- Open Access
Determinants of the Laplacians on the n-dimensional unit sphere
Advances in Difference Equations volume 2013, Article number: 236 (2013)
During the last three decades, the problem of evaluation of the determinants of the Laplacians on Riemann manifolds has received considerable attention from many authors. The functional determinant for the k-dimensional unit sphere with the standard metric has been computed in several ways. Here we aim at computing the determinants of the Laplacians on () by mainly using certain closed-form evaluations of the series involving zeta function.
MSC:11M35, 11M36, 11M06, 33B15.
1 Introduction and preliminaries
During the last three decades, the problem of evaluation of the determinants of the Laplacians on Riemann manifolds has received considerable attention from many authors including (among others) D’Hoker and Phong [1, 2], Sarnak , and Voros , who computed the determinants of the Laplacians on compact Riemann surfaces of constant curvature in terms of special values of the Selberg zeta function. Although the first interest in the determinants of the Laplacians arose mainly for Riemann surfaces, it is also interesting and potentially useful to compute these determinants for classical Riemannian manifolds of higher dimensions, such as spheres. Here, we are particularly concerned with the evaluation of the functional determinant for the k-dimensional unit sphere () with the standard metric.
For this purpose we need the following definitions. Let be a sequence such that
henceforth we consider only such nonnegative increasing sequences. Then we can show that
which is known to converge absolutely in a half-plane for some .
Definition 1 (cf. Osgood et al. )
The determinant of the Laplacian Δ on the compact manifold M is defined to be
where is the sequence of eigenvalues of the Laplacian Δ on M. The sequence is known to satisfy the condition as in (1.1), but the product in (1.3) is always divergent; so, in order for the expression (1.3) to make sense, some sort of regularization procedure must be used (see, e.g., ). It is easily seen that, formally, is the product of nonzero eigenvalues of Δ. This product does not converge, but can be continued analytically to a neighborhood of . Therefore, we can give a meaningful definition:
which is called the functional determinant of the Laplacian Δ on M.
Definition 2 The order μ of the sequence is defined by
The analogous and shifted analogous Weierstrass canonical products and of the sequence are defined, respectively, by
where denotes the greatest integer part in the order μ of the sequence .
There exists the following relationship between and (see Voros ):
where, for convenience,
The shifted series of in (1.2) by a is given by
Formally, indeed, we have
which, if we define
immediately implies that
In fact, Voros  gave the relationship between and as follows:
where an empty sum is interpreted to be nil and the finite part prescription is applied (as usual) as follows (cf. Voros [, p.446]):
where ℕ denotes the set of positive integers and . From now on we consider the shifted sequence of in (1.15) by as a fundamental sequence. Then the sequence is written in the following simple and tractable form:
with the same multiplicity as in (1.16).
We will exclude the zero mode, that is, start the sequence at for later use. Furthermore, with a view to emphasizing n on , we choose the notations , , , , and instead of , , , , and , respectively.
We readily observe from (1.11) that
where denotes the determinants of the Laplacians on ().
Several authors (see Choi , Kumagai , Vardi , and Voros ) used the theory of multiple gamma functions (see Barnes [11–14]) to compute the determinants of the Laplacians on the n-dimensional unit sphere (). Quine and Choi  made use of zeta regularized products to compute and the determinant of the conformal Laplacian, . Choi and Srivastava [16, 17], Choi et al. , and Choi  made use of some closed-form evaluations of the series involving zeta function (see [, Chapter 3]) for the computation of the determinants of the Laplacians on (). In the sequel, here, we aim at presenting a general explicit formula for the determinants of the Laplacians on (; ) by mainly using a summation formula of the series involving zeta function.
2 The Stirling numbers of the first kind
The following recurrence relations are satisfied by :
It is not difficult to see also that
The Pochhammer symbol is defined (for ) by
in terms of the gamma function Γ, and .
From the definition (2.1) of , the Pochhammer symbol in (2.7) can be written in the form
where denotes the number of permutations of n symbols, which has exactly k cycles.
For potential use, we observe the following simple properties related to in the lemma below.
Lemma 1 For , let
Then we have
Proof It is easy to see the first expression for . For the second one, it is enough to see that the defined product is an even function of z. □
For later use, we compute the first few values of as in Lemma 2.
Lemma 2 The values of when , are computed as follows:
3 Series associated with the zeta functions
A rather classical (over two centuries old) theorem of Christian Goldbach (1690-1764), which was stated in a letter dated 1729 from Goldbach to Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), was revived in 1986 by Shallit and Zikan  as the following problem:
where denotes the set of all nontrivial integer k th powers, that is,
In terms of the Riemann zeta function defined by
Goldbach’s theorem (3.1) assumes the elegant form (cf. Shallit and Zikan [, p.403])
where denotes the fractional part of . As a matter of fact, it is fairly straightforward to observe also that
The Hurwitz (or generalized) zeta function is defined by
where denotes the set of nonpositive integers. It is noted that both the Riemann zeta function and the Hurwitz zeta function can be continued meromorphically to the whole complex s-plane except for a simple pole only at with their residue 1. For easy reference, we recall some properties of and as in the following lemma.
Lemma 3 Each of the following identities holds true.
It is known that
Employing the various methods and techniques used in the vast literature on the subject of the closed-form evaluations series associated with the zeta functions, Srivastava and Choi (see [, Chapter 3], [, Chapter 3], and see also the related references therein) presented a rather extensive collection of closed-form sums of series involving the zeta functions. For the use in the next section, we recall two general formulas as in the following lemma (see [, p.254]).
Lemma 4 The following identity holds true:
By setting and in (3.16) and using suitable formulas given in this section, we get a special case identity of (3.16) as in Lemma 5 below.
Lemma 5 The following identity holds true:
Further specialized formulas of the identity in (3.17), for later use, are obtained as in Lemma 6 below.
Lemma 6 Each of the following formulas holds true:
4 The determinants of the Laplacians on ()
Here, by using (1.18) and the results in the previous sections, we are ready to compute the determinants of the Laplacians on () as in the following theorem.
Theorem The determinants of the Laplacians on () are given as follows:
and are harmonic numbers defined by
Here we have
where, for convenience,
of which the last series is expressed in a closed-form as given in Lemma 5.
Proof In view of (1.15), the sequence of eigenvalues on the standard Laplacian on is given as follows: with multiplicity as in (1.16). Here we consider the shifted sequence of by as a fundamental sequence. Then the sequence is written in the following simple and tractable form:
with the same multiplicity . It is noted that has the order
It follows from (1.18) and (1.12) with the aid of (4.9) and (4.10) that
where and are given as in (4.2) and (4.3), respectively.
In order to express in terms of certain known functions, we first consider the corresponding multiplicity : From (1.16), we have
We find from (2.1) and (2.8) that
which, in view of Lemma 1 (see also (2.9)), is expressed as follows:
Now it is easy to see that
where is given in (2.9).
Since the Hurwitz zeta function has only a simple pole at with its residue 1, it is seen that has simple poles at () with their respective residue . Therefore we find from the finite part prescription (1.13) that
It is seen that applying (4.14) to (4.11) proves (4.1). Employing (3.11), (3.13), (3.14), and (3.15) in (4.13), we obtain the expressions (4.4), (4.5), and (4.6).
In view of (1.6), (4.9), and (4.10), we obtain
Taking the logarithm of both sides in (4.15) and considering
Applying (4.12) to (4.17), we get (4.7). Letting in the definition of in (4.8) and dropping the prime on ℓ, we obtain
which, upon using (3.11) and (3.14) in the first finite series, yields (4.8). □
By setting in (4.1), we give as in the following corollary.
Corollary The determinants of the Laplacians on () are given as follows:
D’Hoker E, Phong DH: On determinant of Laplacians on Riemann surface. Commun. Math. Phys. 1986, 104: 537-545. 10.1007/BF01211063
D’Hoker E, Phong DH: Multiloop amplitudes for the bosonic Polyakov string. Nucl. Phys. B 1986, 269: 204-234.
Sarnak P: Determinants of Laplacians. Commun. Math. Phys. 1987, 110: 113-120. 10.1007/BF01209019
Voros A: Special functions, spectral functions and the Selberg zeta function. Commun. Math. Phys. 1987, 110: 439-465. 10.1007/BF01212422
Osgood B, Phillips R, Sarnak P: Extremals of determinants of Laplacians. J. Funct. Anal. 1988, 80: 148-211. 10.1016/0022-1236(88)90070-5
Quine JR, Heydari SH, Song RY: Zeta regularized products. Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 1993, 338: 213-231. 10.1090/S0002-9947-1993-1100699-1
Vardi I: Determinants of Laplacians and multiple gamma functions. SIAM J. Math. Anal. 1988, 19: 493-507. 10.1137/0519035
Terras A I. In Harmonic Analysis on Symmetric Spaces and Applications. Springer, New York; 1985.
Choi J:Determinant of Laplacian on . Math. Jpn. 1994, 40: 155-166.
Kumagai H: The determinant of the Laplacian on the n -sphere. Acta Arith. 1999, 91: 199-208.
Barnes EW: The theory of the G -function. Q. J. Math. 1899, 31: 264-314.
Barnes EW: Genesis of the double gamma function. Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 1900, 31: 358-381.
Barnes EW: The theory of the double gamma function. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 1901, 196: 265-388. 10.1098/rsta.1901.0006
Barnes EW: On the theory of the multiple gamma functions. Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 1904, 19: 374-439.
Quine JR, Choi J: Zeta regularized products and functional determinants on spheres. Rocky Mt. J. Math. 1996, 26: 719-729. 10.1216/rmjm/1181072081
Choi J, Srivastava HM: An application of the theory of the double gamma function. Kyushu J. Math. 1999, 53: 209-222. 10.2206/kyushujm.53.209
Choi J, Srivastava HM: Certain classes of series associated with the zeta function and multiple gamma functions. J. Comput. Appl. Math. 2000, 118: 87-109. 10.1016/S0377-0427(00)00311-3
Choi J, Cho YJ, Srivastava HM: Series involving the zeta function and multiple gamma functions. Appl. Math. Comput. 2004, 159: 509-537. 10.1016/j.amc.2003.08.134
Choi J: Determinants of the Laplacians on the n -dimensional unit sphere ( ). Honam Math. J. 2011, 33(3):321-333. 10.5831/HMJ.2011.33.3.321
Srivastava HM, Choi J: Series Associated with the Zeta and Related Functions. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht; 2001.
Srivastava HM, Choi J: Zeta and q-Zeta Functions and Associated Series and Integrals. Elsevier, Amsterdam; 2012.
Shallit JD, Zikan K: A theorem of Goldbach. Am. Math. Mon. 1986, 93: 402-403. 10.2307/2323614
Choi J, Srivastava HM, Quine JR: Some series involving the zeta function. Bull. Aust. Math. Soc. 1995, 51: 383-393. 10.1017/S0004972700014210
The author would like to express his gratitude for the referees’ helpful comments to have this paper in the present improved form. This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0011005).
The author declares that he has no competing interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Choi, J. Determinants of the Laplacians on the n-dimensional unit sphere . Adv Differ Equ 2013, 236 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-1847-2013-236
- gamma function
- psi- (or digamma) function
- Riemann zeta function
- Hurwitz zeta function
- Selberg zeta function
- zeta regularized product
- determinants of Laplacians
- series associated with the zeta functions