 Research Article
 Open Access
 Published:
Existence of PseudoAlmost Automorphic Mild Solutions to Some Nonautonomous Partial Evolution Equations
Advances in Difference Equations volume 2011, Article number: 895079 (2010)
Abstract
We use the Krasnoselskii fixed point principle to obtain the existence of pseudo almost automorphic mild solutions to some classes of nonautonomous partial evolutions equations in a Banach space.
1. Introduction
Let be a Banach space. In the recent paper by Diagana [1], the existence of almost automorphic mild solutions to the nonautonomous abstract differential equations
where for is a family of closed linear operators with domains satisfying AcquistapaceTerreni conditions, and the function is almost automorphic in uniformly in the second variable, was studied. For that, the author made extensive use of techniques utilized in [2], exponential dichotomy tools, and the Schauder fixed point theorem.
In this paper we study the existence of pseudoalmost automorphic mild solutions to the nonautonomous partial evolution equations
where for is a family of linear operators satisfying AcquistpaceTerreni conditions and are pseudoalmost automorphic functions. For that, we make use of exponential dichotomy tools as well as the wellknown Krasnoselskii fixed point principle to obtain some reasonable sufficient conditions, which do guarantee the existence of pseudoalmost automorphic mild solutions to (1.2).
The concept of pseudoalmost automorphy is a powerful generalization of both the notion of almost automorphy due to Bochner [3] and that of pseudoalmost periodicity due to Zhang (see [4]), which has recently been introduced in the literature by Liang et al. [5–7]. Such a concept, since its introduction in the literature, has recently generated several developments; see, for example, [8–12]. The question which consists of the existence of pseudoalmost automorphic solutions to abstract partial evolution equations has been made; see for instance [10, 11, 13]. However, the use of Krasnoselskii fixed point principle to establish the existence of pseudoalmost automorphic solutions to nonautonomous partial evolution equations in the form (1.2) is an original untreated problem, which is the main motivation of the paper.
The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 is devoted to preliminaries facts related to the existence of an evolution family. Some preliminary results on intermediate spaces are also stated there. Moreover, basic definitions and results on the concept of pseudoalmost automorphy are also given. Section 3 is devoted to the proof of the main result of the paper.
2. Preliminaries
Let be a Banach space. If is a linear operator on the Banach space , then, , , , , and stand, respectively, for its domain, resolvent, spectrum, nullspace or kernel, and range. If is a linear operator, one sets for all .
If are Banach spaces, then the space denotes the collection of all bounded linear operators from into equipped with its natural topology. This is simply denoted by when . If is a projection, we set .
2.1. Evolution Families
This section is devoted to the basic material on evolution equations as well the dichotomy tools. We follow the same setting as in the studies of Diagana [1].
Assumption (H.1) given below will be crucial throughout the paper.
(H.1)The family of closed linear operators for on with domain (possibly not densely defined) satisfy the socalled AcquistapaceTerreni conditions, that is, there exist constants , , , and with such that
for , .
It should mentioned that (H.1) was introduced in the literature by Acquistapace et al. in [14, 15] for . Among other things, it ensures that there exists a unique evolution family
on associated with such that for all with , and

(a)
for such that ;

(b)
for where is the identity operator of ;

(c)
is continuous for ;

(d)
, and
(2.3)for , ;

(e)
for and with .
It should also be mentioned that the abovementioned proprieties were mainly established in [16, Theorem 2.3] and [17, Theorem 2.1]; see also [15, 18]. In that case we say that generates the evolution family . For some nice works on evolution equations, which make use of evolution families, we refer the reader to, for example, [19–29].
Definition 2.1.
One says that an evolution family has an exponential dichotomy (or is hyperbolic) if there are projections that are uniformly bounded and strongly continuous in and constants and such that

(f)
;

(g)
the restriction of is invertible (we then set );

(h)
and for and .
Under AcquistpaceTerreni conditions, the family of operators defined by
are called Green function corresponding to and .
This setting requires some estimates related to . For that, we introduce the interpolation spaces for . We refer the reader to the following excellent books [30–32] for proofs and further information on theses interpolation spaces.
Let be a sectorial operator on (for that, in assumption (H.1), replace with ) and let . Define the real interpolation space
which, by the way, is a Banach space when endowed with the norm . For convenience we further write
Moreover, let of . In particular, we have the following continuous embedding:
for all , where the fractional powers are defined in the usual way.
In general, is not dense in the spaces and . However, we have the following continuous injection:
for .
Given the family of linear operators for , satisfying (H.1), we set
for and , with the corresponding norms.
Now the embedding in (2.7) holds with constants independent of . These interpolation spaces are of class [32, Definition 1.1.1], and hence there is a constant such that
We have the following fundamental estimates for the evolution family .
Proposition 2.2 (see [33]).
Suppose that the evolution family has exponential dichotomy. For , , and , the following hold.

(i)
There is a constant , such that
(2.11) 
(ii)
There is a constant , such that
(2.12)
In addition to above, we also assume that the next assumption holds.
(H.2)The domain is constant in . Moreover, the evolution family generated by has an exponential dichotomy with constants and dichotomy projections for .
2.2. PseudoAlmost Automorphic Functions
Let denote the collection of all valued bounded continuous functions. The space equipped with its natural norm, that is, the sup norm is a Banach space. Furthermore, denotes the class of continuous functions from into .
Definition 2.3.
A function is said to be almost automorphic if, for every sequence of real numbers , there exists a subsequence such that
is well defined for each , and
for each .
If the convergence above is uniform in , then is almost periodic in the classical Bochner's sense. Denote by the collection of all almost automorphic functions . Note that equipped with the supnorm turns out to be a Banach space.
Among other things, almost automorphic functions satisfy the following properties.
Theorem 2.4 (see [34]).
If , then

(i)
,

(ii)
for any scalar ,

(iii)
, where is defined by ,

(iv)
the range is relatively compact in , thus is bounded in norm,

(v)
if uniformly on , where each , then too.
Let be another Banach space.
Definition 2.5.
A jointly continuous function is said to be almost automorphic in if is almost automorphic for all ( being any bounded subset). Equivalently, for every sequence of real numbers , there exists a subsequence such that
is well defined in and for each , and
for all and .
The collection of such functions will be denoted by .
For more on almost automorphic functions and related issues, we refer the reader to, for example, [1, 4, 9, 13, 34–39].
Define
Similarly, will denote the collection of all bounded continuous functions such that
uniformly in , where is any bounded subset.
Definition 2.6 (see Liang et al. [5, 6]).
A function is called pseudoalmost automorphic if it can be expressed as , where and . The collection of such functions will be denoted by .
The functions and appearing in Definition 2.6 are, respectively, called the almost automorphic and the ergodic perturbation components of .
Definition 2.7.
A bounded continuous function belongs to whenever it can be expressed as , where and . The collection of such functions will be denoted by .
An important result is the next theorem, which is due to Xiao et al. [6].
Theorem 2.8 (see [6]).
The space equipped with the sup norm is a Banach space.
The next composition result, that is Theorem 2.9, is a consequence of [12, Theorem 2.4].
Theorem 2.9.
Suppose that belongs to , with being uniformly continuous on any bounded subset of uniformly in . Furthermore, one supposes that there exists such that
for all and .
Then the function defined by belongs to provided .
We also have the following.
Theorem 2.10 (see [6]).
If belongs to and if is uniformly continuous on any bounded subset of for each , then the function defined by belongs to provided that .
3. Main Results
Throughout the rest of the paper we fix , real numbers, satisfying with .
To study the existence of pseudoalmost automorphic solutions to (1.2), in addition to the previous assumptions, we suppose that the injection
is compact, and that the following additional assumptions hold:
(H.3). Moreover, for any sequence of real numbers there exist a subsequence and a welldefined function such that for each , one can find such that
whenever for , and
whenever for all , where with .
(H.4)

(a)
The function is pseudoalmost automorphic in the first variable uniformly in the second one. The function is uniformly continuous on any bounded subset of for each . Finally,
(3.4)
where and is a continuous, monotone increasing function satisfying

(b)
The function is pseudoalmost automorphic in the first variable uniformly in the second one. Moreover, is globally Lipschitz in the following sense: there exists for which
(3.6)
for all and .
(H.5)The operator is invertible for each , that is, for each . Moreover, there exists such that
To study the existence and uniqueness of pseudoalmost automorphic solutions to (1.2) we first introduce the notion of a mild solution, which has been adapted to the one given in the studies of Diagana et al. [35, Definition 3.1].
Definition 3.1.
A continuous function is said to be a mild solution to (1.2) provided that the function is integrable on , the function is integrable on and
for and for all .
Under assumptions (H.1), (H.2), and (H.5), it can be readily shown that (1.2) has a mild solution given by
for each .
We denote by and the nonlinear integral operators defined by
The main result of the present paper will be based upon the use of the wellknown fixed point theorem of Krasnoselskii given as follows.
Theorem 3.2.
Let be a closed bounded convex subset of a Banach space . Suppose the (possibly nonlinear) operators and map into satisfying

(1)
for all , then ;

(2)
the operator is a contraction;

(3)
the operator is continuous and is contained in a compact set.
Then there exists such that .
We need the following new technical lemma.
Lemma 3.3.
For each , suppose that assumptions (H.1), (H.2) hold, and let be real numbers such that with . Then there are two constants such that
Proof.
Let . First of all, note that for all , such that and .
Letting and using (H.2) and the abovementioned approximate, we obtain
Now since as , it follows that there exists such that
Now, let . Using (2.11) and the fact , we obtain
In summary, there exists such that
for all with .
Let . Since the restriction of to is a bounded linear operator it follows that
for by using (2.12).
A straightforward consequence of Lemma 3.3 is the following.
Corollary 3.4.
For each , suppose that assumptions (H.1), (H.2), and (H.5) hold, and let be real numbers such that with . Then there are two constants such that
Proof.
We make use of (H.5) and Lemma 3.3. Indeed, for each ,
Equation (3.19) has already been proved (see the proof of (3.12)).
Lemma 3.5.
Under assumptions (H.1), (H.2), (H.3), and (H.4), the mapping is well defined and continuous.
Proof.
We first show that . For that, let and be the integral operators defined, respectively, by
Now, using (2.11) it follows that for all ,
and hence
where .
It remains to prove that is continuous. For that consider an arbitrary sequence of functions which converges uniformly to some , that is, .
Now
Now, using the continuity of and the Lebesgue Dominated Convergence Theorem we conclude that
and hence as .
The proof for is similar to that of and hence omitted. For , one makes use of (2.12) rather than (2.11).
Lemma 3.6.
Under assumptions (H.1), (H.2), (H.3), and (H.4), the integral operator defined above maps into itself.
Proof.
Let . Setting and using Theorem 2.10 it follows that . Let , where and . Let us show that . Indeed, since , for every sequence of real numbers there exists a subsequence such that
is well defined for each and
for each .
Set and for all .
Now
Using (2.11) and the Lebesgue Dominated Convergence Theorem, one can easily see that
Similarly, using (H.3) and [40] it follows that
Therefore,
Using similar ideas as the previous ones, one can easily see that
Again using (2.11) it follows that
Set
Since is translation invariant it follows that belongs to for each , and hence
for each .
One completes the proof by using the wellknown Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem and the fact as for each .
The proof for is similar to that of and hence omitted. For , one makes use of (2.12) rather than (2.11).
Let , and let , where
Clearly, the space equipped with the norm is a Banach space, which is the Banach space of all bounded continuous Hölder functions from to whose Hölder exponent is .
Lemma 3.7.
Under assumptions (H.1), (H.2), (H.3), (H.4), and (H.5), maps bounded sets of into bounded sets of for some , where , are the integral operators introduced previously.
Proof.
Let , and let for each . Then we have
and hence
Similarly,
and hence
Let . Clearly,
Clearly,
Similarly,
Now
where is a positive constant.
Consequently, letting it follows that
where is a positive constant.
Therefore, for each such that
for all , then belongs to with
for all , where depends on .
The proof of the next lemma follows along the same lines as that of Lemma 3.6 and hence omitted.
Lemma 3.8.
The integral operator maps bounded sets of into bounded sets of .
Similarly, the next lemma is a consequence of [2, Proposition 3.3].
Lemma 3.9.
The set is compactly contained in , that is, the canonical injection is compact, which yields
is compact, too.
Theorem 3.10.
Suppose that assumptions (H.1), (H.2), (H.3), (H.4), and (H.5) hold, then the operator defined by is compact.
Proof.
The proof follows along the same lines as that of [2, Proposition 3.4]. Recalling that in view of Lemma 3.7, we have
for all , with , where are positive constants. Consequently, and yield and
where .
Therefore, there exists such that for all , the following hold:
In view of the above, it follows that is continuous and compact, where is the ball in of radius with .
Define
for all .
Lemma 3.11.
Under assumptions (H.1), (H.2), (H.3), (H.4), and (H.5), the integral operators and defined above map into itself.
Proof.
Let . Again, using the composition of pseudoalmost automorphic functions (Theorem 2.10) it follows that is in whenever . In particular,
Now write , where and , that is, where
Clearly, . Indeed, since , for every sequence of real numbers there exists a subsequence such that
is well defined for each and
for each .
Set and for all .
Now
Using (3.18) and the Lebesgue Dominated Convergence Theorem, one can easily see that
Similarly, using (H.3) it follows that
Therefore,
Using similar ideas as the previous ones, one can easily see that
Now, let . Again from (3.18), we have
Now
as for every . One completes the proof by using the Lebesgue's dominated convergence theorem.
The proof for is similar to that of except that one makes use of (3.19) instead of (3.18).
Theorem 3.12.
Under assumptions (H.1), (H.2), (H.3), (H.4), and (H.5) and if is small enough, then (1.2) has at least one pseudoalmost automorphic solution.
Proof.
We have seen in the proof of Theorem 3.10 that is continuous and compact, where is the ball in of radius with .
Now, if we set it follows that
for all .
Choose such that
and let be the closed ball in of radius . It is then clear that
for all and hence .
To complete the proof we have to show that is a strict contraction. Indeed, for all
and hence is a strict contraction whenever is small enough.
Using the Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem (Theorem 3.2) it follows that there exists at least one pseudoalmost automorphic mild solution to (1.2).
References
 1.
Diagana T: Almost automorphic mild solutions to some classes of nonautonomous higherorder differential equations. Semigroup Forum. In press
 2.
Goldstein JA, N'Guérékata GM: Almost automorphic solutions of semilinear evolution equations. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society 2005,133(8):24012408. 10.1090/S0002993905077907
 3.
Bochner S: Continuous mappings of almost automorphic and almost periodic functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1964, 52: 907910. 10.1073/pnas.52.4.907
 4.
Diagana T: Pseudo Almost Periodic Functions in Banach Spaces. Nova Science, New York, NY, USA; 2007:xiv+132.
 5.
Liang J, Zhang J, Xiao TJ: Composition of pseudo almost automorphic and asymptotically almost automorphic functions. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2008,340(2):14931499. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2007.09.065
 6.
Xiao TJ, Liang J, Zhang J: Pseudo almost automorphic solutions to semilinear differential equations in Banach spaces. Semigroup Forum 2008,76(3):518524. 10.1007/s002330079011y
 7.
Xiao TJ, Zhu XX, Liang J: Pseudoalmost automorphic mild solutions to nonautonomous differential equations and applications. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2009,70(11):40794085. 10.1016/j.na.2008.08.018
 8.
Cieutat P, Ezzinbi K: Existence, uniqueness and attractiveness of a pseudo almost automorphic solutions for some dissipative differential equations in Banach spaces. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2009,354(2):494506. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2009.01.016
 9.
Diagana T:Existence of pseudoalmost automorphic solutions to some abstract differential equations with pseudoalmost automorphic coefficients. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2009,70(11):37813790. 10.1016/j.na.2008.07.034
 10.
Ezzinbi K, Fatajou S, N'guérékata GM: Pseudoalmostautomorphic solutions to some neutral partial functional differential equations in Banach spaces. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2009,70(4):16411647. 10.1016/j.na.2008.02.039
 11.
Ezzinbi K, Fatajou S, N'Guérékata GM: Pseudo almost automorphic solutions for dissipative differential equations in Banach spaces. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2009,351(2):765772. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2008.11.017
 12.
Liang J, N'Guérékata GM, Xiao TJ, Zhang J: Some properties of pseudoalmost automorphic functions and applications to abstract differential equations. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2009,70(7):27312735. 10.1016/j.na.2008.03.061
 13.
Diagana T: Pseudoalmost automorphic solutions to some classes of nonautonomous partial evolution equations. Differential Equations & Applications 2009,1(4):561582.
 14.
Acquistapace P, Flandoli F, Terreni B: Initialboundary value problems and optimal control for nonautonomous parabolic systems. SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization 1991,29(1):89118. 10.1137/0329005
 15.
Acquistapace P, Terreni B: A unified approach to abstract linear nonautonomous parabolic equations. Rendiconti del Seminario Matematico della Università di Padova 1987, 78: 47107.
 16.
Acquistapace P: Evolution operators and strong solutions of abstract linear parabolic equations. Differential and Integral Equations 1988,1(4):433457.
 17.
Yagi A: Abstract quasilinear evolution equations of parabolic type in Banach spaces. Bollettino dell'Unione Matematica Italiana B 1991,5(2):341368.
 18.
Yagi A: Parabolic evolution equations in which the coefficients are the generators of infinitely differentiable semigroups. II. Funkcialaj Ekvacioj 1990,33(1):139150.
 19.
Arendt W, Chill R, Fornaro S, Poupaud C: maximal regularity for nonautonomous evolution equations. Journal of Differential Equations 2007,237(1):126. 10.1016/j.jde.2007.02.010
 20.
Arendt W, Batty CJK: Almost periodic solutions of first and secondorder Cauchy problems. Journal of Differential Equations 1997,137(2):363383. 10.1006/jdeq.1997.3266
 21.
Chicone C, Latushkin Y: Evolution Semigroups in Dynamical Systems and Differential Equations, Mathematical Surveys and Monographs. Volume 70. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, USA; 1999:x+361.
 22.
Ding HS, Liang J, N'Guérékata GM, Xiao TJ: Pseudoalmost periodicity of some nonautonomous evolution equations with delay. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2007,67(5):14121418. 10.1016/j.na.2006.07.026
 23.
Liang J, Nagel R, Xiao TJ: Nonautonomous heat equations with generalized Wentzell boundary conditions. Journal of Evolution Equations 2003,3(2):321331.
 24.
Liang J, Xiao TJ: Solutions to nonautonomous abstract functional equations with infinite delay. Taiwanese Journal of Mathematics 2006,10(1):163172.
 25.
Maniar L, Schnaubelt R: Almost periodicity of inhomogeneous parabolic evolution equations. In Evolution Equations, Search ResultsLecture Notes in Pure and Applied Mathematics. Volume 234. Dekker, New York, NY, USA; 2003:299318.
 26.
Schnaubelt R: Asymptotically autonomous parabolic evolution equations. Journal of Evolution Equations 2001,1(1):1937. 10.1007/PL00001363
 27.
Schnaubelt R: Asymptotic behaviour of parabolic nonautonomous evolution equations. In Functional Analytic Methods for Evolution Equations, Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Volume 1855. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 2004:401472.
 28.
Xiao TJ, Liang J: Existence of classical solutions to nonautonomous nonlocal parabolic problems. Nonlinear Analysis, Theory, Methods and Applications 2005,63(5–7):e225e232.
 29.
Xiao TJ, Liang J, van Casteren J: Time dependent DeschSchappacher type perturbations of Volterra integral equations. Integral Equations and Operator Theory 2002,44(4):494506. 10.1007/BF01193674
 30.
Amann H: Linear and Quasilinear Parabolic Problems, Monographs in Mathematics. Volume 89. Birkhäuser, Boston, Mass, USA; 1995:xxxvi+335.
 31.
Engel KJ, Nagel R: OneParameter Semigroups for Linear Evolution Equations, Graduate Texts in Mathematics. Volume 194. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 2000:xxii+586.
 32.
Lunardi A: Analytic Semigroups and Optimal Regularity in Parabolic Problems, Progress in Nonlinear Differential Equations and Their Applications. Volume 16. Birkhäuser, Basel, Switzerland; 1995:xviii+424.
 33.
Baroun M, Boulite S, Diagana T, Maniar L: Almost periodic solutions to some semilinear nonautonomous thermoelastic plate equations. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2009,349(1):7484. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2008.08.034
 34.
N'Guerekata GM: Almost Automorphic and Almost Periodic Functions in Abstract Spaces. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY, USA; 2001:x+138.
 35.
Diagana T, Hernández E, Rabello M: Pseudo almost periodic solutions to some nonautonomous neutral functional differential equations with unbounded delay. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 2007,45(910):12411252. 10.1016/j.mcm.2006.10.006
 36.
Diagana T: Stepanovlike pseudo almost periodic functions and their applications to differential equations. Communications in Mathematical Analysis 2007,3(1):918.
 37.
Diagana T: Stepanovlike pseudoalmost periodicity and its applications to some nonautonomous differential equations. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2008,69(12):42774285. 10.1016/j.na.2007.10.051
 38.
Diagana T: Existence of almost automorphic solutions to some classes of nonautonomous higherorder differential equations. Electronic Journal of Qualitative Theory of Differential Equations 2010, (22):126.
 39.
Diagana T:Existence of pseudoalmost automorphic solutions to some abstract differential equations with pseudoalmost automorphic coefficients. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2009,70(11):37813790. 10.1016/j.na.2008.07.034
 40.
Baroun M, Boulite S, N'Guérékata GM, Maniar L: Almost automorphy of semilinear parabolic evolution equations. Electronic Journal of Differential Equations 2008,2008(60):19.
Acknowledgment
The author would like to express his thanks to the referees for careful reading of the paper and insightful comments.
Author information
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Received
Accepted
Published
DOI
Keywords
 Banach Space
 Fixed Point Theorem
 Mild Solution
 Interpolation Space
 Evolution Family