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Newton-Kantorovich convergence theorem of a new modified Halley’s method family in a Banach space
Advances in Difference Equations volume 2013, Article number: 325 (2013)
A Newton-Kantorovich convergence theorem of a new modified Halley’s method family is established in a Banach space to solve nonlinear operator equations. We also present the main results to reveal the competence of our method. Finally, two numerical examples arising in the theory of the radiative transfer, neutron transport and in the kinetic theory of gasses are provided to show the application of our theorem.
In the last two centuries, remarkable contributions have been made to both the theory and application of nonlinear equations. Suppose that we have to find a solution of the nonlinear equation
where F is defined on an open convex subset Ω of a Banach space X with values in a Banach space Y.
These equations are increasingly used to model problems in engineering applications, such as material science, electrical engineering, civil engineering, chemical engineering, mechanics and numerical optimization. There are several iterative methods [1–6] used to find a solution of nonlinear equations. One of those iterative methods is the famous Newton’s method
often used to solve the nonlinear operator equation under the reasonable hypotheses. However, Newton’s method is only the second-order convergence. Kantorovich presented the famous convergence result , and afterward, many Newton-Kantorovich-type convergence theorems have been attained [8–17]. Furthermore, many deformed methods [18–22] have been presented to improve the convergence order. The famous Halley’s method, which has been widely discussed [23–30], is the third-order convergence. The famous Halley’s method is defined as
Now, we consider Halley’s method with a parameter λ in the form
One can see that Halley’s method and super-Halley’s method are the special cases for and . In this method, in every step, one needs to compute the second order derivatives of the function F. The computing cost will be the high. To avoid the computation of , and to maintain the high order convergence, many researchers have replaced the second order derivative with the first order divided differences. They presented the modified Halley’s methods with the parameters p, λ. Their modified Halley’s method is as follows :
For , , the method becomes Chebyshev’s iterative method (see ). For , , the method becomes inverse-free Jarratt iterative method (see [14, 15]). In this paper, we establish a Kantorovich-type third-order convergence theorem for this kind of method by using majorizing function to improve the result .
1 Main results
In this section, we establish a Newton-Kantorovich convergence theorem via majorizing function. Let , where K, γ, η are positive real numbers. Denote
Theorem 1 Suppose that X and Y are the Banach spaces, and Ω is an open convex subset of X, has the second order Fréchet derivative, exists for , and the following conditions hold:
where are two positive real roots of the function . Then, for , the sequence generated by (3) is well defined, and converges to the unique solution of equation (1) in .
Theorem 2 Suppose that X and Y are the Banach spaces, and Ω is an open convex subset of X, has the third-order Fréchet derivative, exists for , and the following conditions hold:
Then for , the sequence generated by (3) is well defined, and converges to the unique solution of equation (1) in .
To prove Theorems 1 and 2, we first give some lemmas.
Lemma 1 If , the polynomial has two positive real roots , (let ), and a negative real root ().
Proof From definition of the function , there follows that , , hence has a negative root. Denote it . We get that has the unique positive root , and for , . So, the necessary and sufficient condition that has two positive roots for is that the minimum of satisfies , that is also . This completes the proof of Lemma 1. □
Lemma 2 (see )
Suppose that the sequences and are generated by the following iteration ,
Then for , , are increasing and converge to .
Lemma 3 Suppose that satisfies conditions (4) of Theorem 1, , exists and satisfies the following inequalities:
By the proof process of Lemma 1, we get , . Hence, for ,
By the Banach theorem, we know exists, and
This completes the proof of Lemma 3. □
Lemma 4 Suppose that the nonlinear operator is defined on an open convex subset Ω of a Banach space X with values in a Banach space Y, F has the second-order Frechét derivative, and the sequences , are generated by (3). Then the following formula holds for all natural numbers n:
This completes the proof of Lemma 4. □
Proof of Theorem 1 By induction, we can prove, for , that the following formulae hold:
In fact, by Lemma 2, we know that is increasing and converges to the minimum positive root of the function . Hence, for all natural numbers n. It is easy to verify it for the case . By using mathematical induction, we now suppose the formulae above also hold for . Then
By Lemma 3, and the fact that , are increasing on , we get ().
From Lemmas 3 and 4, we get
Hence, we get
So, the sequence generated by (3) is well defined, and converges to the solution of equation (1) on . Now, we prove the uniqueness. If is also the solution of equation (1) in , then, by the proof of Lemma 1, we know that , .
By the Banach theorem, we know the inverse of
we have . This completes the proof of uniqueness. Thus, the proof of Theorem 1 is complete. □
Proof of Theorem 2 We know that has the three-order Fréchet derivative. Then
Using the same proof method as in Theorem 1, we get assertion of Theorem 2. □
2 Numerical examples
In this section, we apply the convergence ball result and show two numerical examples.
Example 1 Suppose that , we consider initial point , . We can choose
Moreover, by Theorem 2, we get that the sequence () generated by (3) is well defined and convergent.
Example 2 Consider the following integral equations
and the space with the norm
This equation arises in the theory of the radiative transfer, neutron transport and in the kinetic theory of gasses. Let us define the operator F on X by
Then, for , we get the following results:
this means that the hypotheses of Theorem 2 hold.
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This work is supported by the National Basic Research 973 Program of China (No. 2011JB105001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11371320), the Foundation of Science and Technology Department (Grant No. 2013C31084) of Zhejiang Province and the Foundation of the Education Department (No. 20120040, Y201329420) of Zhejiang Province of China and by the Grant FEKT-S-11-2-921 of Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
The authors have made the same contribution. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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Lin, R., Zhao, Y., Šmarda, Z. et al. Newton-Kantorovich convergence theorem of a new modified Halley’s method family in a Banach space. Adv Differ Equ 2013, 325 (2013) doi:10.1186/1687-1847-2013-325
- Banach Space
- Iterative Method
- Radiative Transfer
- Positive Root
- Positive Real Root