 Research
 Open Access
 Published:
Properties of higherorder halflinear functional differential equations with noncanonical operators
Advances in Difference Equations volume 2013, Article number: 54 (2013)
Abstract
Some new results are presented for the oscillatory and asymptotic behavior of higherorder halflinear differential equations with a noncanonical operator. We study the delayed and advanced equations subject to various conditions.
MSC:34C10, 34K11.
1 Introduction
Over the past few years, there has been much research activity concerning the oscillation and asymptotic behavior of various classes of differential equations; we refer the reader to [1–36] and the references cited therein. Halflinear differential equations occur in a variety of real world problems such as in the study of pLaplace equations, nonNewtonian fluid theory, and the turbulent flow of a polytrophic gas in a porous medium; see the related background details reported in [5]. Many authors have studied the properties of solutions of the higherorder differential equation
The operator Lx is said to be in canonical form if ${\int}_{{t}_{0}}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{r}^{1/\alpha}(t)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\mathrm{d}t=\mathrm{\infty}$; otherwise, it is called noncanonical. Throughout the paper, we assume that α and β are ratios of odd positive integers, $r\in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}[{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty})$, $r(t)>0$, ${r}^{\prime}(t)\ge 0$, $q,\tau \in \mathrm{C}[{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty})$, $q(t)>0$, and ${lim}_{t\to \mathrm{\infty}}\tau (t)=\mathrm{\infty}$.
Agarwal et al. [6] established a criterion for the existence of bounded solutions of (1.1) under the assumptions that n is even, ${\int}_{{t}_{0}}^{\mathrm{\infty}}q(t)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\mathrm{d}t=\mathrm{\infty}$, and
Zhang et al. [34, 36] obtained some results on asymptotic behavior of (1.1) in the case where (1.2) holds, $\tau (t)<t$, and $\beta \le \alpha $. In [34, 36], an unsolved problem can be formulated as follows.

(P)
Is it possible to establish asymptotic criteria for equation (1.1) in the case where $\beta \ge \alpha $?
As a special case when $\alpha =1$ and $n=2$, equation (1.1) becomes
Li et al. [24] established the following criterion for (1.3).
Theorem 1.1 (See [[24], Theorem 2.1])
Let (1.2) hold with $\alpha =1$, $\beta \ge 1$, $\tau (t)\le t$, and ${\tau}^{\prime}(t)>0$ for all $t\ge {t}_{0}$. Assume that there exists a function $\rho \in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),\mathbb{R})$ with $\rho (t)\ge t$ and ${\rho}^{\prime}(t)>0$ such that, for all sufficiently large ${t}_{1}$ and for all positive constants M and L,
and
where $R(t):={\int}_{{t}_{0}}^{t}{r}^{1}(s)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\mathrm{d}s$ and $\xi (t):={\int}_{\rho (t)}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{r}^{1}(s)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\mathrm{d}s$. Then (1.3) is oscillatory.
The purpose of this paper is to solve question (P) and to improve Theorem 1.1. By a solution of equation (1.1) we mean a function $x\in {\mathrm{C}}^{n1}[{T}_{x},\mathrm{\infty})$, ${T}_{x}\ge {t}_{0}$, which has the property $r{({x}^{(n1)})}^{\alpha}\in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}[{T}_{x},\mathrm{\infty})$ and satisfies (1.1) on $[{T}_{x},\mathrm{\infty})$. We consider only the solutions satisfying $sup\{x(t):t\ge T\}>0$ for all $T\ge {T}_{x}$ and tacitly assume that (1.1) possesses such solutions. A solution of (1.1) is called oscillatory if it has arbitrarily large zeros on $[{T}_{x},\mathrm{\infty})$; otherwise, it is called nonoscillatory. Equation (1.1) is said to be oscillatory if all its solutions are oscillatory.
2 Main results
In the sequel, all functional inequalities are assumed to hold eventually, that is, they are satisfied for all t large enough. We use the notation $\delta (t):={\int}_{t}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{r}^{1/\alpha}(s)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\mathrm{d}s$ and ${({\rho}^{\prime}(t))}_{+}:=max\{0,{\rho}^{\prime}(t)\}$.
Theorem 2.1 Assume (1.2) and let $n\ge 2$, $\beta \ge \alpha $, and $\tau (t)<t$ for all $t\ge {t}_{0}$. Further, assume that the differential equation
is oscillatory for some constant ${\lambda}_{0}\in (0,1)$. If
holds for some constant ${\lambda}_{1}\in (0,1)$ and for all constants $M>0$, then every solution of (1.1) is oscillatory or tends to zero as $t\to \mathrm{\infty}$.
Proof Assume that (1.1) has a nonoscillatory solution x. Without loss of generality, we may assume that x is eventually positive. Moreover, suppose that ${lim}_{t\to \mathrm{\infty}}x(t)\ne 0$. It follows from (1.1) that there exist two possible cases:

(1)
$x(t)>0$, ${x}^{(n1)}(t)>0$, ${x}^{(n)}(t)<0$, ${(r{({x}^{(n1)})}^{\alpha})}^{\mathrm{\prime}}(t)<0$;

(2)
$x(t)>0$, ${x}^{(n2)}(t)>0$, ${x}^{(n1)}(t)<0$, ${(r{({x}^{(n1)})}^{\alpha})}^{\mathrm{\prime}}(t)<0$
for $t\ge {t}_{1}$, where ${t}_{1}\ge {t}_{0}$ is large enough.
Assume that case (1) holds. From [[36], Lemma 2.1], we have
for every $\lambda \in (0,1)$ and for all sufficiently large t. Hence by (1.1), we see that $y:=r{({x}^{(n1)})}^{\alpha}$ is a positive solution of the differential inequality
Using [[28], Theorem 1], we see that equation (2.1) also has a positive solution, which is a contradiction.
Assume that case (2) holds. Define the function w by
Then $w(t)<0$ for $t\ge {t}_{1}$. Noting that $r{({x}^{(n1)})}^{\alpha}$ is decreasing, we have
Dividing the above inequality by ${r}^{1/\alpha}(s)$ and integrating the resulting inequality from t to l, we obtain
Letting $l\to \mathrm{\infty}$, we get
which yields
Thus, by (2.4), we see that
Differentiating (2.4), we have
It follows from (1.1) and (2.4) that
By virtue of (2.5), we have
On the other hand, by [[36], Lemma 2.1], we get
for every $\lambda \in (0,1)$ and for all sufficiently large t. Then from (2.7), (2.8), and (2.9), there exists a constant $M>0$ such that
Multiplying (2.10) by ${\delta}^{\alpha}(t)$ and integrating the resulting inequality from ${t}_{1}$ to t, we have
Set $B:={r}^{1/\alpha}(s){\delta}^{\alpha 1}(s)$, $A:={\delta}^{\alpha}(s)/{r}^{1/\alpha}(s)$, and $v:=w(s)$. Using (2.6) and the inequality
we have
which contradicts (2.2). This completes the proof. □
Applying the result of [30] to equation (2.1), we have the following result due to Theorem 2.1.
Corollary 2.2 Assume (1.2) and let $n\ge 2$, $\beta >\alpha $, $\tau (t)<t$, and ${\tau}^{\prime}(t)>0$ for all $t\ge {t}_{0}$. Moreover, assume that there exists a continuously differentiable function φ such that
and
If (2.2) holds for some constant ${\lambda}_{1}\in (0,1)$ and for all constants $M>0$, then every solution of (1.1) is oscillatory or tends to zero as $t\to \mathrm{\infty}$.
In the following, we establish some results for (1.1) when $n\ge 2$ is even.
Theorem 2.3 Assume (1.2) and let $n\ge 2$ be even, $\beta \ge \alpha $, ${\tau}^{\prime}(t)>0$, and $\tau (t)\le t$ for all $t\ge {t}_{0}$. Further, assume that there exists a function $\rho \in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),(0,\mathrm{\infty}))$ such that
holds for all constants ${\theta}_{1}\in (0,1)$ and $K>0$. If (2.2) holds for some constant ${\lambda}_{1}\in (0,1)$ and for all constants $M>0$, then every solution of (1.1) is oscillatory or tends to zero as $t\to \mathrm{\infty}$.
Proof Assume that (1.1) has a nonoscillatory solution x. Without loss of generality, we may assume that x is eventually positive. Moreover, suppose that ${lim}_{t\to \mathrm{\infty}}x(t)\ne 0$. It follows from (1.1) that there exist two possible cases (1) and (2) (as those of the proof of Theorem 2.1).
Assume that case (1) holds. From [[4], Lemma 2.1], we see that ${x}^{\prime}(t)>0$ for $t\ge {t}_{1}$. Define the function u by
Then $u(t)>0$ for $t\ge {t}_{1}$ and
From [[4], Lemma 2.2], there exist a ${t}_{2}\ge {t}_{1}$ and a constant ${\theta}_{1}$ with $0<{\theta}_{1}<1$ such that
for all $t\ge {t}_{2}$. It follows from (1.1), (2.16), (2.17), and (2.18) that
Using ${x}^{\prime}>0$ and (2.19), we get
for some constant $K>0$. Set
Using inequality (2.11), we obtain
Substituting the last inequality into (2.20), we get
Integrating (2.21) from ${t}_{2}$ to t, we have
which contradicts (2.15). Assume that case (2) holds. Proceeding as in the proof of Theorem 2.1, we can obtain a contradiction to (2.2). This completes the proof. □
Next we establish a result for (1.1) when $n=2$.
Theorem 2.4 Assume (1.2) and let $n=2$, $\beta \ge \alpha $, ${\tau}^{\prime}(t)>0$, and $\tau (t)\le t$ for $t\ge {t}_{0}$. Further, assume that there exists a function $\rho \in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),(0,\mathrm{\infty}))$ such that
for all constants $K>0$. If
holds for all constants $M>0$, then (1.1) is oscillatory.
Proof Assume that (1.1) has a nonoscillatory solution x. Without loss of generality, we may assume that x is eventually positive. It follows from (1.1) that there exist two possible cases (1) and (2) with $n=2$ (as those of the proof of Theorem 2.1). Assume that case (1) holds. Define
The rest of the proof is similar to that of Theorem 2.3, and so is omitted. Assume that case (2) holds. Similar as in the proof of Theorem 2.1, we can obtain a contradiction to (2.23). This completes the proof. □
Next we establish some oscillation criteria for (1.1) when $n\ge 2$ is even and $\tau (t)>t$ for all $t\ge {t}_{0}$.
Theorem 2.5 Assume (1.2) and let $n\ge 2$ be even, $\beta >\alpha $, and $\tau (t)>t$ for all $t\ge {t}_{0}$. Further, assume that there exists a function $\rho \in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),(0,\mathrm{\infty}))$ such that
holds for all constants ${\theta}_{1}\in (0,1)$ and $K>0$. If
then every solution of (1.1) is oscillatory or tends to zero as $t\to \mathrm{\infty}$.
Proof Assume that (1.1) has a nonoscillatory solution x. Without loss of generality, we may assume that x is eventually positive. Moreover, suppose that ${lim}_{t\to \mathrm{\infty}}x(t)\ne 0$. It follows from (1.1) that there exist two possible cases (1) and (2) (as those of the proof of Theorem 2.1).
Assume that case (1) holds. From [[4], Lemma 2.1], we see that ${x}^{\prime}(t)>0$ for $t\ge {t}_{1}$. Define the function u by
Then $u(t)>0$ for $t\ge {t}_{1}$ and
From [[4], Lemma 2.2], there exist a ${t}_{2}\ge {t}_{1}$ and a constant ${\theta}_{1}$ with $0<{\theta}_{1}<1$ such that
for all $t\ge {t}_{2}$. Thus
Similar as in the proof of Theorem 2.3, we can get a contradiction to (2.24). Assume that case (2) holds. We have (2.5) and (2.9) for every $\lambda \in (0,1)$ and for all sufficiently large t. Thus, we get by (1.1), (2.5), and (2.9) that
Let $u:=r{({x}^{(n1)})}^{\alpha}$. Then $y:=u>0$ is a solution of the advanced inequality
It follows from [[8], Lemma 2.3] that the corresponding advanced differential equation
has an eventually positive solution. Using condition (2.25) and [[22], Theorem 1], one can obtain a contradiction. This completes the proof. □
Finally, we establish a result for (1.1) when $n=2$.
Theorem 2.6 Assume (1.2) and let $n=2$, $\beta >\alpha $, and $\tau (t)>t$ for $t\ge {t}_{0}$. Further, assume that there exists a function $\rho \in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),(0,\mathrm{\infty}))$ such that
for all constants $K>0$. If
then (1.1) is oscillatory.
Proof Assume that (1.1) has a nonoscillatory solution x. Without loss of generality, we may assume that x is eventually positive. It follows from (1.1) that there exist two possible cases (1) and (2) with $n=2$ (as those of the proof of Theorem 2.1). Assume that case (1) holds. Define
The rest of the proof is similar to that of Theorem 2.3, and so is omitted. Assume that case (2) holds. Similar as in the proof of Theorem 2.5, we can obtain a contradiction to (2.27). This completes the proof. □
3 Examples and discussions
In the following, we illustrate possible applications with two examples.
Example 3.1 For $t\ge 1$, consider the secondorder delay differential equation
Let $\alpha =1$, $\beta =3$, and $\rho (t)=1$. Note that $\delta (t)={\mathrm{e}}^{t}$. Using Theorem 2.4, equation (3.1) is oscillatory. It is not difficult to see that Theorem 1.1 fails to apply due to condition (1.4).
Example 3.2 For $t\ge 1$, consider the secondorder advanced differential equation
Let $\alpha =1$, $\beta =3$, and $\rho (t)=1$. Note that $\delta (t)={\mathrm{e}}^{t}$. Using Theorem 2.6, equation (3.2) is oscillatory.
In this paper, we suggested some new results on the oscillation and asymptotic behavior of differential equation (1.1). Theorem 2.1 can be applied in the oddorder and evenorder equations.
We stress that the study of equation (1.1) in the case (1.2) brings additional difficulties. Since the sign of ${x}^{(n1)}$ is not known, our criteria include a pair of assumptions; see, e.g., (2.2) and (2.15). We utilized two different methods (Riccati substitution and comparison method) to deal with the cases $\tau (t)\le t$ and $\tau (t)>t$.
References
 1.
Agarwal RP, Bohner M, Li W Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Mathematics 267. In Nonoscillation and Oscillation: Theory for Functional Differential Equations. Marcel Dekker, New York; 2004.
 2.
Agarwal RP, Grace SR: Oscillation of certain functional differential equations. Comput. Math. Appl. 1999, 38: 143153.
 3.
Agarwal RP, Grace SR, O’Regan D: Oscillation Theory for Difference and Functional Differential Equations. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht; 2000.
 4.
Agarwal RP, Grace SR, O’Regan D: Oscillation criteria for certain n th order differential equations with deviating arguments. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2001, 262: 601622. 10.1006/jmaa.2001.7571
 5.
Agarwal RP, Grace SR, O’Regan D: Oscillation Theory for Second Order Linear, HalfLinear, Superlinear and Sublinear Dynamic Equations. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht; 2002.
 6.
Agarwal RP, Grace SR, O’Regan D: The oscillation of certain higherorder functional differential equations. Math. Comput. Model. 2003, 37: 705728. 10.1016/S08957177(03)000797
 7.
Agarwal RP, Shieh SL, Yeh CC: Oscillation criteria for secondorder retarded differential equations. Math. Comput. Model. 1997, 26: 111.
 8.
Baculíková B: Properties of thirdorder nonlinear functional differential equations with mixed arguments. Abstr. Appl. Anal. 2011, 2011: 115.
 9.
Baculíková B, Džurina J: Oscillation of thirdorder nonlinear differential equations. Appl. Math. Lett. 2011, 24: 466470. 10.1016/j.aml.2010.10.043
 10.
Baculíková B, Džurina J: Oscillation of thirdorder functional differential equations. Electron. J. Qual. Theory Differ. Equ. 2010, 43: 110.
 11.
Baculíková B, Džurina J, Graef JR: On the oscillation of higher order delay differential equations. Nonlinear Oscil. 2012, 15: 1324.
 12.
Dahiya RS: Oscillation criteria of evenorder nonlinear delay differential equations. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 1976, 54: 653665. 10.1016/0022247X(76)901840
 13.
Džurina J, Baculíková B: Oscillation and asymptotic behavior of higherorder nonlinear differential equations. Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 2012, 2012: 19.
 14.
Džurina J, Stavroulakis IP: Oscillation criteria for second order delay differential equations. Appl. Math. Comput. 2003, 140: 445453. 10.1016/S00963003(02)002436
 15.
Erbe L, Kong Q, Zhang B: Oscillation Theory for Functional Differential Equations. Marcel Dekker, New York; 1995.
 16.
Grace SR: Oscillation theorems for n thorder differential equations with deviating arguments. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 1984, 101: 268296. 10.1016/0022247X(84)900660
 17.
Grace SR: Oscillation theorems for certain functional differential equations. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 1994, 184: 100111. 10.1006/jmaa.1994.1187
 18.
Grace SR, Agarwal RP, Pavani R, Thandapani E: On the oscillation of certain third order nonlinear functional differential equations. Appl. Math. Comput. 2008, 202: 102112. 10.1016/j.amc.2008.01.025
 19.
Grace SR, Lalli BS: Oscillation theorems for n thorder delay differential equations. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 1983, 91: 352366. 10.1016/0022247X(83)901579
 20.
Grace SR, Lalli BS: Oscillation of even order differential equations with deviating arguments. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 1990, 147: 569579. 10.1016/0022247X(90)90371L
 21.
Kartsatos AG: On oscillation of solutions of even order nonlinear differential equations. J. Differ. Equ. 1969, 6: 232237. 10.1016/00220396(69)90014X
 22.
Kitamura Y, Kusano T: Oscillation of firstorder nonlinear differential equations with deviating arguments. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 1980, 78: 6468. 10.1090/S00029939198005480865
 23.
Ladde GS, Lakshmikantham V, Zhang BG: Oscillation Theory of Differential Equations with Deviating Arguments. Marcel Dekker, New York; 1987.
 24.
Li T, Han Z, Zhang C, Sun S: On the oscillation of secondorder EmdenFowler neutral differential equations. J. Appl. Math. Comput. 2011, 37: 601610. 10.1007/s1219001004530
 25.
Li T, Thandapani E: Oscillation of solutions to oddorder nonlinear neutral functional differential equations. Electron. J. Differ. Equ. 2011, 23: 112. 10.1007/s1088401092003
 26.
Mahfoud WE: Oscillation and asymptotic behavior of solutions of n th order nonlinear delay differential equations. J. Differ. Equ. 1977, 24: 7598. 10.1016/00220396(77)901711
 27.
Philos CG: A new criterion for the oscillatory and asymptotic behavior of delay differential equations. Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Sér. Sci. Math. 1981, 39: 6164.
 28.
Philos CG: On the existence of nonoscillatory solutions tending to zero at ∞ for differential equations with positive delays. Arch. Math. 1981, 36: 168178. 10.1007/BF01223686
 29.
Rogovchenko YV, Tuncay F: Oscillation theorems for a class of second order nonlinear differential equations with damping. Taiwan. J. Math. 2009, 13: 19091928.
 30.
Tang X: Oscillation for first order superlinear delay differential equations. J. Lond. Math. Soc. 2002, 65: 115122. 10.1112/S0024610701002678
 31.
Xu Z, Xia Y: Integral averaging technique and oscillation of certain even order delay differential equations. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2004, 292: 238246. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2003.11.054
 32.
Yildiz MK, Öcalan Ö: Oscillation results of higher order nonlinear neutral delay differential equations. Selçuk J. Appl. Math. 2010, 11: 5562.
 33.
Zhang B: Oscillation of even order delay differential equations. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 1987, 127: 140150. 10.1016/0022247X(87)901466
 34.
Zhang C, Agarwal RP, Bohner M, Li T: New results for oscillatory behavior of evenorder halflinear delay differential equations. Appl. Math. Lett. 2013, 26: 179183. 10.1016/j.aml.2012.08.004
 35.
Zhang C, Agarwal RP, Bohner M, Li T: Oscillation of thirdorder nonlinear delay differential equations. Taiwan. J. Math. 2013, 17(2):545558.
 36.
Zhang C, Li T, Sun Bo, Thandapani E: On the oscillation of higherorder halflinear delay differential equations. Appl. Math. Lett. 2011, 24: 16181621. 10.1016/j.aml.2011.04.015
Acknowledgements
This research is supported by NNSF of P.R. China (Grant Nos. 61034007, 51277116, 50977054).
Author information
Additional information
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhang, C., Agarwal, R.P., Bohner, M. et al. Properties of higherorder halflinear functional differential equations with noncanonical operators. Adv Differ Equ 2013, 54 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/16871847201354
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
Keywords
 asymptotic behavior
 oscillation
 functional differential equation
 higherorder