- Open Access
Trigonometric approximation of functions belonging to Lipschitz class by matrix () operator of conjugate series of Fourier series
© Mishra et al.; licensee Springer 2013
- Received: 18 January 2013
- Accepted: 19 April 2013
- Published: 3 May 2013
In the present paper, a new theorem on the degree of approximation of a function , conjugate to a 2π periodic function f belonging to the Lipα () class without the monotonicity condition on the generating sequence has been established, which in turn generalizes the results of Lal (Appl. Math. Comput. 209: 346-350, 2009) on a Fourier series.
MSC:40G05, 41A10, 42B05, 42B08.
- conjugate Fourier series
- () class
- degree of approximation
- product summability transform
The degree of approximation of functions belonging to Lipα, , and , -classes through trigonometric Fourier approximation using different summability matrices with monotone rows has been proved by various investigators like Khan , Mittal et al. [2, 3], Mittal, Rhoades and Mishra , Qureshi , Chandra , Leindler , Rhoades et al. . Recently Lal  has proved a theorem on the degree of approximation of a function f belonging to the Lipα () class by summability method of its Fourier series. Lal  has assumed monotonicity on the generating sequence . The approximation of a function , conjugate to a 2π periodic function to () using product ()-summability has not been studied so far. In this paper, we obtain a new theorem on the degree of approximation of a function , conjugate to a 2π periodic function () class without monotonicity condition on the generating sequence .
the Nörlund summability reduces to the familiar summability.
The product of summability with a summability defines summability. Thus the mean is given by .
with th partial sum called the trigonometric polynomial of degree (order) n of the first () terms of the Fourier series of f.
-norm of a function is defined by .
and of a function is given by .
We note that and are also trigonometric polynomials of degree (or order) n.
where , , if , , which can be verified, is known as Abel’s transformation and will be used extensively in what follows.
, where τ denotes the greatest integer not exceeding , , .
In a recent paper Lal  obtained a theorem on the degree of approximation for a function belonging to the Lipschitz class Lipα using Cesàro-Nörlund -summability means of its Fourier series with non-increasing weights . He proved the following theorem.
Since , the e is not needed in (2.2) for the case (cf. [, p.6870]).
Remark 2 Lal  has used the monotonicity condition on the generating sequence in the proof of Theorem 2.1 but has not mentioned it in the statement.
The theory of approximation is a very extensive field and the study of theory of trigonometric approximation is of great mathematical interest and of great practical importance. It is well known that the theory of approximations, i.e., TFA, which originated from a well-known theorem of Weierstrass, has become an exciting interdisciplinary field of study for the last 130 years. These approximations have assumed important new dimensions due to their wide applications in signal analysis  in general and in digital signal processing  in particular, in view of the classical Shannon sampling theorem. Mittal et al. [2–4, 14] have obtained many interesting results on TFA using summability methods without monotonicity on the rows of the matrix T: a digital filter. Broadly speaking, signals are treated as functions of one variable and images are represented by functions of two variables. But till now, nothing seems to have been done so far to obtain the degree of approximation of conjugate of a function using product summability method of its conjugate series of a Fourier series. The observations of Remarks 1 and 2 motivated us to determine a proper set of conditions to prove Theorem 2.1 on the conjugate series of its Fourier series. The series, conjugate to a Fourier series, is not necessarily a Fourier series. Hence a separate study of conjugate series is desirable, which attracted the attention of researchers.
Therefore, the purpose of present paper is to establish a quite new theorem on the degree of approximation of a function , conjugate to a 2π-periodic function f belonging to the Lipα () class by means of conjugate series of its Fourier series without monotonicity on the generating sequence (that is, weakening the conditions on the filter, we improve the quality of a digital filter [, p.4485]). More precisely, we prove the following theorem.
Thus the condition (3.1) holds for a non-increasing sequence . Hence our Theorem 3.1 generalizes Theorem 2.1 on conjugate series of its Fourier series.
Note 1 The product transform plays an important role in signal theory as a double digital filter .
We need the following lemmas for the proof of our theorem.
This completes the proof of Lemma 1. □
Lemma 2 for .
This completes the proof of Lemma 2. □
in view of , for .
by virtue of the fact that , , and .
in view of (3.1) and .
Finally, collecting (4.1), (4.2) and (4.6) yields Lemma 3.
This completes the proof of Lemma 3. □
This completes the proof of Theorem 3.1.
Several results concerning the degree of approximation of periodic signals (functions) belonging to the Lipschitz class by Matrix Operator have been reviewed and the condition of monotonicity on the generating sequence has been relaxed. Further, a proper set of conditions has been discussed to rectify the errors and applications pointed out in Remarks 1 and 2. Some interesting applications of the operator used in this paper were pointed out in Note 1.
Dedicated to Professor Hari M Srivastava.
This research work is supported by CPDA, SVNIT, Surat, India. The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions, which substantially improved the standard of the paper. Special thanks are due to Prof. Hari Mohan Srivastava, for kind cooperation, smooth behavior during communication and for his efforts to send the reports of the manuscript timely.
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