Skip to main content

On the Cauchy problem for a weakly dissipative μ-Degasperis-Procesi equation

Abstract

In this paper, we study the Cauchy problem of a weakly dissipative μ-Degasperis-Procesi equation. We first present several blow-up results of strong solutions to the equation. Then, we give an improved global existence result to the equation. The obtained results for the equation improve considerably the earlier results. Finally, we discuss the global existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to the equation.

MSC: 35G25, 35L05.

1 Introduction

The μ-Degasperis-Procesi equation

µ ( u ) t - u t x x + 3 µ ( u ) u x - 3 u x u x x - u u x x x = 0
(µDP)

can be formally described as evolution equations on the space of tensor densities over the Lie algebra of smooth vector fields on the circle [1], where u(t,x) is a time-dependent function on the unit circle S=R/Z and μ(u)= S u(t,x)dx denotes its mean. This equation is originally derived and studied in [2]. Recently, a new geometric explanation to the μ DP equation has been given in [3]. It is notable that the physical significance of the μ DP equation is a left open problem [1].

The μ DP equation has close relation with the μ Burgers (μ B) equation [2, 4]

- u t x x - 3 u x u x x - u u x x x = 0
(µB)

and the Degasperis-Procesi (DP) equation [5]

u t u t x x +4u u x 3 u x u x x u u x x x =0.
(DP)

In fact, with y=Au, A=μ x 2 , one can rewrite the μ DP equation as follows:

y t +u y x +3 u x y=0.

If A= x 2 , then the μ DP equation becomes the μ B equation and if A=1 x 2 , then the μ DP equation becomes the DP equation. Moreover, the μ B equation is the high-frequency limit of the DP equation. In [2], the authors discussed the μ B equation and its properties. The DP equation is a model for nonlinear shallow water dynamics. There are a lot of papers about the DP equation, cf. [610].

After the μ DP equation appeared, it has been studied in several works [1, 3, 11]. In [1], the authors established the local well-posedness to the μ DP equation, proved it has not only global strong solutions but also blow-up solutions. They also proved that the μ DP equation is integrable, has bi-Hamiltonian structure and corresponding infinite hierarchy of conservation laws, admits shock-peakon solutions and multi-peakon solutions. Moreover, the shock-peakon solutions are similar to those of the DP equation formally [1]. In [11], the authors derived the precise blow-up scenario and the blow-up rate for strong solutions to the equation, presented several blow-up results of strong solutions and gave a geometric description to the equation.

In general, it is difficult to avoid energy dissipation mechanisms in the real world. So, it is reasonable to study the model with energy dissipation. In [12] and [13], the authors discussed the energy dissipative KdV equation from different aspects. The weakly dissipative Camassa-Holm (CH) equation and the weakly dissipative DP equation were studied in [1416] and [1720], respectively. In [21], the authors discussed the blow-up and blow-up rate of solutions to a weakly dissipative periodic rod equation. In [22], the authors investigated some properties of solutions to the weakly dissipative b-family equation. Recently, some results for a weakly dissipative μ DP equation were proved in [23]. The author established local well-posedness for the weakly dissipative μ DP equation by use of a geometric argument, derived the precise blow-up scenario, discussed the blow-up phenomena and global existence.

In this paper, we continue discussing the Cauchy problem of the following weakly dissipative μ DP equation:

{ y t + u y x + 3 u x y + λ y = 0 , t > 0 , x R , y = μ ( u ) u x x , t > 0 , x R , u ( 0 , x ) = u 0 ( x ) , x R , u ( t , x + 1 ) = u ( t , x ) , t 0 , x R ,
(1.1)

or in the equivalent form:

{ μ ( u ) t u t x x + 3 μ ( u ) u x 3 u x u x x u u x x x + λ ( μ ( u ) u x x ) = 0 , t > 0 , x R , u ( 0 , x ) = u 0 ( x ) , x R , u ( t , x + 1 ) = u ( t , x ) , t 0 , x R .
(1.2)

Here the constant λ is assumed to be positive and the term λy=λ(μ(u) u x x ) models energy dissipation. Firstly, based on the results in [23] and some new results, we present several new blow-up results of strong solutions and an improved global existence result to the equation. Then, we discuss the global existence and uniqueness of weak solutions.

The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we recall some useful lemmas and derive some new useful results to (1.1). In Section 3, we present some explosion criteria of strong solutions to equation (1.1) with general initial data and give the blow-up rate of strong solutions to the equation when blow-up occurs. In Section 4, we give an improved global existence result of strong solutions to equation (1.1). In Section 5, we establish global existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to equation (1.1) by use of smooth approximate to initial data and Helly’s theorem.

Notation Throughout the paper, we denote by the convolution. Let Z denote the norm of Banach space Z, and let , denote the H 1 (S), H 1 (S) duality bracket. Let M(S) be the space of Radon measures on S with bounded total variation, and let M + (S) ( M (S)) be the subset of M(S) with positive (negative) measures. Finally, we write BV(S) for the space of functions with bounded variation, V(f) being the total variation of fBV(S). Since all spaces of functions are over S=R/Z, for simplicity, we drop S in our notations if there is no ambiguity.

2 Preliminaries

In this section, we recall some useful lemmas and derive some new useful results to (1.1). Firstly, one can reformulate equation (1.1) as follows:

{ u t + u u x = x A 1 ( 3 μ ( u ) u ) λ u , t > 0 , x R , u ( 0 , x ) = u 0 ( x ) , x R , u ( t , x + 1 ) = u ( t , x ) , t 0 , x R ,
(2.1)

where A=μ x 2 is an isomorphism between H s and H s 2 with the inverse v= A 1 w given explicitly by [1, 3]

v ( x ) = ( x 2 2 x 2 + 13 12 ) μ ( w ) + ( x 1 2 ) 0 1 0 y w ( s ) d s d y 0 x 0 y w ( s ) d s d y + 0 1 0 y 0 s w ( r ) d r d s d y .
(2.2)

Since A 1 and x commute, the following identities

A 1 x w(x)= ( x 1 2 ) 0 1 w(x)dx 0 x w(y)dy+ 0 1 0 x w(y)dydx
(2.3)

and

A 1 x 2 w(x)=w(x)+ 0 1 w(x)dx
(2.4)

hold. If we rewrite the inverse of the operator A=μ x 2 in terms of Green’s function, we find ( A 1 m)(x)= 0 1 g(x x )m( x )d x =(gm)(x) for all m L 2 . So, we get another equivalent form:

{ u t + u u x = x g ( 3 μ ( u ) u ) λ u , t > 0 , x R , u ( 0 , x ) = u 0 ( x ) , x R , u ( t , x + 1 ) = u ( t , x ) , t 0 , x R ,
(2.5)

where the Green’s function g(x) is given [2] by

g(x)= 1 2 x(x1)+ 13 12 for xS,
(2.6)

and is extended periodically to the real line. In other words,

g ( x x ) = ( x x ) 2 2 | x x | 2 + 13 12 ,x, x S.

In particular, μ(g)=1.

Lemma 2.1 ([23])

Given u 0 H s , s> 3 2 , then there exists a maximal T=T(λ, u 0 )>0 and a unique solution u to (2.1) (or (1.1)) such that

u=u(, u 0 )C ( [ 0 , T ) ; H s ) C 1 ( [ 0 , T ) ; H s 1 ) .

Moreover, the solution depends continuously on the initial data, i.e., the mapping

u 0 u(, u 0 ): H s C ( [ 0 , T ) ; H s ) C 1 ( [ 0 , T ) ; H s 1 )

is continuous.

Remark 2.1 Similar to the proof of Theorem 2.3 in [24], we have that the maximal time of existence T>0 in Lemma 2.1 is independent of the Sobolev index s> 3 2 .

Combining Remark 2.1 with Lemma 9 in [23], we have the following results.

Lemma 2.2 ([23])

Let u 0 H s , s> 3 2 be given, and u(t,x) is the solution of equation (1.1) with the initial data u 0 . Then we have

μ(u)= μ 0 e λ t

for t0 in the existence interval of u, where μ 0 =μ( u 0 )= S u 0 (x)dx.

Combining Lemma 2.2 and (2.5), we have another equivalent form of (2.1):

{ u t + u u x = x g ( 3 μ 0 e λ t u ) λ u , t > 0 , x R , u ( 0 , x ) = u 0 ( x ) , x R , u ( t , x + 1 ) = u ( t , x ) , t 0 , x R .
(2.7)

Lemma 2.3 ([23])

Let u 0 H s , s> 3 2 be given, and let T be the maximal existence time of the corresponding solution u to (2.1) with the initial data u 0 . Then the corresponding solution blows up in finite time if and only if

lim inf t T { min x S u x ( t , x ) } =.

Given u 0 H s with s> 3 2 , Lemma 2.1 ensures the existence of a maximal T>0 and a solution u to (2.1) such that

u=u(, u 0 )C ( [ 0 , T ) ; H s ) C 1 ( [ 0 , T ) ; H s 1 ) .

Consider now the following initial value problem:

{ q t = u ( t , q ) , t [ 0 , T ) , q ( 0 , x ) = x , x R .
(2.8)

Lemma 2.4 ([23])

Let u 0 H s with s> 3 2 , T>0 be the maximal existence time. Then equation (2.8) has a unique solution q C 1 ([0,T)×R;R) and the map q(t,) is an increasing diffeomorphism of with

q x (t,x)=exp ( 0 t u x ( s , q ( s , x ) ) d s ) >0,(t,x)[0,T)×R.

Moreover, with y=μ(u) u x x , we have

y ( t , q ( t , x ) ) q x 3 (t,x)= y 0 (x) e λ t .

Lemma 2.5 Let u 0 H s , s> 3 2 be given, and u(t,x) is the solution of equation (1.1) with the initial data u 0 . Then we have

S u 2 dx= S u 0 2 dx e 2 λ t := μ 1 2 e 2 λ t ,

where μ 1 = ( S u 0 2 d x ) 1 2 .

Proof Let v= ( μ x 2 ) 1 u. By the first equation in (2.1), we have

1 2 d d t S u 2 d x = S u ( u u x 3 μ ( u ) x ( μ x 2 ) 1 u λ u ) d x = S u 2 u x d x 3 μ ( u ) S u x ( μ x 2 ) 1 u d x λ S u 2 d x = 3 μ ( u ) S ( μ x 2 ) v x v d x λ S u 2 d x = 3 μ ( u ) μ ( v ) S v x d x + 3 μ ( u ) S v x x v x d x λ S u 2 d x = λ S u 2 d x .

This completes the proof of Lemma 2.5. □

Using Lemma 2.5, we have the following useful result.

Lemma 2.6 Let u 0 H s , s> 3 2 , be given and assume that T is the maximal existence time of the corresponding solution u to (2.1) with the initial data u 0 . Then we have

u ( t , x ) L e λ t ( ( 3 2 μ 0 2 + 6 | μ 0 | μ 1 ) t + u 0 L ) .

Proof Applying a simple density argument, Remark 2.1 implies that we only need to consider the case s=3. Combining the first equation in (2.1) with Lemma 2.2, we have

u t +u u x +λu=3 μ 0 e λ t x ( μ x 2 ) 1 u.

From (2.8) it follows that

d u ( t , q ( t , x ) ) d t + λ u ( t , q ( t , x ) ) = ( u t + u u x + λ u ) ( t , q ( t , x ) ) = 3 μ 0 e λ t ( x ( μ x 2 ) 1 u ) ( t , q ( t , x ) ) ,

that is,

e λ t d u ( t , q ( t , x ) ) d t +λ e λ t u ( t , q ( t , x ) ) =3 μ 0 ( x ( μ x 2 ) 1 u ) ( t , q ( t , x ) ) .

Combining (2.3) with Lemma 2.5, we have

| 3 μ 0 x ( μ x 2 ) 1 u | 3 2 μ 0 2 +6| μ 0 | μ 1 :=C.

So we have

C d d t ( e λ t u ( t , q ( t , x ) ) ) C.

Integrating all sides of this inequality from 0 to t, we obtain

| u ( t , q ( t , x ) ) | e λ t ( C t + u 0 L ) .

Noting that the map q(t,) is an increasing diffeomorphism of , we have

u ( t , x ) L = u ( t , x ) L ( R ) = u ( t , q ( t , x ) ) L ( R ) e λ t ( C t + u 0 L ) .

This completes the proof of Lemma 2.6. □

Lemma 2.7 Let u 0 H s , s> 3 2 , be given and assume that T is the maximal existence time of the corresponding solution u to (2.1) with the initial data u 0 . Let

E(t)= S ( 3 2 μ ( u ) ( A 1 x u ) 2 + 1 6 u 3 ) dx,

then for t 0 [0,T), we have E(t)=E( t 0 ) e 3 λ ( t t 0 ) . In particular, we have E(t)=E(0) e 3 λ t := μ 2 e 3 λ t , where μ 2 = S ( 3 2 μ 0 ( A 1 x u 0 ) 2 + 1 6 u 0 3 )dx.

Proof Differentiating the first equation of (2.1) with respect to x, we have

u t x + u x 2 +u u x x =3μ(u)u3μ ( u ) 2 λ u x .
(2.9)

It follows that

d d t E ( t ) = S ( 3 2 μ ( u ) t ( A 1 x u ) 2 + 3 μ ( u ) ( A 1 x u ) ( A 1 u t x ) + 1 2 u 2 u t ) d x = 3 2 μ ( u ) t S ( A 1 x u ) 2 d x + 3 μ ( u ) S ( A 1 x u ) A 1 ( u x 2 u u x x + 3 μ ( u ) u 3 μ ( u ) 2 λ u x ) d x + 1 2 S u 2 ( u u x 3 μ ( u ) x A 1 u λ u ) d x = 3 2 ( λ μ ( u ) ) S ( A 1 x u ) 2 d x 3 2 μ ( u ) S ( A 1 x u ) ( u 2 + μ ( u 2 ) ) d x 3 λ μ ( u ) S ( A 1 x u ) 2 d x 3 2 μ ( u ) S u 2 x A 1 u d x λ 2 S u 3 d x = 9 2 λ S μ ( u ) ( A 1 x u ) 2 d x λ 2 S u 3 d x = 3 λ E ( t ) ,

here we used the relation u u x x + u x 2 = 1 2 x 2 ( u 2 ) and (2.4). Integrating this equality from t 0 to t for t 0 ,t[0,T), we know that the conclusions in Lemma 2.7 hold. □

3 Blow-up and blow-up rate

In this section, we discuss the blow-up phenomena of equation (1.1) and prove that there exist strong solutions to (1.1) which do not exist globally in time. At first, we give the following useful lemma.

Lemma 3.1 ([25])

Let t 0 >0 and v C 1 ([0, t 0 ); H 2 (R)). Then, for every t[0, t 0 ), there exists at least one point ξ(t)R with

m(t):= inf x R { v x ( t , x ) } = v x ( t , ξ ( t ) ) ,

and the function m is almost everywhere differentiable on (0, t 0 ) with

d d t m(t)= v t x ( t , ξ ( t ) ) a.e. on (0, t 0 ).

Theorem 3.1 Let u 0 H s , s> 3 2 , and T be the maximal time of the solution u to (1.1) with the initial data u 0 . If μ 0 μ 2 0 and there is a point ξ 0 S such that μ 0 u 0 ( ξ 0 )0 and u 0 ( ξ 0 )<λ, then the corresponding solution to (1.1) blows up in finite time.

Proof As mentioned earlier, here we only need to show that the above theorem holds for s=3.

Firstly, we claim that for any fixed t[0,T), there is ξ(t)S such that μ 0 u(t,ξ(t))0. By the assumption of the theorem μ 0 u 0 ( ξ 0 )0, we have that ξ(0) exists when t=0 and ξ(0)= ξ 0 . Next, we claim that for any fixed t(0,T), there is ξ(t)S such that μ 0 u(t,ξ(t))0. If not, there exists t 0 (0,T) such that μ 0 u( t 0 ,x)>0 for any xS. By Lemma 2.7, we have

μ 0 E ( t ) = e 3 λ ( t t 0 ) μ 0 E ( t 0 ) = e 3 λ ( t t 0 ) S ( 3 2 μ 0 2 e λ t 0 ( A 1 x u ( t 0 , x ) ) 2 + 1 6 μ 0 u ( t 0 , x ) u 2 ( t 0 , x ) ) d x > 0 .

From μ 0 E(t)= μ 0 μ 2 e 3 λ t it follows that μ 0 μ 2 >0, which contradicts the assumption μ 0 μ 2 0.

Since q(t,) is an increasing diffeomorphism of and ξ(t)S for any fixed t[0,T), there is y(t)R such that

q ( t , y ( t ) ) =ξ(t),t[0,T).

Moreover, y(0)=ξ(0)= ξ 0 . Define now f(t)= u x (t,q(t,y(t))). Evaluating (2.9) at (t,q(t,y(t))), we obtain

d f ( t ) d t = f 2 ( t ) + 3 e λ t μ 0 u ( t , q ( t , y ( t ) ) ) 3 ( μ ( u ) ) 2 λ f ( t ) = f 2 ( t ) + 3 e λ t μ 0 u ( t , ξ ( t ) ) 3 ( μ ( u ) ) 2 λ f ( t ) f 2 ( t ) λ f ( t ) = f ( t ) ( f ( t ) + λ ) .

Note that if f(0)= u 0 ( ξ 0 )<λ, then f(t)<λ for all t[0,T). From the above inequality we obtain

( 1 + λ f ( 0 ) ) e λ t 1 λ f ( t ) 0.

Since f ( 0 ) f ( 0 ) + λ >1, then there exists

0<T 1 λ ln f ( 0 ) f ( 0 ) + λ

such that lim t T f(t)=. Lemma 2.3 implies that the solution u blows up in finite time. □

Theorem 3.2 Let ϵ>0 and u 0 H s , s> 3 2 , and T be the maximal time of the solution u to (1.1) with the initial data u 0 . If

min x S u 0 (x) λ 2 (1+ϵ) ( λ 2 + ( 3 u 0 L 2 + 2 3 C ln ( 1 + 2 ϵ ) + 3 u 0 L ) 2 ) 1 2 2

with C= 3 2 μ 0 2 +6| μ 0 | μ 1 , then the corresponding solution to (1.1) blows up in finite time.

Proof As mentioned earlier, here we only need to show that the above theorem holds for s=3. Define now

m(t):= min x S { u x ( t , x ) } ,t[0,T),

and let ξ(t)S be a point where this minimum is attained by using Lemma 3.1. It follows that

m(t)= u x ( t , ξ ( t ) ) .

Clearly, u x x (t,ξ(t))=0 since u(t,) H 3 (S) C 2 (S). Evaluating (2.9) at (t,ξ(t)), by Lemma 2.6 we obtain

d m ( t ) d t = m 2 ( t ) + 3 μ ( u ) u 3 μ ( u ) 2 λ m ( t ) m 2 ( t ) λ m ( t ) + 3 u L 2 m 2 ( t ) λ m ( t ) + 3 ( C t + u 0 L ) 2 .
(3.1)

For fixed ϵ>0, taking

T 1 = 3 u 0 L 2 + 2 3 C ln ( 1 + 2 ϵ ) 3 u 0 L 2 3 C

and

K( T 1 )= 3 ( C T 1 + u 0 L ) ,

we find that

2K( T 1 ) T 1 =ln ( 1 + 2 ϵ ) .

From (3.1) it follows that

d m ( t ) d t ( m ( t ) + A + B ) ( m ( t ) + A B ) ,t[0, T 1 ],

where A= λ 2 , B= λ 2 + 4 ( K ( T 1 ) ) 2 2 . Note that if m(0)A(1+ϵ)B<AB, then m(t)<AB for all t[0, T 1 ][0,T). From the above inequality we obtain

m ( 0 ) + A + B m ( 0 ) + A B e 2 B t 1 2 B m ( t ) + A B 0,t[0, T 1 ][0,T).

Since 0< m ( 0 ) + A + B m ( 0 ) + A B <1, m(0)A(1+ϵ)B and 2K( T 1 ) T 1 =ln(1+ 2 ϵ ), then there exists

0<T 1 2 B ln m ( 0 ) + A B m ( 0 ) + A + B T 1

such that lim t T m(t)=. Lemma 2.3 implies that the solution u blows up in finite time. □

Theorem 3.3 Let u 0 H s , s> 3 2 , and T be the maximal time of the solution u to (1.1) with the initial data u 0 . If u 0 (x) is odd satisfies u 0 (0)< λ 2 λ 2 + 12 μ 0 2 2 , then the corresponding solution to (1.1) blows up in finite time.

Proof As mentioned earlier, here we only need to show that the above theorem holds for s=3. By μ(u(t,x))=μ(u(t,x)), we have (1.2) is invariant under the transformation (u,x)(u,x). Thus we deduce that if u 0 (x) is odd, then u(t,x) is odd with respect to x for any t[0,T). By continuity with respect to x of u and u x x , we have

u(t,0)= u x x (t,0)=0,t[0,T).

Evaluating (2.9) at (t,0) and letting h(t)= u x (t,0), we obtain

d h ( t ) d t = h 2 ( t ) λ h ( t ) 3 μ ( u ) 2 h 2 ( t ) λ h ( t ) + 3 μ 0 2 = ( h ( t ) + A + B ) ( h ( t ) + A B ) ,

where A= λ 2 , B= λ 2 + 12 μ 0 2 2 . Note that if h(0)<AB, then h(t)<AB for all t[0,T). From the above inequality we obtain

h ( 0 ) + A + B h ( 0 ) + A B e 2 B t 1 2 B h ( t ) + A B 0.

Since h ( 0 ) + A B h ( 0 ) + A + B >1, then there exists

0<T 1 2 B ln h ( 0 ) + A B h ( 0 ) + A + B

such that lim inf t T { min x S u x (t,x)} lim t T h(t)=. Lemma 2.3 implies that the solution u blows up in finite time. □

Similar to the proof of Theorem 3.1 in [21], we have the following blow-up rate result. This result shows that the blow-up rate of strong solutions to the weakly dissipative μ DP equation is not affected by the weakly dissipative term even though the occurrence of blow-up of strong solutions to equation (1.1) is affected by the dissipative parameter, see Theorems 3.1-3.3.

Theorem 3.4 Let u 0 H s , s> 3 2 , and T be the maximal time of the solution u to (1.1) with the initial data u 0 . If T is finite, we obtain

lim t T (Tt) min x S u x (t,x)=1.

4 Global existence

In this section, we present some global existence results. Firstly, we give a useful lemma.

Lemma 4.1 ([11, 26])

If f H 1 (S) is such that S f(x)dx=0, then we have

max x S f 2 (x) 1 12 S f x 2 (x)dx.

Theorem 4.1 If y 0 (x)= μ 0 u 0 , x x (x) H 1 does not change sign, then the corresponding solution u of the initial value u 0 exists globally in time.

Proof Note that given t[0,T), there is ξ(t)S such that u x (t,ξ(t))=0 by the periodicity of u to x-variable. If y 0 (x)0, then Lemma 2.4 implies that y(t,x)0. For x[ξ(t),ξ(t)+1], we have

u x ( t , x ) = ξ ( t ) x x 2 u ( t , x ) d x = ξ ( t ) x ( y μ ( u ) ) d x = ξ ( t ) x y d x μ ( u ) ( x ξ ( t ) ) S y d x μ ( u ) ( x ξ ( t ) ) = μ ( u ) ( 1 x + ξ ( t ) ) | μ 0 | .

It follows that u x (t,x)| μ 0 |. On the other hand, if y 0 (x)0, then Lemma 2.4 implies that y(t,x)0. Therefore, for x[ξ(t),ξ(t)+1], we have

u x ( t , x ) = ξ ( t ) x x 2 u ( t , x ) d x = ξ ( t ) x ( y μ ( u ) ) d x = ξ ( t ) x y d x μ ( u ) ( x ξ ( t ) ) μ ( u ) ( x ξ ( t ) ) | μ 0 | .

It follows that u x (t,x)| μ 0 |. This completes the proof by using Theorem 3.3. □

Corollary 4.1 If the initial value u 0 H 3 such that

x 3 u 0 L 2 2 3 | μ 0 |,

then the corresponding solution u of u 0 exists globally in time.

Proof Note that S x 2 u 0 dx=0, Lemma 4.1 implies that

x 2 u 0 L 3 6 x 3 u 0 L 2 .

If μ 0 0, then

y 0 (x)= μ 0 x 2 u 0 (x) μ 0 3 6 x 3 u 0 L 2 μ 0 | μ 0 |=0.

If μ 0 0, then

y 0 (x)= μ 0 x 2 u 0 (x) μ 0 + x 2 u 0 L μ 0 + 3 6 x 3 u 0 L 2 μ 0 +| μ 0 |=0.

Since μ 0 = S u 0 (x)dx is a determined constant for given u 0 H 3 , y 0 (x) H 1 does not change sign. This completes the proof by using Theorem 4.1. □

5 Weak solutions

This section is concerned with global existence of weak solutions for (1.2) by use of smooth approximate to initial data and Helly’s theorem. Before giving the precise statement of the main result, we first introduce the definition of a weak solution to problem (1.2).

Definition 5.1 A function u(t,x)C( R + ×S) L ( R + ; H 1 ) is said to be an admissible global weak solution to (1.2) if u satisfies the equations in (1.2) and u(t,) u 0 as t 0 + in the sense of distributions on R + ×R. Moreover, μ(u)=μ( u 0 ) e λ t .

The main result of this paper can be stated as follows.

Theorem 5.1 Let u 0 H 1 . Assume that y 0 =(μ( u 0 ) u 0 , x x ) M + , then equation (1.2) has a unique admissible global weak solution in the sense of Definition  5.1. Moreover,

u L loc ( R + ; W 1 , ) H loc 1 ( R + × S ) .

Furthermore, y=(μ(u) u x x (t,)) M + for a.e. t R + is uniformly bounded on S.

Remark 5.1 If y 0 =(μ( u 0 ) u 0 , x x ) M , then the conclusions in Theorem 5.1 also hold with y=(μ(u) u x x (t,)) M .

Firstly, we will give some useful lemmas.

Lemma 5.1 If y 0 = μ 0 u 0 , x x H 1 does not change sign, then the corresponding solution u to (2.7) of the initial value u 0 exists globally in time, that is, uC( R + , H 3 ) C 1 ( R + , H 2 ). Moreover, the following properties hold:

  1. (1)

    y(t,x), u(t,x) have the same sign with y 0 (x), and u x L ( R + × S ) | μ 0 |,

  2. (2)

    | μ 0 | e λ t = y 0 L 1 e λ t = y ( t , ) L 1 = u ( t , ) L 1 .

Proof Firstly, Lemma 2.4 and u=gy, g0 imply that y(t,x), u(t,x) have the same sign with y 0 (x). Moreover, from the proof of Theorem 4.1, we have u x (t,x)| μ 0 |. Now note that given t[0,T), there is ξ(t)S such that u x (t,ξ(t))=0 by the periodicity of u to x-variable. If y 0 0, then y0. For x[ξ(t),ξ(t)+1], we have

u x ( t , x ) = ξ ( t ) x x 2 u ( t , x ) d x = ξ ( t ) x ( μ ( u ) y ) d x = μ ( u ) ( x ξ ( t ) ) ξ ( t ) x y d x μ ( u ) ( x ξ ( t ) ) | μ 0 | .

It follows that u x (t,x)| μ 0 |. On the other hand, if y 0 0, then y0. Therefore, for x[ξ(t),ξ(t)+1], we have

u x ( t , x ) = ξ ( t ) x x 2 u ( t , x ) d x = ξ ( t ) x ( μ ( u ) y ) d x μ ( u ) ( x ξ ( t ) ) S y d x = μ ( u ) ( x ξ ( t ) ) S ( μ ( u ) u x x ) d x = μ ( u ) ( x ξ ( t ) 1 ) | μ 0 | .

It follows that u x (t,x)| μ 0 |. So we have u x L ( R + × S ) | μ 0 |, this completes the proof of (1). By the first equation of (1.1), we have

S y(t,x)dx= ( S y 0 ( x ) d x ) e λ t = μ 0 e λ t .

If y 0 0, then y0 and μ 0 0, we have

y L 1 ( S ) = S y(t,x)dx= ( S y 0 ( x ) d x ) e λ t = y 0 L 1 ( S ) e λ t = μ 0 e λ t .

If y 0 0, then y0 and μ 0 0, we have

y L 1 ( S ) = S y(t,x)dx= ( S ( y 0 ( x ) ) d x ) e λ t = y 0 L 1 ( S ) e λ t = μ 0 e λ t .

Combining these two equalities above, we have | μ 0 | e λ t = y 0 L 1 e λ t = y ( t , ) L 1 . A similar discussion implies y ( t , ) L 1 = u ( t , ) L 1 . This completes the proof of (2). □

Lemma 5.2 ([27])

Assume that XBY with compact imbedding XB (X, B and Y are Banach spaces), 1p and (1) F is bounded in L p (0,T;X), (2) τ h f f L p ( 0 , T h ; Y ) 0 as h0 uniformly for fF. Then F is relatively compact in L p (0,T;B) (and in C(0,T;B) if p=), where ( τ h f)(t)=f(t+h) for h>0, if f is defined on [0,T], then the translated function τ h f is defined on [h,Th].

Lemma 5.3 (Helly’s theorem [28])

Let an infinite family of functions F=f(x) be defined on the segment [a,b]. If all functions of the family and the total variation of all functions of the family are bounded by a single number |f(x)|K, a b (f)K, then there exists a sequence f n (x) in the family F which converges at very point of [a,b] to some function φ(x) of finite variation.

Lemma 5.4 ([29])

Assume that u(t,) W 1 , 1 (R) is uniformly bounded in W 1 , 1 (R) for all t R + . Then, for a.e. t R + ,

d d t R | ϕ n u|dx= R ( ϕ n u t )sgn( ϕ n u)dx

and

d d t R | ϕ n u x |dx= R ( ϕ n u x t )sgn( ϕ n u x )dx.

Lemma 5.5 ([29])

Let f:RR be uniformly continuous and bounded. If μM(R), then

[ ρ n ( f μ ) ( ρ n f ) ( ρ n μ ) ] 0in  L 1 (R) as n.

Lemma 5.6 ([29])

Let f:RR be uniformly continuous and bounded. If g L (R), then

[ ρ n ( f g ) ( ρ n f ) ( ρ n g ) ] 0in  L (R) as n.

Now we consider the approximate equation of (2.7) as follows:

{ u t n + u n u x n = x g ( 3 μ 0 n e λ t u n ) λ u n , t > 0 , x R , u n ( 0 , x ) = u 0 n ( x ) , x R , u n ( t , x + 1 ) = u n ( t , x ) , t 0 , x R ,
(5.1)

where u 0 n (x)= ϕ n u 0 H for n1 and μ 0 n = S u 0 n (x)dx. Here { ϕ n } n 1 are the mollifiers

ϕ n (x):= ( R ϕ ( ξ ) d ξ ) 1 nϕ(nx),xR,n1,

where ϕ C c (R) is defined by

ϕ(x)= { e 1 / ( x 2 1 ) , | x | < 1 , 0 , | x | 1 .

Obviously, ϕ n L 1 ( R ) =1. Clearly, we have

u 0 n u 0 in  H 1  as n
(5.2)

and

u 0 n L 2 u 0 L 2 , u 0 , x n L 2 u 0 , x L 2 , u 0 n H 1 u 0 H 1 , u 0 n L 1 u 0 L 1
(5.3)

in view of Young’s inequality. Note that

μ 0 n = μ ( u 0 n ) = S u 0 n ( x ) d x = S R ϕ n ( y ) u 0 ( x y ) d y d x = R S ϕ n ( y ) u 0 ( x y ) d x d y = R ϕ n ( y ) ( S u 0 ( x y ) d x ) d y = R ϕ n ( y ) ( S u 0 ( z ) d z ) d y = R ϕ n ( y ) μ ( u 0 ) ( x y ) d y = ϕ n μ ( u 0 ) = μ ( u 0 ) = μ 0 .

Using this identity, we can rewrite (5.1) as follows:

{ u t n + u n u x n = x g ( 3 μ 0 e λ t u n ) λ u n , t > 0 , x R , u n ( 0 , x ) = u 0 n ( x ) , x R , u n ( t , x + 1 ) = u n ( t , x ) , t 0 , x R .
(5.4)

Moreover, for all n1, y 0 n =μ( u 0 n ) u 0 , x x n = μ 0 u 0 , x x n H 1 and

y 0 n =μ ( u 0 n ) u 0 , x x n = ϕ n μ( u 0 ) ϕ n u 0 , x x = ϕ n y 0 0.

Thus, by Lemma 5.1, we obtain the corresponding solution u n C( R + ; H 3 ) C 1 ( R + ; H 2 ) to (5.4) with the initial data u 0 n (x) and y n =μ( u n ) u x x n 0, u n =g y n 0 for all (t,x) R + ×S. Furthermore, combining Lemma 2.2, Lemmas 2.5-2.6, Lemma 5.1 and (5.3), we have:

μ ( u n ) = μ 0 n e λ t = μ 0 e λ t ,t[0,),
(5.5)
u n L 2 = u 0 n L 2 e λ t u 0 L 2 e λ t = μ 1 e λ t ,t[0,),
(5.6)
u n ( t , ) L e λ t ( ( 3 2 μ 0 2 + 6 | μ 0 | μ 1 ) t + u 0 H 1 ) ,
(5.7)
u x n L ( R + × S ) | μ 0 n | =| μ 0 |,
(5.8)
| μ 0 | e λ t = y 0 n L 1 e λ t = y n ( t , ) L 1 = u n ( t , ) L 1 .
(5.9)

Lemma 5.7 For any fixed T>0, there exists a subsequence { u n k (t,x)} of the sequence { u n (t,x)} and some function u(t,x) L ( R + ; H 1 ) H 1 ([0,T]×S) such that

u n k uin  H 1 ( [ 0 , T ] × S )  as  n k ,T>0
(5.10)

and

u n k uin  L ( [ 0 , T ] × S )  as  n k .
(5.11)

Moreover, u(t,x)C( R + ×S).

Proof Firstly, we will prove that the sequence { u n (t,x)} is uniformly bounded in the space H 1 ([0,T]×S). By (5.6) and (5.8), we have

u n L 2 ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) 2 = 0 T S ( u n ) 2 dxdt= 0 T u n L 2 2 dx μ 1 2 T,
(5.12)
u x n L 2 ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) u x n L ( R + × S ) | μ 0 |.
(5.13)

Moreover, by (5.8) and (5.12), we obtain

u n u x n L 2 ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) u n L 2 ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) u x n L ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) | μ 0 | μ 1 T ,
(5.14)
x g ( 3 μ 0 e λ t u n ) L 2 ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) x g L 2 ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) 3 μ 0 e λ t u n L 1 ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) x g ( 3 μ 0 e λ t u n ) L 2 ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) T 12 3 | μ 0 | u n L 2 ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) x g ( 3 μ 0 e λ t u n ) L 2 ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) T 4 | μ 0 | μ 1 T .
(5.15)

Combining (5.12), (5.14)-(5.15) with (5.4), we know that { u t n (t,x)} is uniformly bounded in L 2 ([0,T]×S). Thus, (5.12), (5.13) and this conclusion implies that

0 T S ( ( u n ) 2 + ( u x n ) 2 + ( u t n ) 2 ) dxdtK,

where K=K(| μ 0 |, μ 1 ,T,λ)0. It follows that { u n (t,x)} is uniformly bounded in the space H 1 ([0,T]×S). Thus (5.10) holds for some u H 1 ([0,T]×S).

Observe that, for each 0s,tT,

u n ( t , ) u n ( s , ) L 2 2 = S ( s t u n τ ( τ , x ) d τ ) 2 dx|ts| 0 T S ( u t n ) 2 dxdt.

Note that { u n (t,x)} is uniformly bounded in L ([0,T]; H 1 ), { u t n (t,x)} is uniformly bounded in L 2 ([0,T]×S) and H 1 C L L 2 , then (5.11) and u(t,x)C( R + ×S) is a consequence of Lemma 5.2. □

Proof of Theorem 5.1 Next, we will deal with u x n and x g(3 μ 0 e λ t u n ). By (5.5), (5.8)-(5.9), we have that for fixed t[0,T] the sequence u x n k (t,)BV(S) satisfies

V ( u x n k ( t , ) ) = u x x n k ( t , ) L 1 = μ ( u n k ) y n k L 1 μ ( u n k ) L 1 + y n k L 1 2| μ 0 |

and

u x n k ( t , ) L u x n k ( t , x ) L ( R + × S ) 2| μ 0 |.

Applying Lemma 5.3, we obtain that there exists a subsequence, denoted again by { u x n k (t,)}, which converges at every point to some function v(t,x) of finite variation with V(v(t,))2| μ 0 |. Since for almost all t[0,T], u x n k (t,) u x (t,) in D (S) in view of Lemma 5.7, it follows that v(t,)= u x (t,) for a.e. t[0,T]. So we have

u x n k (t,) u x (t,)a.e. on [0,T]×S as  n k ,
(5.16)

and for a.e. t[0,T],

V ( u x ( t , ) ) = u x x ( t , ) M ( S ) 2| μ 0 |.
(5.17)

Therefore,

x g ( 3 μ 0 e λ t u n k ) x g ( 3 μ 0 e λ t u ) L ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) x g L 1 ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) 3 μ 0 e λ t ( u n k u ) L ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) T 4 3 | μ 0 | u n k u L ( [ 0 , T ] × S ) .

By (5.11), we have

x g ( 3 μ 0 e λ t u n k ) x g ( 3 μ 0 e λ t u )
(5.18)

a.e. on [0,T]×S. The relations (5.11), (5.16) and (5.18) imply that u satisfies (2.7) in D ([0,T]×S). Moreover, by (5.7)-(5.8), (5.11) and (5.16), we obtain u L loc ( R + , W 1 , ) in view of T being arbitrary.

Now, we prove that μ(u)= μ 0 e λ t and (μ(u) u x x (t,)) M + is uniformly bounded on S.

On the one hand, by (5.11), we have

S u n k (t,x)dx S u(t,x)dx=μ(u)as  n k .

On the other hand,

S u n k (t,x)dx=μ ( u n k ) = μ 0 e λ t .

Obviously, μ(u)=μ( u 0 ) e λ t by the uniqueness of limit.

Note that L 1 M. By (5.17) and μ(u)= μ 0 e λ t , we have

μ ( u ) u x x ( t , ) M μ ( u ) L 1 + u x x ( t , ) M 3| μ 0 |.

It follows that for all t R + , (μ(u) u x x (t,))M is uniformly bounded on S. For any fixed T>0, in view of (5.11) and (5.16), we have for all t[0,T],

[ μ ( u n k ) u x x n k ( t , ) ] [ μ ( u ) u x x ( t , ) ] in  D (S) for  n k .

Since μ( u n k ) u x x n k (t,)= y n k (t,)0 for all (t,x) R + ×S, we have (μ(u) u x x (t,)) L loc ( R + , M + ).

Then we prove the uniqueness of global weak solutions.

Let u,v L loc ( R + ; W 1 , ) L ( R + ; H 1 ) be two global weak solutions of (2.7) with the initial data u 0 . By (μ(u) u x x (t,)) M + and (μ(v) v x x (t,)) M + are uniformly bounded on S, for fixed T>0, we set

K(T)= sup 0 t T { μ ( u ) u x x ( t , ) M + + μ ( v ) v x x ( t , ) M + } <+.

For all (t,x)[0,T]×S, it follows that

| u ( t , x ) | = | g ( μ ( u ) u x x ( t , x ) ) | g L μ ( u ) u x x ( t , x ) M + 13 12 K
(5.19)

and

| u x ( t , x ) | = | g x ( μ ( u ) u x x ( t , x ) ) | g x L μ ( u ) u x x ( t , x ) M + 13 12 K.
(5.20)

Similarly, we get

| v ( t , x ) | 13 12 K, | v x ( t , x ) | 13 12 K.
(5.21)

We define w(t,x)=u(t,x)v(t,x), (t,x)[0,T]×S. Since u, v are global weak solutions of (2.7), we have

ϕ n u t + ϕ n (u u x )+ ϕ n x g ( 3 μ 0 e λ t u ) +λ ϕ n u=0

and

ϕ n v t + ϕ n (v v x )+ ϕ n x g ( 3 μ 0 e λ t v ) +λ ϕ n v=0.

It follows that

ϕ n w t + ϕ n (u w x +w v x )+ ϕ n x g ( 3 μ 0 e λ t w ) +λ ϕ n w=0.

By Lemma 5.4, a direct computation implies

d d t S | ϕ n w | d x = S ( ϕ n w t ) sgn ( ϕ n w ) d x = S ( ϕ n ( u w x ) ) sgn ( ϕ n w ) d x S ( ϕ n ( w v x ) ) sgn ( ϕ n w ) d x 3 μ 0 e λ t S ( ϕ n x g w ) sgn ( ϕ n w ) d x λ S ( ϕ n w ) sgn ( ϕ n w ) d x .
(5.22)

Then we estimate the right-hand side of (5.22) term by term,

| S ( ϕ n ( u w x ) ) sgn ( ϕ n w ) d x | S | ϕ n ( u w x ) | d x S | ( ϕ n u ) ( ϕ n w x ) | d x + S | ϕ n ( u w x ) ( ϕ n u ) ( ϕ n w x ) | d x ϕ n u L ( S ) S | ϕ n w x | d x + S | ϕ n ( u w x ) ( ϕ n u ) ( ϕ n w x ) | d x 13 12 K S | ϕ n w x | d x + S | ϕ n ( u w x ) ( ϕ n u ) ( ϕ n w x ) | d x ,

here we used Young’s inequality and (5.19),

| S ( ϕ n ( w v x ) ) sgn ( ϕ n w ) d x | S | ϕ n ( w v x ) | d x S | ( ϕ n w ) ( ϕ n v x ) | d x + S | ϕ n ( w v x ) ( ϕ n w ) ( ϕ n v x ) | d x ϕ n v x L ( S ) S | ϕ n w | d x + S | ϕ n ( w v x ) ( ϕ n w ) ( ϕ n v x ) | d x 13 12 K S | ϕ n w | d x + S | ϕ n ( w v x ) ( ϕ n w ) ( ϕ n v x ) | d x ,

here we used Young’s inequality and (5.21),

| S ( ϕ n x g w ) sgn ( ϕ n w ) d x | S | ϕ n x g w | d x g x L 1 ( S ) S | ϕ n w | d x 1 4 S | ϕ n w | d x .

Combining those three inequalities with (5.22), we have

d d t S | ϕ n w | d x ( 13 12 K + 3 4 | μ 0 | + λ ) S | ϕ n w | d x + 13 12 K S | ϕ n w x | d x + R n ( t ) .
(5.23)

By Lemmas 5.5-5.6, we get

R n (t)0as nand | R n ( t ) | C,n1,t[0,T],
(5.24)

where C is a positive constant depending on K and the H 1 -norms of u(0) and v(0). In the same way, convoluting (2.7) for u and v with ϕ n , x and using Lemma 5.4, we obtain

d d t S | ϕ n w x | d x = S ( ϕ n ( w x ( u x + v x ) ) ) sgn ( ϕ n , x w ) d x S ( ϕ n ( u w x x ) ) sgn ( ϕ n , x w ) d x S ( ϕ n ( w v x x ) ) sgn ( ϕ n , x w ) d x 3 μ 0 e λ t S ( ϕ n , x x g w ) sgn ( ϕ n , x w ) d x λ S ( ϕ n w x ) sgn ( ϕ n , x w ) d x .
(5.25)

Next, we estimate the right-hand side of (5.25) term by term,

| S ( ϕ n ( w x ( u x + v x ) ) ) sgn ( ϕ n , x w ) d x | S | ϕ n ( w x ( u x + v x ) ) | d x S | ( ϕ n w x ) ( ϕ n ( u x + v x ) ) | d x + S | ϕ n ( w x ( u x + v x ) ) ( ϕ n w x ) ( ϕ n ( u x + v x ) ) | d x ϕ n ( u x + v x ) L ( S ) S | ϕ n w x | d x + S | ϕ n ( w x ( u x + v x ) ) ( ϕ n w x ) ( ϕ n ( u x + v x ) ) | d x 13 6 K S | ϕ n w x | d x + S | ϕ n ( w x ( u x + v x ) ) ( ϕ n w x ) ( ϕ n ( u x + v x ) ) | d x ,

here we used Young’s inequality and (5.20)-(5.21),

S ( ϕ n ( u w x x ) ) sgn ( ϕ n , x w ) d x = S ( ϕ n u ) ( ϕ n w x x ) sgn ( ϕ n , x w ) d x S ( ϕ n ( u w x x ) ( ϕ n u ) ( ϕ n w x x ) ) sgn ( ϕ n , x w ) d x S ( ϕ n u ) d d x | ϕ n w x | d x + S | ϕ n ( u w x x ) ( ϕ n u ) ( ϕ n w x x ) | d x = S ( ϕ n u x ) | ϕ n w x | d x + S | ϕ n ( u w x x ) ( ϕ n u ) ( ϕ n w x x ) | d x 13 12 K S | ϕ n w x | d x + S | ϕ n ( u w x x ) ( ϕ n u ) ( ϕ n w x x ) | d x ,

here we used Young’s inequality and (5.20),

| S ( ϕ n ( w v x x ) ) sgn ( ϕ n , x w ) d x | S | ϕ n ( w v x x ) | d x S | ( ϕ n w ) ( ϕ n v x x ) | d x + S | ϕ n ( w v x x ) ( ϕ n w ) ( ϕ n v x x ) | d x ϕ n w L ( S ) ϕ n v x x L 1 ( S ) + S | ϕ n ( w v x x ) ( ϕ n w ) ( ϕ n v x x ) | d x .

Note that W 1 , 1 L , f W 1 , 1 = f L 1 + f L 1 and ϕ n v x x L 1 v x x M . It follows from (5.17) that

| S ( ϕ n ( w v x x ) ) sgn ( ϕ n , x w ) d x | 2 | μ 0 | S | ϕ n w | d x + 2 | μ 0 | S | ϕ n w x | d x + S | ϕ n ( w v x x ) ( ϕ n w ) ( ϕ n v x x ) | d x .

Now, we estimate the fourth term,

| S ( ϕ n , x x g w ) sgn ( ϕ n , x w ) d x | S | ϕ n , x x g w | d x = S | ϕ n x g w x | d x g x L 1 ( S ) S | ϕ n w x | d x 1 4 S | ϕ n w x | d x .

Combining the estimates with (5.25), we get

d d t S | ϕ n w x | d x 2 | μ 0 | S | ϕ n w | d x + ( 39 12 K + 11 4 | μ 0 | + λ ) S | ϕ n w x | d x + R n ( t ) ,
(5.26)

where R n (t) satisfies (5.24).

Adding (5.23) and (5.26), we have

d d t S ( | ϕ n w | + | ϕ n w x | ) dx ( 13 3 K + 11 4 | μ 0 | + λ ) S ( | ϕ n w | + | ϕ n w x | ) dx+ R n (t).

In view of Gronwall’s inequality, we find

S ( | ϕ n w | + | ϕ n w x | ) d x e ( 13 3 K + 11 4 | μ 0 | + λ ) t [ S ( | ϕ n w | + | ϕ n w x | ) ( 0 , x ) d x + 0 t R n ( s ) d s ] .

Note that w=uv W 1 , 1 and (5.24) holds. Letting n in the above inequality, we have

S ( | ϕ n w | + | ϕ n w x | ) dx e ( 13 3 K + 11 4 | μ 0 | + λ ) t S ( | ϕ n w | + | ϕ n w x | ) (0,x)dx.

Since w(0,x)= w x (0,x)=0, we obtain u(t,x)=v(t,x) for a.e. (t,x)[0,T]×S. In view of T is chosen arbitrarily, this completes the proof of uniqueness. □

References

  1. 1.

    Khesin B, Lenells J, Misiolek G: Generalized Hunter-Saxton equation and the geometry of the group of circle diffeomorphisms. Math. Ann. 2008, 342: 617-656.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Lenells J, Misiolek G, Tiğlay F: Integrable evolution equations on spaces of tensor densities and their peakon solutions. Commun. Math. Phys. 2010, 299: 129-161.

    Article  MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Escher, J, Kohlmann, M, Kolev, B: Geometric aspects of the periodic μDP equation (2010). arXiv:1004.0978v1. e-printatarXiv.org

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Holm DD, Staley MF: Wave structure and nonlinear balances in a family of evolutionary PDEs. SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst. 2003, 2: 323-380.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Degasperis A, Procesi M: Asymptotic integrability. In Symmetry and Perturbation Theory. World Scientific, River Edge; 1999. (Rome, 1998)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Henry D: Infinite propagation speed for the Degasperis-Procesi equation. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2005, 311: 755-759.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Yin Z: Global existence for a new periodic integrable equation. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2003, 283: 129-139.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Yin Z: On the Cauchy problem for an integrable equation with peakon solutions. Ill. J. Math. 2003, 47: 649-666.

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Yin Z: Global solutions to a new integrable equation with peakons. Indiana Univ. Math. J. 2004, 53: 1189-1210.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Yin Z: Global weak solutions to a new periodic integrable equation with peakon solutions. J. Funct. Anal. 2004, 212: 182-194.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Fu Y, Liu Y, Qu C: On the blow up structure for the generalized periodic Camassa-Holm and Degasperis-Procesi equations. J. Funct. Anal. 2012, 262: 3125-3158.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Ghidaglia JM: Weakly damped forced Korteweg-de Vries equations behave as finite dimensional dynamical system in the long time. J. Differ. Equ. 1988, 74: 369-390.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Ott E, Sudan RN: Damping of solitary waves. Phys. Fluids 1970, 13: 1432-1434.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Guo ZG: Blow up, global existence, and infinite propagation speed for the weakly dissipative Camassa-Holm equation. J. Math. Phys. 2008., 49: Article ID 033516

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Wu S, Yin Z: Blow-up, blow-up rate and decay of the solution of the weakly dissipative Camassa-Holm equation. J. Math. Phys. 2006., 47: Article ID 013504

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Wu S, Yin Z: Global existence and blow-up phenomena for the weakly dissipative Camassa-Holm equation. J. Differ. Equ. 2009, 246(11):4309-4321.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Escher J, Wu S, Yin Z: Global existence and blow-up phenomena for a weakly dissipative Degasperis-Procesi equation. Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., Ser. B 2009, 12(3):633-645.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Guo ZG: Some properties of solutions to the weakly dissipative Degasperis-Procesi equation. J. Differ. Equ. 2009, 246: 4332-4344.

    Article  MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Wu S, Yin Z: Blow-up and decay of the solution of the weakly dissipative Degasperis-Procesi equation. SIAM J. Math. Anal. 2008, 40(2):475-490.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Yin Z: Blow-up phenomena and decay for the periodic Degasperis-Procesi equation with weak dissipation. J. Nonlinear Math. Phys. 2008, 15: 28-49.

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Hu QY, Yin ZY: Blowup and blowup rate of solutions to a weakly dissipative periodic rod equation. J. Math. Phys. 2009., 50: Article ID 083503

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Zhu MX, Jiang ZH: Some properties of solutions to the weakly dissipative b -family equation. Nonlinear Anal., Real World Appl. 2012, 13: 158-167.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Kohlmann M: Global existence and blow-up for a weakly dissipative μ DP equation. Nonlinear Anal. 2011, 74: 4746-4753.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Yin Z: On the Cauchy problem for an integrable equation with peakon solutions. Ill. J. Math. 2003, 47: 649-666.

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Constantin A, Escher J: Wave breaking for nonlinear nonlocal shallow water equations. Acta Math. 1998, 181: 229-243.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Constantin A: On the blow-up of solutions of a periodic shallow water equation. J. Nonlinear Sci. 2000, 10: 391-399.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Simon J:Compact sets in the space L P (0,T;B). Ann. Mat. Pura Appl. 1987, 146(4):65-96.

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Natanson IP: Theory of Functions of a Real Variable. Ungar, New York; 1964.

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Escher J, Liu Y, Yin Z: Global weak solutions and blow-up structure for the Degasperis-Procesi equation. J. Funct. Anal. 2006, 241: 457-485.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The first author was partially supported by NNSFC (No. 11326161) and Doctoral Scientific Research Fund of Zhengzhou University of Light Industry. The authors thank the referees for useful comments and suggestions.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jingjing Liu.

Additional information

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

The authors have equal contributions to each part of this article. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Liu, J., Niu, Y. & Zhang, D. On the Cauchy problem for a weakly dissipative μ-Degasperis-Procesi equation. Adv Differ Equ 2013, 350 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-1847-2013-350

Download citation

Keywords

  • a weakly dissipative μ-Degasperis-Procesi equation
  • blow-up
  • global existence
  • strong solutions
  • weak solutions