Solving certain classes of Lane-Emden type equations using the differential transformation method
© Khan et al.; licensee Springer 2012
Received: 4 August 2012
Accepted: 22 September 2012
Published: 5 October 2012
In this paper, the differential transformation method (DTM) is applied to solve singular initial problems represented by certain classes of Lane-Emden type equations. Some new differential transformation formulas for certain exponential and logarithmic nonlinearities are derived. The approximate and exact solutions of these equations are calculated in the form of series with easily computable terms. The results obtained with the proposed methods are in good agreement with those obtained by other methods. The advantages of this technique are shown as well.
where a, b are constants, is a continuous function and .
Many methods have been used to solve singular initial value problem (1), (2). For instance, Ramos  presented a series approach to the Lane-Emden equation and made comparisons with He’s homotopy perturbation method. Dehghan and Shakeri  were first to apply exponential transformation to the Lane-Emden equation in order to address the difficulty of a singular point at and solve the resulting nonsingular problem using the variational iteration method. Momoniat and Harley  obtained an approximate implicit solution by reducing the Lane-Emden equation to a first-order differential equation using Lie group analysis and determining a power series solution of the reduced equation. Approximate solutions of Lane-Emden type equations were presented by Shawagfeh  and Wazwaz [18–20] using the Adomian decomposition method which provides a convergent series solution. Recently Yang and Hou  proposed an approximation algorithm for the solution of a Lane-Emden type equation based on hybrid functions and the collocation method.
In this paper, the differential transformation method (DTM) is successfully applied to find an exact and approximate solution of Lane-Emden type equations with exponential and logarithmic nonlinearities. Some examples are given to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the presented method and a comparison with existing results is made.
1 Differential transformation method
The concept of differential transformation was first proposed by Zhou  in 1986 and it was applied to solve linear and non-linear initial value problems in electric circuit analysis. This method constructs a semi-analytical numerical technique that uses Taylor series for the solution of differential equations in the form of polynomials. It is different from the high-order Taylor series method which requires symbolic computation of the necessary derivatives of the data functions.
The method was used in a direct way without using linearization, perturbation or restrictive assumptions (see [1–5, 22–27]). Therefore, it is not affected by computation round-off errors and one is not faced with the necessities of large computer memory and time. This method, unlike most numerical techniques, provides an exact solution. A specific advantage of this method over any purely numerical method is that it offers a smooth, functional form of the solution over a time step.
In fact, inverse transformation (4) implies that the concept of differential transformation is derived from Taylor series expansion. Although DTM is not able to evaluate the derivatives symbolically, relative derivatives can be calculated in an iterative way which is described by the transformed equations of the original function.
From definitions (3), (4), we can derive the following:
The proof of Theorem 1 is available in .
2 Numerical applications
The proof is complete. □
with initial conditions .
Batiha , Gupta , Rafig et al. , Yildirim et al. , Parand et al.  obtained the same result by the variation iteration method, the homotopy perturbation method and the Hermite functions collocation method but using symbolic calculations as integral iterative functionals and solving differential equations of the second order.
with initial conditions .
In the cases of a linear combination of several nonlinearities, it is better to solve such type of equations as follows.
Equation (15) with the coefficient instead of has been solved by Chowdhury and Hashim  using the homotopy perturbation method and Adomian [18, 19] using the Adomian decomposition method. They obtained a closed form solution as well but with the help of many symbolic calculations.
because they came out only from linear approximations of exponential nonlinearities.
Now, we derive the differential transformation of the certain logarithmic nonlinearity of the Lane-Emden type equation which occurs in the stellar structure theory and the thermionic current theory (see [11, 13]).
The proof is complete. □
with initial conditions , .
as obtained by Chowdhury  by the homotopy perturbation method and by Wazwaz [19, 20] by the Adomian decomposition method. Disadvantage of both mentioned methods is solving many differential equations of the second order or complicated symbolic calculations of so-called Adomian polynomials.
Parand et al.  obtained a series solution of (24) (not in the closed form) using the Hermite functions collocation method.
The differential transformation method (DTM) is a reliable method applied by providing new theorems to develop exact and approximate solutions of Lane-Emden type equations with exponential and logarithmic nonlinearities. The results obtained with the proposed methods are in good agreement with those obtained by other methods. The main advantage of this method is that it can be applied directly to differential equations without requiring linearization, discretization or perturbation. Another important advantage is that this method is capable of greatly reducing the size of computational work and, as well, the proposed method reduces the solution of a problem to the solution of a system of recurrence algebraic equations. It may be concluded that DTM is very powerful and efficient in finding analytical as well as numerical solutions for wide classes of differential equations.
The second author is supported by the Grant FEKT-S-11-2-921 of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology. The third author is supported by the Grant P201/11/0768 of the Czech Grant Agency (Prague).
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