46A45, 40C05.

## Keywords

- sequence spaces
- Schauder basis
*α*-,*β*- and*γ*-duals- matrix transformations

## 1 Fundamental facts

There are many ways to construct new sequence spaces from old ones. In recent years the construction of a new sequence space by means of the domain of triangle matrix has been used by some of the researchers in many scientific articles. Purely for the development of this approach, the very readable book of Başar [1] is recommended especially for interesting historical developments. Let us start here with a definition of just what a sequence is. There is a variety of ways to define a sequence, each of which is an equivalent way of defining the same thing. Instead, we prefer the following definition. A sequence can easily be described as an ordered list of numbers. Although these lists may or may not include infinite number of terms, here we will exclusively deal with those consisting of infinite number of terms. A sequence can be described as a function having a domain $\{{k}_{0},{k}_{0}+1,{k}_{0}+2,\dots \}$ assuming values in ℝ or ℂ, here ${k}_{0}$ is any given integer, mostly ${k}_{0}=0\text{or}1$. Usually, subscript notation is used and $({x}_{n})$ is written instead of $x(n)$. A sequence $({x}_{n})$ converges to limit *a* if each neighborhood of *a* contains almost all terms of the sequence. In this case we say that $({x}_{n})$ converges to *a* as *n* goes to ∞. We denote by *c*, the set of all convergent sequences in $\mathbb{K}$, where $\mathbb{K}$ denotes either of fields ℝ and ℂ. A sequence $({x}_{n})$ in $\mathbb{K}$ is called a null sequence if it converges to zero. We denote the set of all null sequences in $\mathbb{K}$ by ${c}_{0}$. A sequence is bounded if the set of its terms is bounded. The set of all bounded sequences is denoted by ${\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$. Any vector subspace of $\omega =\omega (\mathbb{K})={\mathbb{K}}^{\mathbb{N}}$ is known as a sequence space. It is clear that the sets *c*, ${c}_{0}$ and ${\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$ are the subspaces of the *ω*. Therefore, *c*, ${c}_{0}$ and ${\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$, equipped with a vector space structure, form a sequence space. Also by *bs*, *cs*, ${\ell}_{1}$ and ${\ell}_{p}$ we denote the spaces of all bounded, convergent, absolutely and *p*-absolutely convergent series, respectively. As is well known, we call a sequence space *X* with a linear topology a *K*-space if and only if each of the maps ${p}_{n}:X\to \mathbb{R}$ defined by ${p}_{n}(x)={x}_{n}$ is continuous for all $n\in \mathbb{N}$. A *K*-space *X* is called an *FK*-space if and only if *X* is a complete linear metric space. In other words, we can say that an *FK*-space is a complete total paranormed space. Note here that some discussion of *FK*-spaces is given in [2]. An *FK*-space whose topology is normable is called a *BK*-space or a Banach coordinate space, so a *BK*-space is a normed *FK*-space. The space ${\ell}_{p}$ ($1\le p<\mathrm{\infty}$) is a *BK*-space with ${\parallel x\parallel}_{p}={({\sum}_{k}{|{x}_{k}|}^{p})}^{\frac{1}{p}}$ and ${c}_{0}$, *c* and ${\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$ are *BK*-spaces with ${\parallel x\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}={sup}_{k}|{x}_{k}|$. An *FK*-space *X* is said to have the *AK* property if $\varphi \subset X$ and $\{{e}^{(k)}\}$ is a basis for *X*, where ${e}^{k}$ is a sequence whose only non-zero term is a 1 in *k* th place for each $k\in \mathbb{N}$ and $\varphi =span\{{e}^{k}\}$, the set of all finitely non-zero sequences. If *ϕ* is dense in *X*, then *X* is called an *AD*-space, thus *AK* implies *AD*. We know that the spaces ${c}_{0}$, *cs* and ${\ell}_{p}$ are *AK*-spaces, where $1\le p<\mathrm{\infty}$. In addition to this, by ℱ we denote the collection consisting of all non-empty and finite subsets of ℕ.

Another notion we need is that of matrix transformation. For this reason, in this paragraph, we shall be concerned with matrix transformation from a sequence space *X* to a sequence space *Y*. Given any infinite matrix $A=({a}_{nk})$ of real numbers ${a}_{nk}$, where $n,k\in \mathbb{N}$, any sequence *x*, we write $Ax=({(Ax)}_{n})$, the *A*-transform of *x*, if ${(Ax)}_{n}={\sum}_{k}{a}_{nk}{x}_{k}$ converges for each $n\in \mathbb{N}$. For simplicity in notation, here and in what follows, the summation without limits runs from 0 to ∞. If $x\in X$ implies that $Ax\in Y$, then we say that *A* defines a matrix mapping from *X* into *Y* and denote it by $A:X\to Y$. By $(X:Y)$ we mean the class of all infinite matrices such that $A:X\to Y$.

*A*for any subspace

*λ*of the all real-valued sequence space $w(\mathbb{R})$ and is described as

The new sequence space ${\lambda}_{A}$ generated by the limitation matrix *A* from the space *λ* either includes the space *λ* or is included by the space *λ*, in general, *i.e.*, the space ${\lambda}_{A}$ is the expansion or the contraction of the original space *λ*.

In order to establish a new brand sequence space, a triangle matrix was previously used. To obtain detailed information, one must search the articles [3–20]. These references will reflect the fact.

The layout of the rest of the present paper is as follows. At the beginning of Section 2, essential fundamental concepts and some historical materials are given; also the sequence spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ are introduced and they are proved to be linearly isomorphic to the sequence spaces ${c}_{0}$ and *c*, respectively. The goal of Section 3 is to derive some inclusion relations between them (the new defined spaces above). In Sections 4 and 5, the Schauder bases of the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ are obtained and the *α*-, *β*- and *γ*-duals of their generalizations (the generalized difference sequence spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ of non-absolute type) are determined, respectively. In Section 6, we characterize the matrix classes $({c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B}):{\ell}_{p})$, $({c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B}):{\ell}_{p})$, $({c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B}):c)$, $({c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B}):{c}_{0})$, $({c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B}):c)$ and $({c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B}):{c}_{0})$, where $1\le p\le \mathrm{\infty}$. We also derive the properties of some other classes including Euler, difference, Riesz and Cesàro sequence spaces, using some old results. In the last section of the text, we note the significance of the present results in the literature related with difference sequence spaces and record some further suggestions.

## 2 The difference sequence spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ of non-absolute type

The difference sequence spaces are shortly analyzed here and we introduce sequence spaces both ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$, and show that these spaces are *BK*-spaces of non-absolute type ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and they are proved to be norm isomorphic to the well-known sequence spaces ${c}_{0}$ and *c*, respectively. For historical developments related to this approach, we must refer the reader to the articles [5, 10, 14, 16, 20] studied by many authors. We note here that research into this field is continuing.

Here and after, we use the convention that any term with a negative subscript is equal to zero, *e.g.*, ${\lambda}_{-1}=0$ and ${x}_{-1}=0$.

Recently, Mursaleen and Noman [15] studied the sequence spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}$ and ${c}^{\lambda}$ of non-absolute type, and later they introduced the difference sequence spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\mathrm{\Delta})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\mathrm{\Delta})$ in [16] of non-absolute type. With the help of (1.1) the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\mathrm{\Delta})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\mathrm{\Delta})$ can be rewritten as follows: ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\mathrm{\Delta})={({c}_{0}^{\lambda})}_{\mathrm{\Delta}}$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\mathrm{\Delta})={({c}^{\lambda})}_{\mathrm{\Delta}}$; respectively, where Δ denotes the band matrix representing the difference operator, *i.e.*, $\mathrm{\Delta}x=({x}_{k}-{x}_{k-1})\in \omega $ for $x=({x}_{k})\in \omega $.

*r*and

*s*be non-zero real numbers, and define the generalized difference matrix $B(r,s)=\{{b}_{nk}(r,s)\}$ by

for all $k,n\in \mathbb{N}$. The $B(r,s)$-transform of a sequence $x=({x}_{k})$ is $B(r,s)(x)=r{x}_{k}+s{x}_{k-1}$ for all $k\in \mathbb{N}$. Now, we proceed slightly differently to Kızmaz [10] and the other authors following him, and employ a technique of obtaining a new sequence space by means of the matrix domain of a triangle limitation method.

Recently, Sönmez and Başar [17] have introduced the difference sequence spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(B)$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(B)$, which are the generalizations of the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\mathrm{\Delta})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\mathrm{\Delta})$ introduced by Mursaleen and Noman [16]. Again, the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(B)$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(B)$ can be written as ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(B)={({c}_{0}^{\lambda})}_{B}$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(B)={({c}^{\lambda})}_{B}$ using (1.1), where *B* denotes the generalized difference matrix $B(r,s)=\{{b}_{nk}(r,s)\}$ defined by (2.1).

for all $k,n\in \mathbb{N}$, the set of natural numbers. We should record here that the matrix $B(\tilde{r},\tilde{s})$ can be reduced to the generalized difference matrix $B(r,s)$ in the case ${r}_{n}=r$ and ${s}_{n}=s$ for all $n\in \mathbb{N}$. These choices are possible by the definition of sequential band matrix $B(\tilde{r},\tilde{s})$. So, the results related to the matrix domain of the matrix $B(\tilde{r},\tilde{s})$ are more general and more comprehensive than the corresponding consequences of the matrix domain of $B(r,s)$, and we include them.

With the notation of (1.1), we can redefine the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ as ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})={({c}_{0}^{\lambda})}_{\tilde{B}}$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})={({c}^{\lambda})}_{\tilde{B}}$, where $\tilde{B}$ denotes the sequential band matrix $B(\tilde{r},\tilde{s})=\{{b}_{nk}(\tilde{r},\tilde{s})\}$ defined by (2.2).

Let us begin with the theorem which is one of our principal objects of study.

**Theorem 2.1** *The sets* ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *and* ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *are linear spaces together with coordinatewise addition and scalar multiplication*; *in other words*, ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *and* ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *represent the sequence spaces of generalized differences*.

*Proof* This result should also be fairly apparent. □

For every $x=({x}_{k})\in \omega $ and with (1.1) we can conclude that ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})={({c}_{0})}_{\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}}$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})={c}_{\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}}$ hold.

*x*, that is, $y(\lambda )=\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}x$ and also we get

From now on, the summation in the range of 0 to $k-1$ will be equal to zero when $k=0$.

It is remarkable that the sequences $x=({x}_{k})$ and $y=({y}_{k})$ are connected by relation (2.5) everywhere in the paper.

Now, we will provide a complete proof for some of results obtained in this and the following sections so that the reader may be familiar with the ways the proofs are constructed and written. There are two fundamental theorems which help us. Let us now state the first one.

**Theorem 2.2** *The difference sequence spaces* ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *and* ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *are* *BK*-*spaces having the norm* ${\parallel x\parallel}_{{c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})}={\parallel x\parallel}_{{c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})}={\parallel \tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}x\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$; *in other words*, ${\parallel x\parallel}_{{c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})}={\parallel x\parallel}_{{c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})}={sup}_{n\in \mathbb{N}}|{(\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}x)}_{n}|$.

*Proof* It is well known from previous arguments that ${c}_{0}$ and *c* are *BK*-spaces with respect to their natural norms and the matrix $\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}$ is a triangle. For this reason, the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ are *BK*-spaces with the given norms. This, in fact, concludes the proof. □

**Remark 2.3** It can easily be controlled that the absolute property is invalid on the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$; in other words, ${\parallel x\parallel}_{{c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})}\ne {\parallel |x|\parallel}_{{c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})}$ and ${\parallel x\parallel}_{{c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})}\ne {\parallel |x|\parallel}_{{c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})}$ for at least one sequence found in the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$. Thus, we can say that ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ are the sequence spaces of non-absolute type, in which $|x|=(|{x}_{k}|)$.

Here, let us give the definition of isomorphism. A bijective linear transformation $\tau :X\to Y$ is called an isomorphism from *X* to *Y*. When an isomorphism from *Y* to *X* exists, we say that *X* to *Y* are isomorphic and write $X\approx Y$.

It is time to give another very useful result for new difference sequence spaces defined above.

**Theorem 2.4** *The newly defined non*-*absolute type sequence spaces* ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *and* ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *are norm isomorphic to the well*-*known spaces* ${c}_{0}$ *and* *c*, *respectively*; *in other words*, ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\cong {c}_{0}$ *and* ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\cong c$.

*Proof* To start with this proof, a certain amount of linear algebra will be used. Showing the existence of a linear bijection between the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}_{0}$ proves the theorem. The transformation *τ* from ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ to ${c}_{0}$ is defined by $x\mapsto y(\lambda )$, using the notation of (2.5). Then, $\tau x=y(\lambda )=\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}x\in {c}_{0}$ for every $x\in {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and it is routine to show that *τ* is linear. Further, it is obvious that $x=\theta $ whenever $\tau x=\theta $, which shows that *τ* is injective.

for every $n\in \mathbb{N}$. Thus, we have that $\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}x=y$ and since $y\in {c}_{0}$, we conclude that $\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}x\in {c}_{0}$. Thus, we deduce that $x\in {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and $Tx=y$. Hence, *T* is surjective.

Moreover, one can easily see for every $x\in {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ that ${\parallel Tx\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}={\parallel y(\lambda )\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}={\parallel \tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}x\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}={\parallel x\parallel}_{{c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})}$, which means that *T* is norm preserving. Consequently, *T* is a linear bijection which shows that the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}_{0}$ are linearly isomorphic.

It is clear that if the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}_{0}$ are replaced by the spaces ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and *c*, respectively, then we obtain the fact ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\cong c$, which proves our assertion. □

## 3 Some inclusion relations

In this section, we shall talk about several inclusion relations concerning the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$. The following theorems give some basic algebraic properties of the difference sequence spaces mentioned above.

**Theorem 3.1** *The inclusion* ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\subset {c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *is strictly valid*.

*Proof* This proof of the theorem is fairly standard, so we must find an element which belongs to ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ but which does not belong to ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$. Clearly, the inclusion ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\subset {c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ is valid. Let us illustrate that this inclusion is strict. To do this, consider the sequence $x=({x}_{k})$ given by ${x}_{k}=\frac{1}{{r}_{k}}[1+{\sum}_{j=0}^{k}{\prod}_{i=j}^{k-1}(\frac{-{s}_{i}}{{r}_{i}})]$ for all $k\in \mathbb{N}$. Together with (2.4), we now have ${(\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}x)}_{n}=\frac{1}{{\lambda}_{n}}{\sum}_{k=0}^{n}({\lambda}_{k}-{\lambda}_{k-1})$ for all $n\in \mathbb{N}$. Briefly, this tells us that $\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}x=e$, and therefore $\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}x\in c\setminus {c}_{0}$, where $e=(1,1,1,\dots )$. In other words, the sequence *x* lies in ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$; however, it does not lie in ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$. That is, the inclusion ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\subset {c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ is strictly valid, so the claim is proved. □

**Theorem 3.2** *The inclusion* $c\subset {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *is strict when* ${s}_{k-1}+{r}_{k}=0$.

*Proof* Let us assume that ${s}_{k-1}+{r}_{k}=0$ and $x\in c$. In that case $B(\tilde{r},\tilde{s})x=({r}_{k}{x}_{k}+{s}_{k-1}{x}_{k-1})\in {c}_{0}$ and so $B(\tilde{r},\tilde{s})x\in {c}_{0}^{\lambda}$ due to the inclusion ${c}_{0}\subset {c}_{0}^{\lambda}$. It is clear that $x\in {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$. Because of this, the inclusion $c\subset {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ is valid. In addition to this, let us take the sequence $y=({y}_{k})$ given by ${y}_{k}=\sqrt{k+1}$ for all $k\in \mathbb{N}$. So, it is not hard to see that $y\notin c$. Then it can be obtained that $B(\tilde{r},\tilde{s})y\in {c}_{0}$. That is, $B(\tilde{r},\tilde{s})y\in {c}_{0}^{\lambda}$, which means that $y\in {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$. Therefore, the sequence *y* is in ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ but not in *c*. Consequently, the inclusion $c\subset {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ is strict. This marks the end of the proof. □

We should state here that it can be remembered that if $A\in (c:c)$ and $B\in (c:c)$, then $AB\in (c:c)$; in other words, $\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}=({\tilde{\lambda}}_{nk})$ is stronger than the ordinary convergence. Therefore we get the following.

**Corollary 3.3** *The inclusions* ${c}_{0}\subset {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *and* $c\subset {c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *are strictly valid*.

It can easily be seen that the sequence *y* defined in the proof of Theorem 3.2 lies in ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ but not in ${\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$. This motivates the following result.

**Corollary 3.4** *The space* ${\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$ *does not include the space* ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *even though the spaces* ${\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$ *and* ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *overlap*.

In order to prove the theorem below, the following lemma [[21], p.4] will be used.

**Lemma 3.5** $A\in ({\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}:{c}_{0})$ *if and only if* ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{\sum}_{k}|{a}_{nk}|=0$.

**Theorem 3.6**

*The inclusion*${\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}\subset {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$

*is strictly valid iff*$z\in {c}_{0}^{\lambda}$,

*where the sequence*$z=({z}_{k})$

*is described by*

*Proof*Let the inclusion ${\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}\subset {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ strictly hold. In this case $\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}x\in {c}_{0}$ for every $x\in {\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$, and it follows that the matrix $\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}=({\tilde{\lambda}}_{nk})$ is in the class $({\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}:{c}_{0})$. Therefore, by using Lemma 3.5 we have the following limit:

This clearly indicates that $z=({z}_{k})\in {c}_{0}^{\lambda}$.

for every $n\ge 1$. Then this inequality gives ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}[{\sum}_{k=0}^{n-1}{r}_{k}({\lambda}_{k}-{\lambda}_{k-1})+{s}_{k}({\lambda}_{k+1}-{\lambda}_{k})]/{\lambda}_{n}=0$ with the aid of (3.4). Especially, if we take ${r}_{k}=1$ and ${s}_{k}=1$ for all $k\in \mathbb{N}$, then it is obviously seen that ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}[{\lambda}_{n}-{\lambda}_{n-1}-{\lambda}_{0}]/{\lambda}_{n}=0$, which means that (3.3) holds. Thus, one can easily deduce by equality (3.2) that (3.1) holds. From Lemma 3.5 it can be obtained that $\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}\in ({\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}:{c}_{0})$. Therefore, it is not hard to see that the inclusion ${\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}}\subset {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ strictly holds by using Corollary 3.4. In fact, this is exactly what we want to prove. □

## 4 The bases for the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$

In this section, we give two sequences of the points of the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ forming the bases for those spaces.

*X*is called a Schauder basis for

*X*if for every $x\in X$ there exists a unique sequence of scalars $({\alpha}_{n})$ such that

In this case, the series ${\sum}_{k}{\alpha}_{k}{b}_{k}$ which has the sum *x* is then called the expansion of *x* with respect to $({b}_{n})$ and is written as $x={\sum}_{k}{\alpha}_{k}{b}_{k}$.

Because of the fact that the transformation *T* defined from ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ to ${c}_{0}$ in the proof of Theorem 2.4 is an isomorphism, the inverse image of the basis ${\{{e}^{(k)}\}}_{k=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ of the space ${c}_{0}$ is the basis for the newly defined space ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$. Thus, the subsequent theorem can be easily stated.

**Theorem 4.1**

*Let*${\alpha}_{k}(\lambda )={\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}}_{k}(x)$

*for all*$k\in \mathbb{N}$

*and*$l={lim}_{k\to \mathrm{\infty}}{\tilde{\mathrm{\Lambda}}}_{k}(x)$.

*Define the sequence*${b}^{(k)}(\lambda )={\{{b}_{n}^{(k)}(\lambda )\}}_{k=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$

*for every fixed*$k\in \mathbb{N}$

*by*

*Then the following statements hold*:

- (a)
*The sequence*${\{{b}^{(k)}(\lambda )\}}_{k=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$*is a basis for the space*${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$*and any*$x\in {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$*has a unique representation of the form*$x={\sum}_{k}{\alpha}_{k}(\lambda ){b}^{(k)}(\lambda )$. - (b)
*The sequence*$\{b,{b}^{(0)}(\lambda ),{b}^{(1)}(\lambda ),\dots \}$*is a basis for the space*${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$*and any*$x\in {c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$*has a unique representation of the form*$x=lb+{\sum}_{k}[{\alpha}_{k}(\lambda )-l]{b}^{(k)}(\lambda )$,*where*$b=({b}_{k})={\{{\sum}_{j=0}^{k}(1/{r}_{j}){\prod}_{i=0}^{j-1}(-{s}_{i}/{r}_{i})\}}_{k=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$.

Finally, it easily follows from Theorem 2.2 that ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ are the Banach spaces with their natural norms. Thus, by Theorem 4.1 we can obtain the following.

**Corollary 4.2** *The difference sequence spaces* ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *and* ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *are separable*.

## 5 The *α*-, *β*- and *γ*-duals of the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$

The concept of multiplier space plays an important role in the present section. To state the *α*-, *β*- and *γ*-duals of the generalized difference sequence spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ of non-absolute type, we give the terminology of a multiplier space.

*multiplier space*of any sequence spaces

*λ*and

*μ*,

It can be observed for a sequence space *φ* with $\mu \subset \phi $ and $\phi \subset \lambda $ that the inclusions $S(\lambda ,\mu )\subset S(\lambda ,\phi )$ and $S(\lambda ,\mu )\subset S(\phi ,\mu )$ hold, respectively.

*α*-,

*β*- and

*γ*-duals of a sequence space

*λ*, which are respectively denoted by ${\lambda}^{\alpha}$, ${\lambda}^{\beta}$ and ${\lambda}^{\gamma}$, are defined by

It is obvious that ${\lambda}^{\alpha}\subset {\lambda}^{\beta}\subset {\lambda}^{\gamma}$. Also it can be seen that the inclusions ${\lambda}^{\alpha}\subset {\mu}^{\alpha}$, ${\lambda}^{\beta}\subset {\mu}^{\beta}$ and ${\lambda}^{\gamma}\subset {\mu}^{\gamma}$ hold whenever $\mu \subset \lambda $.

The *α*-dual, *β*-dual and *γ*-dual are also referred to as *Köthe*-*Toeplitz dual*, *generalized Köthe*-*Toeplitz dual* and *Garling dual*, respectively [1].

Let us now state the following lemmas (see [22]). In this way, the results will be used in the proofs of our Theorems 5.5 to 5.8.

**Lemma 5.1** $A=({a}_{nk})\in ({c}_{0}:{\ell}_{1})=(c:{\ell}_{1})$ *iff* ${sup}_{K\in \mathcal{F}}{\sum}_{n}|{\sum}_{k\in K}{a}_{nk}|<\mathrm{\infty}$.

**Lemma 5.2**$A=({a}_{nk})\in ({c}_{0}:c)$

*iff*

**Lemma 5.3**$A=({a}_{nk})\in (c:c)$

*iff*(5.1)

*and*(5.2)

*hold*,

*and*

**Lemma 5.4** $A=({a}_{nk})\in (c:{\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}})=({c}_{0}:{\ell}_{\mathrm{\infty}})$ *iff* (5.2) *holds*.

Now, it is time to give the following theorem.

**Theorem 5.5**

*The*

*α*-

*dual of the spaces*${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$

*and*${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$

*is given by the following set*:

*here the matrix*${H}^{\lambda}=({h}_{nk}^{\lambda})$

*is described with the help of the sequence*$a=({a}_{n})\in \omega $

*given by*

*for all* $n,k\in \mathbb{N}$.

*Proof*The essential idea in this proof is the usage of the definition of the

*γ*-dual. Let us assume that $a=({a}_{n})\in \omega $. In this condition, we can easily obtain the following equality:

from relations (2.5) and (2.6). We use the newly obtained notation result in $ax=({a}_{n}{x}_{n})\in {\ell}_{1}$ whenever $x=({x}_{k})\in {c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ or ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ iff ${H}^{\lambda}y\in {\ell}_{1}$ whenever $y=({y}_{k})\in {c}_{0}$ or *c* with the help of (5.4). This indicates that the sequence $a=({a}_{n})\in {\{{c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\}}^{\alpha}$ or $a=({a}_{n})\in {\{{c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\}}^{\alpha}$ iff ${H}^{\lambda}\in ({c}_{0}:{\ell}_{1})=(c:{\ell}_{1})$. Thus, we derive with the aid of Lemma 5.4 by writing ${H}^{\lambda}$ in place of *A* that $a=({a}_{n})\in {\{{c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\}}^{\alpha}={\{{c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\}}^{\alpha}$ iff ${sup}_{K\in \mathcal{F}}{\sum}_{n}|{\sum}_{k\in K}{h}_{nk}^{\lambda}|<\mathrm{\infty}$. Briefly, this tells us the consequence that ${\{{c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\}}^{\alpha}={\{{c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\}}^{\alpha}={h}_{1}^{\lambda}$. This conclusion is what was sought for. □

**Theorem 5.6**

*Define the sets*${h}_{2}^{\lambda}$, ${h}_{3}^{\lambda}$, ${h}_{4}^{\lambda}$

*and*${h}_{5}^{\lambda}$

*as follows*:

*where*

*Then*

- (i)
${\{{c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\}}^{\beta}={h}_{2}^{\lambda}\cap {h}_{3}^{\lambda}\cap {h}_{4}^{\lambda}$,

- (ii)
${\{{c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\}}^{\beta}={h}_{2}^{\lambda}\cap {h}_{3}^{\lambda}\cap {h}_{4}^{\lambda}\cap {h}_{5}^{\lambda}$.

*Proof*According to the definition of

*β*-dual, it is not too difficult to show that condition (i) holds. For this, we deal with the following equality:

Therefore, we conclude that ${\{{c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\}}^{\beta}={h}_{2}^{\lambda}\cap {h}_{3}^{\lambda}\cap {h}_{4}^{\lambda}$.

First of all, the assertion (ii) of the theorem has exactly the same idea as in the first part of it, the proof of the second part can be obtained similarly. It comes fairly easily from Lemma 5.3 with the aid of (5.5) that $a=({a}_{k})\in {\{{c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\}}^{\beta}$ iff ${T}^{\lambda}\in (c:c)$. Thus, conditions (5.6), (5.7) and (5.8) are valid from (5.1) and (5.2).

Consequently, it is clear that ${\{{c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\}}^{\beta}={h}_{2}^{\lambda}\cap {h}_{3}^{\lambda}\cap {h}_{4}^{\lambda}\cap {h}_{5}^{\lambda}$, which gives the desired result. □

**Remark 5.7** We may note by combining (5.9) with conditions (5.7) and (5.8) that $\{{\sum}_{j=0}^{k}{\prod}_{i=j}^{k-1}(\frac{-{s}_{i}}{{r}_{i}}){a}_{k}/{r}_{k}\}\in bs$ for every sequence $a=({a}_{k})\in {\{{c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})\}}^{\beta}$.

Finally, we conclude this section with the following theorem which determines the *γ*-dual of the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$.

**Theorem 5.8** *The set* ${h}_{3}^{\lambda}\cap {h}_{4}^{\lambda}$ *is the* *γ*-*dual of the spaces* ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ *and* ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$.

*Proof* The proof of this theorem can also be proved in a much similar way to the proof of Theorem 5.6 using Lemma 5.4 instead of Lemma 5.2, thus it is left to the reader. □

## 6 Certain matrix mappings related to the spaces ${c}_{0}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$ and ${c}^{\lambda}(\tilde{B})$

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

This paper was solely written by the author without any support from any organization. Certain results of this study were partially presented at the *Algerian-Turkish International Days on Mathematics* (*ATIM* 2013) held on 12-14 September, 2013 in Istanbul, Turkey at Fatih University.

## Authors’ Affiliations

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