Robust synchronization of chaotic systems with input saturation and time-varying delay
© Ma and Jing; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 9 December 2013
Accepted: 21 April 2014
Published: 6 May 2014
This paper investigates drive-response robust synchronization of chaotic systems with disturbance, time-varying delay and input saturation via state feedback control. Sufficient conditions for achieving the synchronization of two chaotic systems are derived on the basis of the Lyapunov theory and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, which is not only to guarantee the asymptotic synchronization but also to attenuate the effects of the perturbation on the overall error system to a prescribed level. Finally, an illustrative numerical simulation is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Keywordschaotic system robust synchronization saturation time-varying delay
In 1963, Lorenz found the first chaotic attractor in a three-dimensional autonomous system when he studied the atmosphere convection . Since then, more chaotic systems have been constructed, such as Chua’s circuit, logistic map, Chen system, and generalized Lorenz system (see [2–6]), and their complex behaviors have also been widely studied. Nowadays, there has been considerable interest in the control of chaos in nonlinear dynamical systems, and many different techniques, such as OGY method , PC technique , backstepping approach , adaptive control , fuzzy control , digital control , state feedback control , time-delay feedback control , sampled driving signals , and observer-based approach , have been proposed to control chaos. Since the pioneering work by Pecora and Carroll  who originally proposed the drive-response concept for achieving the synchronization of coupled chaotic systems, chaotic synchronization has received considerable attention due to its potential applications in physics, biology, and engineering and has become an important topic in control theory [18, 19].
However, all of these works and many others in the literature have focused on the study of chaotic synchronization between two chaotic systems without model uncertainties and external disturbance. In real physical systems, some noise or disturbance always exists, which may cause instability and poor performance. Therefore, how to reduce the effect of the noise or disturbance in synchronization process for chaotic systems has become an important issue, see [20–22]. On the other hand, there has been increasing interest in time-delay chaotic systems since the chaos phenomenon in time-delay systems was first found by Mackey and Glass . For chaotic systems with time-delay and disturbance, several works have proposed the problem for various chaotic systems in the literature [24–26]. In , an adaptive control law was derived and applied to achieve the state lag-synchronization of two nonidentical time-delayed chaotic systems with unknown parameters. In , an output coupling and feedback scheme were proposed to achieve the robust synchronization of noise-perturbed chaotic systems with multiple time-delays. An impulse control was proposed by Qian and Cao  to synchronize two nonidentical chaotic systems with time-varying delay. Most of them are based on the fact that the time-delay is a constant, while, in real world applications, the time-delay is also varying over time. Hence the study of chaotic synchronization with time-varying delay is an important topic.
Besides, in a practical chaos system, there exist not only disturbance and varying-time delay but also the input saturation. Many literature works are based on the assumption that the actuator will not be saturated during the control process, but actuator will saturate due to its physical limitations in practice. Due to its high sensitivity to system parameters, the presence of saturation of control input may cause serious influence on system stability and performance. Hence, the derivation of controller with input saturation is an important problem. In , an adaptive sliding mode control scheme for Lorenz chaos subject saturating input was presented. Rehan studied the synchronization and anti-synchronization of chaotic oscillators under input saturation via simple state feedback control in , and the design of dynamic controller and static anti-windup compensator for Lipschitz nonlinear systems under input saturation was described in  and . However, most of them studied the normal chaotic system without time-delay and the inner uncertainty and the external disturbance. Motivated by the above discussion, in this paper we investigate the synchronization of chaotic systems with disturbance and varying time-delay under input saturation. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a robust controller is designed and its robustness and stability are analytically proved. Finally, we present a numerical simulation to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness.
This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 provides the system description. In Section 3, LMI-based conditions for chaotic synchronization are developed. In Section 4, a numerical example is given to illustrate the main result. Finally, conclusion is made in Section 5.
Standard notation is used in this paper. For a matrix M, the i th row is denoted by . For a vector , represents the classical nonlinear saturation function, where denotes the i th bound on the saturation.
2 System description and preliminaries
where , and are the state, the input, and the external disturbance vectors for the response system, respectively, and represents the saturated input. represents a constant matrix.
This paper aims at designing the controller to not only asymptotically synchronize between the drive and the response systems but also to guarantee a prescribed performance of the external perturbation attenuation γ.
Before presenting the main result, we introduce the following definition.
With , the dynamics error system (5) is asymptotically stable.
- (ii)Given a desired positive scalar γ and under the zero-initial condition, the following performance index is satisfied:(6)
In dealing with this study, the following assumptions and lemmas are necessary for the sake of convenience.
Assumption 1 The time-delay is a bounded and continuously differentiable function such that and .
Lemma 1 
Lemma 2 
Let be a regular matrix, can be an matrix, and is a regular matrix. Let a Hermitian matrix S be represented as .
Then the matrix S is positive definite if and only if the matrices and are positive definite.
3 Chaotic synchronization
with , then the overall closed-loop system with Eq. (5) is synchronized with the disturbance attenuation level γ.
where , , , .
which completes the proof of Theorem 1. □
4 Examples and simulation results
The Lipschitz constant is chosen as , and the parameter δ is given as . The disturbance is selected as . For convenience, we choose .
The problem of robust synchronization for an uncertain chaotic system with time-varying delay and input saturation has been presented. Based on the Lyapunov theory and the LMI technique, the sufficient condition has been derived not only to guarantee the asymptotic synchronization but also to ensure a prescribed perturbation attenuation performance. Finally, a simulation example is presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.
This paper is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61273004). The authors also gratefully acknowledge the helpful comments and suggestions of the reviewers, which have improved the presentation.
- Lorenz EN: Deterministic nonperiodic flow. J. Atmos. Sci. 1963, 20: 130.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen GR, Ueta T: Yet another chaotic attractor. Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 1999, 9: 1465.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Matsumoto T, Chua LO, Kobayashi K: Hyperchaos: laboratory experiment and numerical confirmation. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 1986, 33: 1143.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Tang SK, Chen G: Generating hyperchaos via state feedback control. Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 2005, 15: 3367.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yan Z: Controlling hyperchaos in the new hyperchaotic Chen system. Appl. Math. Comput. 2005, 168: 1239.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Rafikov M, Balthazar JM: On an optimal control design for system. Phys. Lett. A 2004, 333: 241.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Ott E, Grebogi C, Yorke JA: Controlling chaos. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1990, 64: 1196.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Pecora L, Carrol T: Synchronization in chaotic systems. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1990, 64: 821.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Wu X, Lu J: Parameter identification and backstepping control of uncertain L system. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2003, 18: 721.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Liao TL, Tsai SH: Adaptive synchronization of chaotic systems and its application to secure communication. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2000, 11: 1387.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Yau HT, Chen C: Chattering-free fuzzy sliding-mode control strategy for uncertain chaotic systems. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2006, 30: 709.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen GR, Lu JH: Dynamical Analysis, Control and Synchronization of Lorenz Families. Science Press, Beijing; 2003. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Wu X, Zhao Y: Frequency domain criterion for chaos synchronization of Lur’s systems via linear state error feedback control. Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 2006, 15: 1445.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Cao JD, Li HX, Ho DWC: Synchronization criteria of Lur’s systems with time-delay feedback control. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2005, 23: 1285.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Juan Gonzalo BR, Chen G, Leang SS: Fuzzy chaos synchronization via sampled driving signals. Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 2004, 14: 2721.View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Liao TL: Observer-based approach for controlling chaotic systems. Phys. Rev. E 1998, 57: 1604.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen G, Dong X: From Chaos to Order: Methodologies, Perspectives and Applications. World Scientific, Singapore; 1998.MATHGoogle Scholar
- Hendrik R: Controlling chaotic systems with multiple strange attractors. Phys. Lett. A 2002, 300: 182.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Sun JT: Some global synchronization criteria for coupled delay-systems via unidirectional linear error feedback approach. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2004, 19: 789.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Aghababa MP, Heydari A: Chaos synchronization between two different chaotic systems with uncertainties, external disturbances,unknown parameters and input nonlinearities. Appl. Math. Model. 2012, 36: 1639.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Jawaada W, Noorani MSM: Robust active sliding mode anti-synchronization of hyperchaotic systems with uncertainties and external disturbances. Nonlinear Anal., Real World Appl. 2012, 13: 2403.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Wang B, Shi P, Karimi HR, Song Y, Wang J:Robust synchronization of a hyper-chaotic system with disturbance input. Nonlinear Anal., Real World Appl. 2013, 14: 1487.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Mackey M, Glass L: Oscillation and chaos in physiological control systems. Science 1977, 197: 287.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pourdehi S, Karimaghaee P, Karimipour D: Adaptive controller design for lag-synchronization of two non-identical time-delayed chaotic systems with unknown parameters. Phys. Lett. A 2011, 375: 1769.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Cheng CK, Kuo HH, Hou YY, Hwang CC, Liao TL: Robust chaos synchronization of noise-perturbed chaotic systems with multiple-time-delays. Phys. Lett. A 2008, 387: 3093.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- He WL, Qian F, Cao JD, Han QL: Impulsive synchronization of two nonidentical chaotic systems with time-varying delay. Phys. Lett. A 2011, 375: 498.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Yau HT, Chen CL: Chaos control of Lorenz system using adaptive controller with input saturation. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2007, 34: 1567.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rehan M: Synchronization and anti-synchronization of chaotic oscillators under input saturation. Appl. Math. Model. 2013, 37: 6829.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rehan M, Khan AQ, Abid M, Iqbal N, Hussain B: Anti-wind-based dynamic controller synthesis for nonlinear systems under input saturation. Appl. Math. Comput. 2013, 220: 382.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Rehan M, Hong KS: Decoupled-architecture-based nonlinear anti-windup design for a class of nonlinear systems. Nonlinear Dyn. 2013, 73: 1955.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Tarbouriech S, Prieur C: Stability analysis and stabilization of systems presenting nested saturations. IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 2006, 51: 1364.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Boyd S: Linear Matrix Inequalities in Systems and Control Theory. SIAM, Philadelphia; 1994.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Horn R, Johnson C: Matrix Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; 1985.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.