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Existence solutions for boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional qdifference equations
Advances in Difference Equations volume 2013, Article number: 113 (2013)
Abstract
In this paper, we discuss the existence of weak solutions for a nonlinear boundary value problem of fractional qdifference equations in Banach space. Our analysis relies on the Mönch’s fixedpoint theorem combined with the technique of measures of weak noncompactness.
MSC:26A33, 34B15.
1 Introduction
Fractional differential calculus is a discipline to which many researchers are dedicating their time, perhaps because of its demonstrated applications in various fields of science and engineering [1]. Many researchers studied the existence of solutions to fractional boundary value problems, for example, [2–10].
The qdifference calculus or quantum calculus is an old subject that was initially developed by Jackson [11, 12]; basic definitions and properties of qdifference calculus can be found in [13, 14].
The fractional qdifference calculus had its origin in the works by AlSalam [15] and Agarwal [16]. More recently, maybe due to the explosion in research within the fractional differential calculus setting, new developments in this theory of fractional qdifference calculus were made, for example, qanalogues of the integral and differential fractional operators properties such as MittageLeffler function [17], just to mention some.
ElShahed and Hassan [18] studied the existence of positive solutions of the qdifference boundary value problem:
Ferreira [19] considered the existence of positive solutions to nonlinear qdifference boundary value problem:
Ferreira [20] studied the existence of positive solutions to nonlinear qdifference boundary value problem:
ElShahed and AlAskar [21] studied the existence of positive solutions to nonlinear qdifference equation:
where $\gamma ,\beta \ge 0$ and ${}_{C}D_{q}$ is the fractional qderivative of the Caputo type.
Ahmad, Alsaedi and Ntouyas [22] discussed the existence of solutions for the secondorder qdifference equation with nonseparated boundary conditions
where $f\in C(I\times \mathbb{R},\mathbb{R})$, $I=[0,T]\cap {q}^{\overline{\mathbb{N}}}$, ${q}^{\overline{\mathbb{N}}}:=\{{q}^{n}:n\in \mathbb{N}\}\cup \{0\}$, and $T\in {q}^{\overline{\mathbb{N}}}$ is a fixed constant, and $\eta \ne 1$ is a fixed real number.
Ahmad and Nieto [23] discussed a nonlocal nonlinear boundary value problem (BVP) of thirdorder qdifference equations given by
where $f\in C({I}_{q}\times \mathbb{R},\mathbb{R})$, ${I}_{q}=\{0,1\}\cup \{{q}^{n}:n\in \mathbb{N}\}$, and $q\in (0,1)$ is a fixed constant, $\eta \in \{{q}^{n}:n\in \mathbb{N}\}$ and $\alpha \ne 1/{\eta}^{2}$ is a real number.
This paper is mainly concerned with the existence results for the following fractional qdifference equations:
where $\gamma ,\beta \ge 0$ and ${}_{C}D_{q}$ is the fractional qderivative of the Caputo type. $f:J\times E\to E$ is a given function satisfying some assumptions that will be specified later, and E is a Banach space with norm $\parallel u\parallel $.
To investigate the existence of solutions of the problem above, we use Mönch’s fixedpoint theorem combined with the technique of measures of weak noncompactness, which is an important method for seeking solutions of differential equations. This technique was mainly initiated in the monograph of Banaś and Goebel [24], and subsequently developed and used in many papers; see, for example, Banaś et al. [25], Guo et al. [26], Krzyska and Kubiaczyk [27], Lakshmikantham and Leela [28], Mönch [29], O’Regan [30, 31], Szufla [32, 33] and the references therein. As far as we know, there are very few results devoted to weak solutions of nonlinear fractional differential equations [34–38]. Motivated by the above mentioned papers, the purpose of this paper is to establish the existence results for the boundary value problem (1.1) by virtue of the Mönch’s fixedpoint theorem combined with the technique of measures of weak noncompactness.
The remainder of this article is organized as follows. In Section 2, we provide some basic definitions, preliminaries facts and various lemmas, which are needed later. In Section 3, we give main results of the problem (1.1). In the end, we also give an example for the illustration of the theories established in this paper.
2 Preliminaries and lemmas
In this section, we present some basic notations, definitions and preliminary results, which will be used throughout this paper.
Let $q\in (0,1)$ and define [13]
The qanalogue of the power ${(ab)}^{n}$ is
If α is not a positive integer, then
Note that if $b=0$, then ${a}^{(\alpha )}={a}^{\alpha}$. The qgamma function is defined by
and satisfies ${\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{q}(x+1)={[x]}_{q}{\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{q}(x)$.
The qderivative of a function f is here defined by
and qderivatives of higher order by
The qintegral of a function f defined in the interval $[0,b]$ is given by
If $a\in [0,b]$ and f is defined in the interval $[0,b]$, its integral from a to b is defined by
Similarly, as done for derivatives, an operator ${I}_{q}^{n}$ can be defined, namely,
The fundamental theorem of calculus applies to these operators ${I}_{q}$ and ${D}_{q}$, that is,
and if f is continuous at $x=0$, then
Basic properties of the two operators can be found in the book mentioned in [13]. We now point out three formulas that will be used later (${}_{i}D_{q}$ denotes the derivative with respect to variable i) [19]
Remark 2.1 We note that if $\alpha >0$ and $a\le b\le t$, then ${(ta)}^{(\alpha )}\ge {(tb)}^{(\alpha )}$ [19].
Let $J:=[0,1]$ and ${L}^{1}(J,E)$ denote the Banach space of realvalued Lebesgue integrable functions on the interval J, ${L}^{\mathrm{\infty}}(J,E)$ denote the Banach space of realvalued essentially bounded and measurable functions defined over J with the norm ${\parallel \cdot \parallel}_{{L}^{\mathrm{\infty}}}$.
Let E be a real reflexive Banach space with norm $\parallel \cdot \parallel $ and dual ${E}^{\ast}$, and let $(E,\omega )=(E,\sigma (E,{E}^{\ast}))$ denote the space E with its weak topology. Here, $C(J,E)$ is the Banach space of continuous functions $x:J\to E$ with the usual supremum norm ${\parallel x\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}:=sup\{\parallel x(t)\parallel :t\in J\}$.
Moreover, for a given set V of functions $v:J\mapsto \mathbb{R}$, let us denote by $V(t)=\{v(t):v\in V\},t\in J$, and $V(J)=\{v(t):v\in V,t\in J\}$.
Definition 2.1 A function $h:E\to E$ is said to be weakly sequentially continuous if h takes each weakly convergent sequence in E to a weakly convergent sequence in E (i.e. for any ${({x}_{n})}_{n}$ in E with ${x}_{n}(t)\to x(t)$ in $(E,\omega )$ then $h({x}_{n}(t))\to h(x(t))$ in $(E,\omega )$ for each $t\to J$).
Definition 2.2 [39]
The function $x:J\to E$ is said to be Pettis integrable on J if and only if there is an element ${x}_{J}\in E$ corresponding to each $I\subset J$ such that $\phi ({x}_{I})={\int}_{I}\phi (x(s))\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}ds$ for all $\phi \in {E}^{\ast}$, where the integral on the right is supposed to exist in the sense of Lebesgue. By definition, ${x}_{I}={\int}_{I}x(s)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}ds$.
Let $P(J,E)$ be the space of all Evalued Pettis integrable functions in the interval J.
Lemma 2.1 [39]
If $x(\cdot )$ is Pettis integrable and $h(\cdot )$ is a measurable and an essentially bounded realvalued function, then $x(\cdot )h(\cdot )$ is Pettis integrable.
Definition 2.3 [40]
Let E be a Banach space, ${\mathrm{\Omega}}_{E}$ the set of all bounded subsets of E, and ${B}_{1}$ the unit ball in E. The De Blasi measure of weak noncompactness is the map $\beta :{\mathrm{\Omega}}_{E}\to [0,\mathrm{\infty})$ defined by
Lemma 2.2 [40]
The De Blasi measure of noncompactness satisfies the following properties:

(a)
$S\subset T\Rightarrow \beta (S)\le \beta (T)$;

(b)
$\beta (S)=0\iff S$ is relatively weakly compact;

(c)
$\beta (S\cup T)=max\{\beta (S),\beta (T)\}$;

(d)
$\beta ({\overline{S}}^{\omega})=\beta (S)$, where ${\overline{S}}^{\omega}$ denotes the weak closure of S;

(e)
$\beta (S+T)\le \beta (S)+\beta (T)$;

(f)
$\beta (aS)=a\alpha (S)$;

(g)
$\beta (conv(S))=\beta (S)$;

(h)
$\beta ({\bigcup}_{\lambda \le h}\lambda S)=h\beta (S)$.
The following result follows directly from the HahnBanach theorem.
Lemma 2.3 Let E be a normed space with ${x}_{0}\ne 0$. Then there exists $\phi \in {E}^{\ast}$ with $\parallel \phi \parallel =1$ and $\phi ({x}_{0})=\parallel {x}_{0}\parallel $.
Definition 2.4 [16]
Let $\alpha \ge 0$ and f be a function defined on $[0,1]$. The fractional qintegral of the RiemannLiouville type is ${(}_{\mathit{RL}}{I}_{q}^{0}f)(x)=f(x)$ and
Definition 2.5 [14]
The fractional qderivative of the RiemannLiouville type of order $\alpha \ge 0$ is defined by ${(}_{\mathit{RL}}{D}_{q}^{0}f)(x)=f(x)$ and
where $[\alpha ]$ is the smallest integer greater than or equal to α.
Definition 2.6 [14]
The fractional qderivative of the Caputo type of order $\alpha \ge 0$ is defined by
where $[\alpha ]$ is the smallest integer greater than or equal to α.
Lemma 2.4 [14]
Let $\alpha ,\beta \ge 0$ and let f be a function defined on $[0,1]$. Then the next formulas hold:

(1)
$({I}_{q}^{\beta}{I}_{q}^{\alpha}f)(x)=({I}_{q}^{\alpha +\beta}f)(x)$,

(2)
$({D}_{q}^{\beta}{I}_{q}^{\alpha}f)(x)=f(x)$.
Lemma 2.5 [32]
Let D be a closed convex and equicontinuous subset of a metrizable locally convex vector space $C(J,E)$ such that $0\in D$. Assume that $A:D\to D$ is weakly sequentially continuous. If the implication
holds for every subset V of D, then A has a fixed point.
3 Main results
Let us start by defining what we mean by a solution of the problem (1.1).
Definition 3.1 A function $u\in C(J,{E}_{\omega})$ is said to be a solution of the problem (1.1) if u satisfies the equation ${}_{C}D_{q}^{\alpha}u+f(t,u)=0$ on J, and satisfy the conditions $u(0)=({D}_{q}^{2}u)(0)=0$, $\gamma ({D}_{q}u)(1)+\beta {D}_{q}^{2}u(1)=0$.
For the existence results on the problem (1.1), we need the following auxiliary lemmas.
Lemma 3.1 [19]
Let $\alpha >0$ and $n\in \mathbb{N}$. Then, the following equality holds:
Lemma 3.2 [14]
Let $\alpha >0$ and $n\in {\mathfrak{R}}^{+}\mathrm{\setminus}\mathbb{N}$. Then the following equality holds:
We derive the corresponding Green’s function for boundary value problem (1.1), which will play major role in our next analysis.
Lemma 3.3 Let $\rho \in C[0,1]$ be a given function, then the boundaryvalue problem
has a unique solution
where $G(t,s)$ is defined by the formula
Here, $G(t,s)$ is called the Green’s function of boundary value problem (3.1).
Proof By Lemma 2.4 and Lemma 3.2, we can reduce the equation of problem (3.1) to an equivalent integral equation
Applying the boundary conditions $u(0)=({D}_{q}^{2}u)(0)=0$, we have
So, we have
Then, by the condition $\gamma ({D}_{q}u)(1)+\beta {D}_{q}^{2}u(1)=0$, we have
Therefore, the unique solution of problem (3.1) is
which completes the proof. □
Remark 3.1 From the expression of $G(t,s)$, it is obvious that $G(t,s)$ is continuous on $J\times J$. Denote by
To prove the main results, we need the following assumptions:
(H1) For each $t\in J$, the function $f(t,\cdot )$ is weakly sequentially continuous;
(H2) For each $x\in C(J,E)$, the function $f(\cdot ,x(\cdot ))$ is Pettis integrable on J;
(H3) There exists ${p}_{f}\in {L}^{\mathrm{\infty}}(J,{\mathbb{R}}^{+})$ such that
(H3)′ There exists ${p}_{f}\in {L}^{\mathrm{\infty}}(J,{\mathbb{R}}^{+})$ and a continuous nondecreasing function $\psi :[0,\mathrm{\infty})\to (0,\mathrm{\infty})$ such that
(H4) For each bounded set $D\subset E$, and each $t\in J$, the following inequality holds:
(H5) There exists a constant $R>0$ such that
where ${\parallel {p}_{f}\parallel}_{{L}^{\mathrm{\infty}}}=sup\{{p}_{f}(t):t\in J\}$.
Theorem 3.1 Let E be a reflexive Banach space and assume that (H1)(H3) are satisfied. If
then the problem (1.1) has at least one solution on J.
Proof Let the operator $\mathcal{A}:C(J,E)\to C(J,E)$ defined by the formula
where $G(\cdot ,\cdot )$ is the Green’s function defined by (3.3). It is well known the fixed points of the operator $\mathcal{A}$ are solutions of the problem (1.1).
First notice that, for $x\in C(J,E)$, we have $f(\cdot ,x(\cdot ))\in P(J,E)$ (assumption (H2)). Since, $s\mapsto G(t,s)\in {L}^{\mathrm{\infty}}(J)$, then $G(t,\cdot )f(\cdot ,x(\cdot ))$ is Pettis integrable for all $t\in J$ by Lemma 2.1, and so the operator $\mathcal{A}$ is well defined.
Let $R>0$, and consider the set
Clearly, the subset D is closed, convex and equicontinuous. We shall show that $\mathcal{A}$ satisfies the assumptions of Lemma 2.5. The proof will be given in three steps.
Step 1: We will show that the operator $\mathcal{A}$ maps D into itself.
Take $x\in D$, $t\in J$ and assume that $\mathcal{A}x(t)\ne 0$. Then there exists $\psi \in {E}^{\ast}$ such that $\parallel \mathcal{A}x(t)\parallel =\psi (\mathcal{A}x(t))$. Thus,
Let ${\tau}_{1},{\tau}_{2}\in J$, ${\tau}_{1}<{\tau}_{2}$ and $\mathrm{\forall}x\in D$, so $\mathcal{A}x({\tau}_{2})\mathcal{A}x({\tau}_{1})\ne 0$. Then there exists $\psi \in {E}^{\ast}$, such that $\parallel \mathcal{A}x({\tau}_{2})\mathcal{A}x({\tau}_{1})\parallel =\psi (\mathcal{A}x({\tau}_{2})\mathcal{A}x({\tau}_{1}))$. Hence,
this means that $\mathcal{A}(D)\subset D$.
Step 2: We will show that the operator $\mathcal{A}$ is weakly sequentially continuous.
Let $({x}_{n})$ be a sequence in D and let $({x}_{n}(t))\to x(t)$ in $(E,w)$ for each $t\in J$. Fix $t\in J$. Since f satisfies assumptions (H1), we have $f(t,{x}_{n}(t))$ converge weakly uniformly to $f(t,x(t))$. Hence, the Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem for Pettis integrals implies $\mathcal{A}{x}_{n}(t)$ converges weakly uniformly to $\mathcal{A}x(t)$ in ${E}_{\omega}$. Repeating this for each $t\in J$ shows $\mathcal{A}{x}_{n}\to \mathcal{A}x$. Then $\mathcal{A}:D\to D$ is weakly sequentially continuous.
Step 3: The implication (2.1) holds. Now let V be a subset of D such that $V\subset \overline{conv}(\mathcal{A}(V)\cup \{0\})$. Clearly, $V(t)\subset \overline{conv}(\mathcal{A}(V)\cup \{0\})$ for all $t\in J$. Hence, $\mathcal{A}V(t)\subset \mathcal{A}D(t)$, $t\in J$, is bounded in E. Thus, $\mathcal{A}V(t)$ is weakly relatively compact since a subset of a reflexive Banach space is weakly relatively compact if and only if it is bounded in the norm topology. Therefore,
thus, V is relatively weakly compact in E. In view of Lemma 2.5, we deduce that $\mathcal{A}$ has a fixed point, which is obviously a solution of the problem (1.1). This completes the proof. □
Remark 3.2 In Theorem 3.1, we presented an existence result for weak solutions of the problem (1.1) in the case where the Banach space E is reflexive. However, in the nonreflexive case, conditions (H1)(H3) are not sufficient for the application of Lemma 2.5; the difficulty is with condition (2.1).
Theorem 3.2 Let E be a Banach space, and assume assumptions (H1), (H2), (H3), (H4) are satisfied. If (3.9) holds, then the problem (1.1) has at least one solution on J.
Theorem 3.3 Let E be a Banach space, and assume assumptions (H1), (H2), (H3)′, (H4), (H5) are satisfied. If (3.9) holds, then the problem (1.1) has at least one solution on J.
Proof Assume that the operator $\mathcal{A}:C(J,E)\to C(J,E)$ is defined by the formula (3.10). It is well known the fixed points of the operator $\mathcal{A}$ are solutions of the problem (1.1).
First notice that, for $x\in C(J,E)$, we have $f(\cdot ,x(\cdot ))\in P(J,E)$ (assumption (H2)). Since, $s\mapsto G(t,s)\in {L}^{\mathrm{\infty}}(J)$, then $G(t,\cdot )f(\cdot ,x(\cdot ))$ for all $t\in J$ is Pettis integrable (Lemma 2.1), and thus, the operator $\mathcal{A}$ makes sense.
Let $R>0$, and consider the set
clearly, the subset $\mathcal{D}$ is closed, convex and equicontinuous. We shall show that $\mathcal{A}$ satisfies the assumptions of Lemma 2.5. The proof will be given in three steps.
Step 1: We will show that the operator $\mathcal{A}$ maps $\mathcal{D}$ into itself.
Take $x\in \mathcal{D}$, $t\in J$ and assume that $\mathcal{A}x(t)\ne 0$. Then there exists $\psi \in {E}^{\ast}$ such that $\parallel \mathcal{A}x(t)\parallel =\psi (\mathcal{A}x(t))$. Thus,
Let ${\tau}_{1},{\tau}_{2}\in J$, ${\tau}_{1}<{\tau}_{2}$ and $\mathrm{\forall}x\in \mathcal{D}$, so $\mathcal{A}x({\tau}_{2})\mathcal{A}x({\tau}_{1})\ne 0$. Then there exist $\psi \in {E}^{\ast}$ such that
Thus,
this means that $\mathcal{A}(\mathcal{D})\subset \mathcal{D}$.
Step 2: We will show that the operator $\mathcal{A}$ is weakly sequentially continuous.
Let $({x}_{n})$ be a sequence in $\mathcal{D}$ and let $({x}_{n}(t))\to x(t)$ in $(E,w)$ for each $t\in J$. Fix $t\in J$. Since f satisfies assumptions (H1), we have $f(t,{x}_{n}(t))$, converging weakly uniformly to $f(t,x(t))$. Hence, the Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem for Pettis integral implies $\mathcal{A}{x}_{n}(t)$ converging weakly uniformly to $\mathcal{A}x(t)$ in ${E}_{\omega}$. We do it for each $t\in J$ so $\mathcal{A}{x}_{n}\to \mathcal{A}x$. Then $\mathcal{A}:\mathcal{D}\to \mathcal{D}$ is weakly sequentially continuous.
Step 3: The implication (2.1) holds. Now let V be a subset of $\mathcal{D}$ such that $V\subset \overline{conv}(\mathcal{A}(V)\cup \{0\})$. Clearly, $V(t)\subset \overline{conv}(\mathcal{A}(V)\cup \{0\})$ for all $t\in J$. Hence, $\mathcal{A}V(t)\subset \mathcal{A}\mathcal{D}(t)$, $t\in J$, is bounded in E. Using this fact, assumption (H4), Lemma 2.2 and the properties of the measure β, we have for each $t\in J$
which gives
This means that
By (3.9), it follows that ${\parallel v\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}=0$, that is $v(t)=0$ for each $t\in J$, and then $V(t)$ is relatively weakly compact in E. In view of Lemma 2.5, we deduce that $\mathcal{A}$ has a fixed point which is obviously a solution of the problem (1.1). This completes the proof. □
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Acknowledgements
Dedicated to Professor Hari M Srivastava.
This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11161027, 11262009). The authors are thankful to the referees for their careful reading of the manuscript and insightful comments.
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Zhou, W., Liu, H. Existence solutions for boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional qdifference equations. Adv Differ Equ 2013, 113 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/168718472013113
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Keywords
 boundary value problem
 fractional qdifference equations
 Caputo fractional derivative
 weak solutions