Exponential synchronization of the coupling delayed switching complex dynamical networks via impulsive control
© Dai et al.; licensee Springer 2013
Received: 8 April 2013
Accepted: 10 June 2013
Published: 2 July 2013
In this paper, we investigate the exponential synchronization issue of coupling delayed switching complex dynamical networks via impulsive control. Basing on the Lyapunov functional method and establishing a new impulsive delay differential inequality, we derive some sufficient conditions which depend on delay and impulses to guarantee the exponential synchronization of the coupling delay switching complex dynamical network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.
During the last two decades, synchronization and control problems of complex dynamical networks have been focused on in many different fields such as mathematics, engineering, social and economic science, etc. [1–8]. Many effective methods, like feedback control, adaptive control, sampled-data control and impulsive control, are used to stabilize and synchronize a coupled complex dynamical network. At the same time, a wide variety of synchronization criteria have also been presented for different network coupling such as switch topology, time delays, impulsive characters, etc.
Up to now, plenty of researchers have devoted much effort to guarantee synchronization of complex dynamical networks with fixed topology [9–16]. However, in real situations, many complex systems may be subject to abrupt changes in their connection structure or network mode switching caused by some phenomena such as link failures, component failures or repairs, changing subsystem interconnections, and abrupt environmental disturbance, etc. Although some synchronization criteria of networks with uncertain topological structure and continuous time-varying topology have been studied, those methods may not work for the network topology when it becomes discontinued or changes very quickly [17, 18]. Hence, to study the synchronization of the switched networks is still very useful and meaningful. Because of this reason, the synchronization of a complex network with switching topology has attracted researchers’ interest [17–21]. Wang et al.  provided several synchronization criteria for switched networks, in which synchronization could be evaluated by the time average of the second smallest eigenvalue that corresponded to the Laplacians matrix of switching topology. Authors in  studied the local and global exponential synchronization of switched networks with time-varying coupling delays, whose inner and outer coupling matrices take values in two finite sets of matrices via a switching signal. An adaptive controller was designed to synchronize a switched network under arbitrary switching in . Yu et al.  explored the synchronization of switched neural networks, and some sufficient conditions were given to guarantee the global synchronization. Jia et al.  investigated the leader-following problem of network, in which the network topology is assumed to be arbitrarily switched among a finite set of topologies, and time-varying delay exists in the coupling of agents.
In many systems, the impulsive effects are common phenomena due to instantaneous perturbations at certain moments. In general, there are two kinds of impulse in terms of synchronization in complex dynamical networks: desynchronizing impulse and synchronizing impulse . In previous literature, most of the results were devoted to investigating the desynchronizing impulse (the impulsive effect can suppress the synchronization of the complex dynamical networks) [23–26]. The global exponential synchronization was studied for linear coupled neural networks with impulsive disturbances in . Zhu et al. gave some global impulsive exponential synchronization criteria for time-delayed coupled chaotic systems . In , some impulsive control schemes were given to guarantee the consensus of nonlinear multi-agent systems with switching topology. Yang and Cao  studied the exponential synchronization of a coupling delay complex dynamical network with impulsive effects and proved that the network can achieve synchronization for a desynchronizing impulse. All of them have a common feature that the network must be synchronous. As we all know that the network is not always synchronous, there are some factors that will lead to an unstable network such as the change of topology structure, time delays and low strength of the coupling. Impulsive control (synchronizing impulse) may give an efficient method to deal with a dynamical system which is unstable. It is worth mentioning that synchronization and the control problems in complex networks with fix topology and synchronizing impulse have been widely studied [23, 27–29], but research into switched topology and synchronizing impulse is rare.
In this paper, we investigate the problem of exponential synchronization of a switching complex dynamical network via impulsive control. The contribution of this paper is to propose a new impulsive delay differential inequality. By utilizing the Lyapunov stability and impulsive control theory on delayed dynamical networks, some sufficient conditions of exponential synchronization for a switching complex dynamical network are presented. It shows that impulsive controller (synchronizing impulsive) can control the coupling delay switching complex dynamical network to a homogenous solution. Numerical simulations are given to show the validity of the developed results.
2 Model and preliminaries
where is the state vector of node i; is a continuous vector value function, is the coupling strength, τ is a coupling delay; is an inner coupling matrix between the two connected nodes; is a switching signal, which is a piecewise constant function; is a Laplacian matrix associated with the switching function , in which the entries of matrix are defined as follows: if nodes i and j () are connected, then ; otherwise, , and the diagonal entries of matrix are defined by . Note that the coupling matrix is not assumed to be irreducible; is the i th node impulsive gain at . The discrete set satisfies , as , note , and .
We assume that the network (1) satisfies the following initial conditions: .
which is the synchronization state for the network (1), where and .
Remark 1 In general, the synchronization state may be an equilibrium point, a periodic orbit, or a chaotic attractor. In this paper, we did not need to be the left eigenvector of coupling matrix G corresponding to eigenvalue 0.
for all initial conditions and .
for some , all and .
Remark 2 It is easy to verify that the function class QUAD exists in almost all the well-known chaotic systems with or without time delays such as Lorenz systems, Rössler system, Chen system, Chua’s circuit, delayed Hopfield neural networks and delayed cellular neural networks (cNN), etc.
where and .
In order to derive the main results, it is necessary to propose the following lemmas.
The proof is given in the Appendix.
Lemma 2 
share the same eigenvalues, where indicates the N dimensional identity matrix and .
3 Main result
In this section, we investigate the exponential synchronization of error system (4), in which coupling matrix is divided into two cases: symmetric or asymmetric. Some new criteria are presented for the exponential synchronization of the network (1) based on the Lyapunov functional method, linear matrix inequality approach and establishing an impulsive delay differential inequality.
Case 1. Asymmetric connected of switching topology
where , , , , and .
Proof Condition (3) of Theorem 1 implies that the impulsive gains .
where and .
Hence, , where .
The proof of Theorem 1 is completed. □
If the switching signal , then the network (1) has only one coupling matrix G. Suppose G is irreducible and is the left eigenvector of coupling matrix G corresponding to eigenvalue 0. By the proof of Theorem 1, we can derive the exponential synchronization criteria of the network (1) with only one topology, which is given as follows.
where , , , , and .
Remark 3 The result of Theorem 2 in  must satisfy , where . However, for almost chaotic systems there exists j such that . It means that the condition of Theorem 2 (in ) is not true. In Corollary 1 of this paper, there exists such that . So, Corollary 1 is more common than Theorem 2 in .
Case 2. Symmetric connected of switching topology
then the network (1) is exponential synchronization, where , , , , , and are the eigenvalues of matrices .
It is clear that .
So, , where .
The proof of Theorem 2 is completed. □
Let impulsive gains , and choose the synchronization state . By the proof of Theorem 2, we can derive the exponential synchronization criteria of the network (1) with the fixed impulsive gain, which is given as follows.
where , , , and are the eigenvalues of matrices .
4 Numerical simulation
In this section, we give two numerical simulations to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the theoretical results presented in the previous sections.
where , and .
In this paper, by establishing an impulsive delay differential inequality, the exponential synchronization of the coupling delay switching complex networks has been investigated. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, some simple yet generic criteria for exponential synchronization have been derived. It shows that criteria can provide an effective impulsive control scheme to synchronize for an arbitrary given switch topology. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the presented method has been verified by numerical simulations.
We shall show this by induction.
In view of (16), we see that (15) holds when . Under the inductive assumption that (15) holds for some , we shall show that (15) still holds for .
That is, (15) holds for . Hence, by induction, (15) holds for all .
The proof is complete. □
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61075060 and 61273220), the Key Foundation Project of Shanghai (12JC1400400) and the Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (12zz064, 13zz050).
- Strogatz SH: Exploring complex networks. Nature 2001, 410: 268-276. 10.1038/35065725View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Boccaletti S, Latora V, Moreno Y, Chevez M, Hwang DU: Complex networks: structure and dynamics. Phys. Rep. 2006, 424: 175-308. 10.1016/j.physrep.2005.10.009MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Arenas A, Guilera A, Kurths J, Morenob Y, Zhoug CS: Synchronization in complex networks. Phys. Rep. 2008, 469: 93-153. 10.1016/j.physrep.2008.09.002MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li Z, Chen G: Global synchronization and asymptotic stability of complex dynamical networks. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Express Briefs 2006, 53: 28-33.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou WN, Tong DB, Gao Y, Ji C, Su HY: Mode and delay-dependent adaptive exponential synchronization in p th moment for stochastic delayed neural networks with Markovian switching. IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst. 2012, 4: 662-668.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang X, Chen G: Synchronization in small-world dynamical networks. Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos 2002, 12: 187-192. 10.1142/S0218127402004292View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shen B, Wang Z, Liu X: Bounded H-infinity synchronization and state estimation for discrete time-varying stochastic complex networks over a finite-horizon. IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 2011, 22: 145-157.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shen B, Wang Z, Liu X: Sampled-data synchronization control of complex dynamical networks with stochastic sampling. IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 2012, 57: 2644-2650.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lü JH, Chen GR: A time-varying complex dynamical network mode and its controlled synchronization criteria. IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 2005, 50: 841-846.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lü JH, Yu XH, Chen GR: Chaos synchronization of general complex dynamical networks. Physica A 2004, 334: 281-302. 10.1016/j.physa.2003.10.052MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li CG, Chen GR: Synchronization in general complex dynamical networks with coupling delays. Physica A 2004, 343: 263-278.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu W, Chen T: Global synchronization criteria of linearly coupled neural network systems with time-varying coupling. IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 2008, 19: 319-332.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao J, Lu J, Wu X: Pinning control of general complex dynamical networks with optimization. Sci. China Ser. F: Inf. Sci. 2010, 53: 813-822.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Wu C: Synchronization in arrays of coupled nonlinear systems with delay and nonreciprocal time-varying coupling. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 2005, 52: 282-286.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu W, Chen T: Synchronization of coupling connected neural networks with delays. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 2004, 51: 2491-2503. 10.1109/TCSI.2004.838308View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu X, Chen T: Exponential synchronization of nonlinear coupled dynamical networks with a delayed coupling. Physica A 2007, 381: 82-92.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang L, Wang Q: Synchronization in complex networks with switching topology. Phys. Lett. A 2011, 375: 3070-3074. 10.1016/j.physleta.2011.06.054View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu T, Zhao J, Hill DJ: Exponential synchronization of complex delayed dynamical networks with switching topology. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 2010, 57: 2967-2980.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yao J, Hill DJ, Guan Z, Wang H: Synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology via adaptive control. Proceedings of the 45th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control 2006, 2819-2824.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu W, Cao J: Synchronization control of switched linearly coupled neural networks with delay. Phys. Lett. A 2010, 375: 3070-3074.Google Scholar
- Jia Q, Tang W, Halang WA: Leader following of nonlinear agents with switching connective network and coupling delay. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 2011, 58: 2508-2519.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu JQ, Ho DWC, Hill J, Cao JD: A unified synchronization criterion for impulsive dynamical networks. Automatica 2010, 46: 1215-1221. 10.1016/j.automatica.2010.04.005View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu JQ, Ho DWC, Cao J: Exponential synchronization of linearly coupled neural networks with impulsive effects. IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 2011, 22: 329-335.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu W, Xu D, Huang Y: Global impulsive exponential synchronization of time-delayed coupled chaotic systems. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2008, 35: 904-912. 10.1016/j.chaos.2006.05.078View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang H, Bi Q, Zheng S: Impulsive consensus in directed networks of identical nonlinear oscillators with switching topologies. Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 2012, 17: 378-387. 10.1016/j.cnsns.2011.04.030MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang Y, Cao J: Exponential synchronization of the complex dynamical networks with a coupling delay and impulsive effects. Nonlinear Anal., Real World Appl. 2010, 11: 1650-1659. 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2009.03.020MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cai S, Zhao J, Xiang L, Liu Z: Robust impulsive synchronization of complex delayed dynamical networks. Phys. Lett. A 2008, 372: 4990-4995. 10.1016/j.physleta.2008.05.077View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li K, Lai C: Adaptive-impulsive synchronization of uncertain complex dynamical networks. Phys. Lett. A 2008, 372: 1601-1606. 10.1016/j.physleta.2007.10.020MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou J, Wu QJ, Xiang L: Pinning complex delayed dynamical networks by a single impulsive controller. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 2011, 58: 2882-2893.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xia W, Cao J: Pinning synchronization of delayed dynamical networks via periodically intermittent control. Chaos 2009., 19: Article ID 013120Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.