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# Stability of abstract dynamic equations on time scales

- Alaa E Hamza
^{1}Email author and - Karima M Oraby
^{2}

**2012**:143

https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-1847-2012-143

© Hamza and Oraby; licensee Springer 2012

**Received:**28 February 2012**Accepted:**25 July 2012**Published:**12 August 2012

## Abstract

In this paper, we investigate many types of stability, like uniform stability, asymptotic stability, uniform asymptotic stability, global stability, global asymptotic stability, exponential stability, uniform exponential stability, of the homogeneous first-order linear dynamic equations of the form

where *A* is the generator of a ${C}_{0}$-semigroup $\{T(t):t\in \mathbb{T}\}\subset L(X)$, the space of all bounded linear operators from a Banach space *X* into itself. Here, $\mathbb{T}\subseteq {\mathbb{R}}^{\ge 0}$ is a time scale which is an additive semigroup with the property that $a-b\in \mathbb{T}$ for any $a,b\in \mathbb{T}$ such that $a>b$. Finally, we give an illustrative example for a nonregressive homogeneous first-order linear dynamic equation and we investigate its stability.

## Keywords

- Dynamic Equation
- Asymptotic Stability
- Exponential Stability
- Global Asymptotic Stability
- Jump Operator

## 1 Introduction and preliminaries

The history of asymptotic stability of dynamic equations on a time scale goes back to Aulbach and Hilger [3]. For a real scalar dynamic equation, stability and instability results were obtained by Gard and Hoffacker [12]. Pötzche [20] provides sufficient conditions for the uniform exponential stability in Banach spaces, as well as spectral stability conditions for time-varying systems on time scales. Doan, Kalauch, and Siegmund [10] established a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of uniform exponential stability and characterized the uniform exponential stability of a system by the spectrum of its matrix. Properties of exponential stability of a time varying dynamic equation on a time scale have been also investigated recently by Bohner and Martynyuk [7], DaCunha [9], Du and Tien [11], Hoffacker and Tisdell [16], Martynyuk [17], and Peterson and Raffoul [19].

*t*is right-dense and left-dense at the same time for all $t\in \mathbb{T}$. Suppose that $\mathbb{T}$ has the topology inherited from the standard topology on $\mathbb{R}$. We define the time scale interval $[a,b]:=[a,b]\cap \mathbb{T}$. Open intervals and open neighborhoods are defined similarly. A set we need to consider is ${\mathbb{T}}^{k}$ which is defined as ${\mathbb{T}}^{k}=\mathbb{T}\mathrm{\setminus}\{M\}$ if $\mathbb{T}$ has a left-scattered maximum

*M*, and ${\mathbb{T}}^{k}=\mathbb{T}$ otherwise. A function $f:\mathbb{T}\u27f6X$ is called right dense continuous, or just rd-continuous, if

- (i)
*f*is continuous at every right-dense point $t\in \mathbb{T}$; - (ii)
${lim}_{s\u27f6{t}^{-}}f(s)$ exists (finite) for every left-dense point $t\in \mathbb{T}$.

The set of rd-continuous functions $f:\mathbb{T}\u27f6X$ will be denoted by ${C}_{\mathrm{rd}}={C}_{\mathrm{rd}}(\mathbb{T})={C}_{\mathrm{rd}}(\mathbb{T},X)$.

*α*such that for every $\u03f5>0$ there is a neighborhood

*U*of

*t*with

*α*by ${f}^{\mathrm{\Delta}}(t)$; and if

*f*is differentiable for every $t\in {\mathbb{T}}^{k}$, then

*f*is said to be differentiable on $\mathbb{T}$. If

*f*is differentiable at $t\in {\mathbb{T}}^{k}$, then it is easy to see that

where *F* is an antiderivative of *f*. Every rd-continuous function $f:\mathbb{T}\u27f6X$ has an antiderivative and $F(t)={\int}_{s}^{t}f(\tau )\mathrm{\Delta}\tau $ is an antiderivative of *f*, *i.e.*, ${F}^{\mathrm{\Delta}}(t)=f(t)$, $t\in {\mathbb{T}}^{k}$. Equations which include Δ-derivatives are called dynamic equations. We refer the reader to the very interesting monographs of Bohner and Peterson [5, 6].

**Definition 1.1**A mapping $A:\mathbb{T}\u27f6L(X)$ is called regressive if $I+\mu (t)A(t)$ is invertible for every $t\in \mathbb{T}$, and we say that

is regressive if *A* is regressive. We say that a real valued function $p(t)$ on $\mathbb{T}$ is regressive (resp. positively regressive) if $1+\mu (t)p(t)\ne 0$ (resp. $1+\mu (t)p(t)>0$), $t\in \mathbb{T}$. The family of all regressive functions (resp. positively regressive functions) is denoted by $\mathcal{R}$ (resp. ${\mathcal{R}}^{+}$).

This implies that the claim is true.

*X*is a Banach space. Finally, we assume that $T=\{T(t):t\in \mathbb{T}\}\subset L(X)$ is a ${C}_{0}$-semigroup on $\mathbb{T}$, that is, it satisfies

- (i)
$T(t+s)=T(t)T(s)$ for every $t,s\in \mathbb{T}$ (the semigroup property).

- (ii)
$T(0)=I$ (

*I*is the identity operator on*X*). - (iii)
${lim}_{t\u27f6{0}^{+}}T(t)x=x$ (

*i.e.*, $T(\cdot )x:\mathbb{T}\u27f6X$ is continuous at 0) for each $x\in X$.

*T*is called a uniformly continuous semigroup. A linear operator

*A*is called the generator [1] of a ${C}_{0}$-semigroup

*T*if

where the domain $D(A)$ of *A* is the set of all $x\in X$ for which the above limit exists uniformly in *t*. Clearly, when $\mathbb{T}={\mathbb{R}}^{\ge 0}$, the concept of the generator defined by relation (1.10) coincides with the classical definition by Hille. See [13].

when *A* is the generator of the ${C}_{0}$-semigroup *T*. When $\mathbb{T}={\mathbb{R}}^{\ge 0}$, we get the classical existence and uniqueness theorem of the abstract Cauchy problem (1.11); see [21]. The other results include some properties of *T* and its generator *A*, which we use in the subsequent sections. The solution $x(t)=x(t,\tau ,{x}_{\tau})$ is a function of the variables *t*, *τ* and the initial value ${x}_{\tau}$. Generally, we consider *τ* and ${x}_{\tau}$ as parameters. Therefore, when we investigate the asymptotic behavior of $x(t,\tau ,{x}_{\tau})$ with respect to $\mathbb{T}$, we must investigate whether or not the asymptotic behavior uniformly depends on *τ* or ${x}_{\tau}$. Accordingly, there are many types of stability which we give in Section 3.

where $A\in {C}_{\mathrm{rd}}\mathcal{R}(\mathbb{T},{M}_{n}(\mathbb{R}))$, $n\in \mathbb{N}$ and ${M}_{n}(\mathbb{R})$ is the family of all $n\times n$ real matrices is equivalent to the boundedness of all its solutions. DaCunha in [9] defined the concepts of uniform stability and uniform exponential stability. These two concepts involve the boundedness of the solutions of the regressive time varying linear dynamic Eq. (1.12). He established a characterization of uniform stability and uniform exponential stability in terms of the transition matrix for system (1.12). Also, he illustrated the relationship between the uniform asymptotic stability and the uniform exponential stability.

In Section 4, we extend these results for the case where *A* is the generator of *T* and we prove that the concepts of stability and uniform stability are same.

Sections 5 and 6 are devoted to establishing characterizations for many other types of stability, like asymptotic stability, uniform asymptotic stability, global asymptotic stability, exponential stability, and uniform exponential stability for the abstract Cauchy problem (1.11).

We end this paper with a new illustrative example including non-regressive dynamic equation and we investigate its stability.

## 2 The existence and uniqueness of solutions of dynamic equations

when *A* is the generator of a ${C}_{0}$-semigroup $T=\{T(t):t\in \mathbb{T}\}$.

At first, we establish some properties of *T* and its generator *A* which we use to arrive at our aim.

**Theorem 2.1**

*For*$x\in X$,

*the following statements are true*:

- 1.
*For*$t\in \mathbb{T}$,$\underset{s\u27f6t}{lim}\frac{1}{s-\sigma (t)}{\int}_{\sigma (t)}^{s}T(\tau )x\mathrm{\Delta}\tau =\underset{h\u27f60}{lim}\frac{1}{h-\mu (t)}{\int}_{\mu (t)+t}^{h+t}T(\tau )x\mathrm{\Delta}\tau $(2.2)

*and*

- 2.
*For*$t\in \mathbb{T}$,${\int}_{0}^{t}T(\tau )x\mathrm{\Delta}\tau \in D(A),$

*and*

*Proof*1. Set $f(t)={\int}_{0}^{t}T(\tau )x\mathrm{\Delta}\tau $. Then

- 2.Let $h>0$ be a number in $\mathbb{T}$. We have$\begin{array}{rl}A{\int}_{0}^{t}T(s)x\mathrm{\Delta}s& =\underset{h\u27f6{0}^{+}}{lim}\frac{1}{\mu (t)-h}[{\int}_{0}^{t}T(\mu (t)+s)x\mathrm{\Delta}s-{\int}_{0}^{t}T(h+s)x\mathrm{\Delta}s]\\ =\underset{h\u27f6{0}^{+}}{lim}\frac{1}{\mu (t)-h}[{\int}_{t+h}^{\mu (t)+t}T(s)x\mathrm{\Delta}s+{\int}_{\mu (t)}^{h}T(s)x\mathrm{\Delta}s]\\ =T(t)x-x\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\text{by Eqs. (2.3), (2.4).}\end{array}$

□

**Theorem 2.2**

*For*$x\in D(A)$,

*the following statements are true*:

- 1.
*For*$t\in \mathbb{T}$, $x(t)=T(t)x\in D(A)$*and*${x}^{\mathrm{\Delta}}(t)=AT(t)x=T(t)Ax.$(2.6) - 2.
*For*$t,s\in \mathbb{T}$,*we have*$T(t)x-T(s)x={\int}_{s}^{t}T(\tau )Ax\mathrm{\Delta}\tau $(2.7)

*and*

*Proof* 1. Let $x\in D(A)$. It is evident that $T(t)x\in D(A)$, $t\in \mathbb{T}$.

2. Relations (2.7) and (2.8) can be obtained by integrating both sides of Eq. (2.6) from *s* to *t*. Relation (2.9) follows from Eqs. (2.5) and (2.7). □

**Corollary 2.3** *If* *A* *is the generator of a* ${C}_{0}$-*semigroup* *T* *on* $\mathbb{T}$, *then* $D(A)$ *is dense in X and* *A* *is a closed linear operator*.

*Proof*For every $x\in X$ and fixed $t\in \mathbb{T}$, set

By the same theorem, ${x}_{h}\u27f6x$ as $h\u27f60$. So $\overline{D(A)}$, the closure of $D(A)$, is equal to *X*. The linearity of *A* is evident.

Dividing Eq. (2.11) by $h-\mu (t)$, $h>0$ and letting $h\u27f60$, we see, using identity (2.4), that $x\in D(A)$ and $Ax=y$. □

**Theorem 2.4**

*Equation*(2.1)

*has the unique solution*

*Proof*The existence of the solution $x(t)=T(t)x$ follows by Theorem 2.2. To prove the uniqueness, assume that $V(t)$ is another solution. Consider the function

from which we obtain that ${G}^{\mathrm{\Delta}}(s)=0$ on $[0,t[$. Then $G(t)=G(0)$, *i.e.* $V(t)=T(t)V(0)=T(t)x$. □

## 3 Types of stability

are presented, where $F\in {C}_{\mathrm{rd}}(\mathbb{T}\times X,X)$ and ${x}^{\mathrm{\Delta}}$ is the delta derivative of $x:\mathbb{T}\u27f6X$ with respect to $t\in {\mathbb{T}}^{k}$. See [8, 18].

**Definition 3.1** Equation (3.1) is said to be stable if, for every ${t}_{0}\in \mathbb{T}$ and for every $\u03f5>0$, there exists a $\delta =\delta (\u03f5,{t}_{0})>0$ such that, for any two solutions $x(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{x}_{0})$ and $\overline{x}(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{\overline{x}}_{0})$ of Eq. (3.1), the inequality $\parallel {x}_{0}-{\overline{x}}_{0}\parallel <\delta $ implies $\parallel x(t)-\overline{x}(t)\parallel <\u03f5$, for all $t\ge {t}_{0}$, $t\in \mathbb{T}$.

**Definition 3.2** Equation (3.1) is said to be uniformly stable if, for each $\u03f5>0$, there exists a $\delta =\delta (\u03f5)>0$ independent on any initial point ${t}_{0}$ such that, for any two solutions $x(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{x}_{0})$ and $\overline{x}(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{\overline{x}}_{0})$ of Eq. (3.1), the inequality $\parallel {x}_{0}-{\overline{x}}_{0}\parallel <\delta $ implies $\parallel x(t)-\overline{x}(t)\parallel <\u03f5$, for all $t\ge {t}_{0}$, $t\in \mathbb{T}$.

**Definition 3.3** Equation (3.1) is said to be asymptotically stable if it is stable and for every ${t}_{0}\in \mathbb{T}$, there exists a $\delta =\delta ({t}_{0})>0$ such that, the inequality $\parallel {x}_{0}\parallel <\delta $ implies ${lim}_{t\u27f6\mathrm{\infty}}\parallel x(t)\parallel =0$.

**Definition 3.4** Equation (3.1) is said to be uniformly asymptotically stable if it is uniformly stable and there exists a $\delta >0$ such that for every ${t}_{0}\in \mathbb{T}$ the inequality $\parallel {x}_{0}\parallel <\delta $ implies ${lim}_{t\u27f6\mathrm{\infty}}\parallel x(t)\parallel =0$, $t\in \mathbb{T}$.

**Definition 3.5** Equation (3.1) is said to be globally asymptotically stable if it is stable and for any solution $x(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{x}_{0})$ of Eq. (3.1), we have ${lim}_{t\u27f6\mathrm{\infty}}\parallel x(t)\parallel =0$.

**Definition 3.6** Equation (3.1) is said to be exponentially stable if there exists $\alpha >0$ with $-\alpha \in {\mathcal{R}}^{+}$ such that for every ${t}_{0}\in \mathbb{T}$, there is $\gamma =\gamma ({t}_{0})\ge 1$ such that, for any two solutions $x(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{x}_{0})$ and $\overline{x}(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{\overline{x}}_{0})$ of Eq. (3.1), we have $\parallel x(t)-\overline{x}(t)\parallel \le \gamma \parallel {x}_{0}-{\overline{x}}_{0}\parallel {e}_{-\alpha}(t,{t}_{0})$, for all $t\ge {t}_{0}$, $t\in \mathbb{T}$.

**Definition 3.7** Equation (3.1) is said to be uniformly exponentially stable if there exists $\alpha >0$ with $-\alpha \in {\mathcal{R}}^{+}$ and there is $\gamma \ge 1$ independent on any initial point ${t}_{0}$ such that, for any two solutions $x(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{x}_{0})$ and $\overline{x}(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{\overline{x}}_{0})$ of Eq. (3.1), we have $\parallel x(t)-\overline{x}(t)\parallel \le \gamma \parallel {x}_{0}-{\overline{x}}_{0}\parallel {e}_{-\alpha}(t,{t}_{0})$, for all $t\ge {t}_{0}$, $t\in \mathbb{T}$.

## 4 Characterization of stability and uniformly stability

*A*is the generator of

*T*. The initial value problem $CP(0)$ has the unique solution

In the following two lemmas, by linearity of $CP(0)$, we get an equivalent definition of stability and uniform stability of $CP(0)$.

**Lemma 4.1**

*The following statements are equivalent*:

- (i)
$CP(0)$

*is stable*; - (ii)
*For every*${t}_{0}\in \mathbb{T}$*and for every*$\u03f5>0$,*there exists*$\delta =\delta (\u03f5,{t}_{0})$*such that for any solution*$x(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{x}_{0})$*of*$CP(0)$,*we have*$\parallel {x}_{0}\parallel <\delta \phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\u27f9\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\parallel x(t)\parallel <\u03f5.$

**Lemma 4.2**

*The following statements are equivalent*:

- (i)
$CP(0)$

*is uniformly stable*; - (ii)
*For every*$\u03f5>0$*there exists*$\delta =\delta (\u03f5)$*such that for any solution*$x(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{x}_{0})$*of*$CP(0)$,*we have*$\parallel {x}_{0}\parallel <\delta \phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\u27f9\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\parallel x(t)\parallel <\u03f5.$

S. K. Choi, D. M. Im, and N. Koo in [8], Theorem 3.5] proved that the stability of (1.12) is equivalent to the boundedness of all its solutions when $A\in {C}_{\mathrm{rd}}\mathcal{R}(\mathbb{T},{M}_{n}(\mathbb{R}))$, $n\in \mathbb{N}$ where ${M}_{n}(\mathbb{R})$ is the family of all $n\times n$ real matrices. Also, DaCunha in [9] proved that the uniform stability of (1.12) is equivalent to the uniform boundedness of all its solutions with respect to the initial point ${t}_{0}$, when $A\in {C}_{\mathrm{rd}}\mathcal{R}(\mathbb{T},{M}_{n}(\mathbb{R}))$.

In the following theorem, we extend these results for the case where *A* is the generator of a ${C}_{0}$-semigroup *T* and we prove that the concepts of stability and uniform stability are the same.

**Theorem 4.3**

*The following statements are equivalent*:

- (i)
$CP(0)$

*is stable*. - (ii)
$\{T(t):t\in \mathbb{T}\}$

*is bounded*. - (iii)
$CP(0)$

*is uniformly stable*.

*Proof*(i) ⟹ (ii) Assume $CP(0)$ is stable. Let ${t}_{0}\in \mathbb{T}$. Fix $\u03f5=1$. There exists $\delta >0$ such that for any solution $x(t)=T(t-{t}_{0}){x}_{0}$, where ${x}_{0}\in D(A)$, we have

*i.e.*

*X*, by Corollary 2.3, implies that

- (ii)
⟹ (iii) Assume that there is $M>0$ such that $\parallel T(t)\parallel \le M$, $t\in \mathbb{T}$. Clearly, condition (ii) of Lemma 4.2 holds, because for $\u03f5>0$, choose $\delta =\u03f5/M$. □

## 5 A characterization of global asymptotic stability

In the following result, we establish necessary and sufficient conditions for $CP(0)$ to be globally asymptotically stable.

**Theorem 5.1**

*The following statement are equivalent*:

- (i)
$CP(0)$

*is asymptotically stable*; - (ii)
${lim}_{t\u27f6\mathrm{\infty}}\parallel T(t)x\parallel =0$,

*for every*$x\in X$; - (iii)
$CP(0)$

*is globally asymptotically stable*; - (iv)
$CP(0)$

*is uniformly asymptotically stable*.

*Proof*(i) ⟹ (ii) Suppose that $CP(0)$ is asymptotically stable. Let ${t}_{0}\in \mathbb{T}$. There exists $\gamma =\gamma ({t}_{0})>0$ such that any solution $x(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{x}_{0})$ of $CP(0)$ with initial value ${x}_{0}\in D(A)$, vanishes at ∞ whenever $\parallel {x}_{0}\parallel <\gamma $. Fix $0\ne x\in D(A)$. Then

*X*, we deduce that

- (ii)
⟹ (iii) Condition (ii) implies that $\{\parallel T(t)x\parallel :t\in \mathbb{T}\}$ is bounded for every $x\in X$. The uniform boundedness theorem insures the boundedness of $\{\parallel T(t)\parallel :t\in \mathbb{T}\}$. Consequently, $CP(0)$ is stable, and by our assumption, $CP(0)$ is globally asymptotically stable.

- (iii)
⟹ (iv) Condition (iii) implies that $\{\parallel T(t)x\parallel :t\in \mathbb{T}\}$ is bounded for every $x\in X$. Again the uniform boundedness theorem guarantees the boundedness of $\{\parallel T(t)\parallel :t\in \mathbb{T}\}$. Consequently, $CP(0)$ is uniformly stable by Theorem 4.3, and by our assumption, $CP(0)$ is uniformly asymptotically stable. □

## 6 A characterization of exponential stability and uniform exponential stability

We need the following lemmas to establish a characterization of the exponential stability of $CP(0)$. Their proofs are straightforward and will be omitted.

**Lemma 6.1**$CP(0)$

*is exponentially stable if and only if there exists*$\alpha >0$

*with*$-\alpha \in {\mathcal{R}}^{+}$

*such that for any*${t}_{0}\in \mathbb{T}$,

*there exists*$\gamma =\gamma ({t}_{0})\ge 1$

*such that for any solution*$x(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{x}_{0})$

*of*$CP(0)$

*with initial value*${x}_{0}\in D(A)$

*we have*

**Lemma 6.2**$CP(0)$

*is uniformly exponentially stable if and only if there exists*$\alpha >0$

*with*$-\alpha \in {\mathcal{R}}^{+}$

*and there exists*$\gamma \ge 1$

*such that for any*${t}_{0}\in \mathbb{T}$,

*and any solution*$x(t)=x(t,{t}_{0},{x}_{0})$

*of*$CP(0)$

*with initial value*${x}_{0}\in D(A)$

*we have*

In the following two theorems, we extend the results of DaCunha [9], Theorem 2.2] when $A\in {C}_{\mathrm{rd}}\mathcal{R}(\mathbb{T},{M}_{n}(\mathbb{R}))$ to the case where *A* is the generator of *T*.

**Theorem 6.3**

*The following statements are equivalent*:

- (i)
$CP(0)$

*is exponentially stable*; - (ii)
*There exists*$\alpha >0$*with*$-\alpha \in {\mathcal{R}}^{+}$*such that for any*${t}_{0}\in \mathbb{T}$,*there exists*$\gamma =\gamma ({t}_{0})\ge 1$*such that*$\parallel T(t)\parallel \le \gamma {e}_{-\alpha}(t+{t}_{0},{t}_{0}),\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}t\in \mathbb{T}.$

*Proof*(i) ⟹ (ii) Let $CP(0)$ be exponentially stable. Then there is $\alpha >0$ with $-\alpha \in {\mathcal{R}}^{+}$ such that for any ${t}_{0}\in \mathbb{T}$, there exists $\gamma =\gamma ({t}_{0})\ge 1$ such that for any solution $x(t)=T(t-{t}_{0}){x}_{0}$ of $CP(0)$ with initial value ${x}_{0}\in D(A)$, we have

*X*and Corollary 2.3, we obtain

□

By same way as in the proof of Theorem 6.3, we can obtain the following result.

**Theorem 6.4**

*The following statements are equivalent*:

- (i)
$CP(0)$

*is uniformly exponentially stable*; - (ii)
*There exists*$\alpha >0$*with*$-\alpha \in {\mathcal{R}}^{+}$*and there exists*$\gamma \ge 1$*such that for any*${t}_{0}\in \mathbb{T}$,$\parallel T(t)\parallel \le \gamma {e}_{-\alpha}(t+{t}_{0},{t}_{0}),\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}t\in \mathbb{T}.$

From Theorem 5.1 (Theorem 6.4), Lemma 6.1 (Lemma 6.2), and relation (1.7), we get the following result.

**Corollary 6.5** *If* $CP(0)$ *is* (*uniformly*) *exponentially stable*, *then* $CP(0)$ *is* (*uniformly*) *asymptotically stable*.

## 7 Example

*A*is regressive,

*i.e.*, $\mu (t)\ne \frac{1}{2}$ for all $t\in \mathbb{T}$. In this case the equation has the unique solution $x(t)={e}_{A}(t,0){x}_{0}$, where ${e}_{A}(t,0)$ is the matrix exponential function. It is given by

- (1)
If $\mathbb{T}={\mathbb{R}}^{\ge 0}$, then (7.1) is uniformly stable, exponentially stable and asymptotically stable, since $\parallel {e}_{A}(t,0)\parallel ={e}^{-2t}\u27f60$ as $t\u27f6\mathrm{\infty}$.

- (2)
If $\mathbb{T}={\mathbb{Z}}^{\ge 0}$, then (7.1) is uniformly stable but not asymptotically stable, since $\parallel {e}_{A}(t,0)\parallel =1$.

- (3)
If $\mathbb{T}=h{\mathbb{Z}}^{\ge 0}$ with $0<h<1$ and $h\ne \frac{1}{2}$, then (7.1) is not asymptotically stable. However, ${e}_{-2}(t,0)$ goes to zero as $t\u27f6\mathrm{\infty}$.

- (4)
If $\mathbb{T}=h{\mathbb{Z}}^{\ge 0}$ with $h>1$, then (7.1) is not asymptotically stable.

*A*is nonregressive and the matrix exponential function ${e}_{A}(t,0)$ does not exist. On the other hand,

*A*is the generator of the ${C}_{0}$-semigroup

Consequently, $\parallel T(t)\parallel =1$, $t\in \mathbb{T}$ which implies that Eq. (7.1) is uniformly stable but is not asymptotically stable.

## Declarations

## Authors’ Affiliations

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