 Research Article
 Open Access
 Published:
Composition Theorems of Stepanov Almost Periodic Functions and StepanovLike PseudoAlmost Periodic Functions
Advances in Difference Equations volume 2011, Article number: 654695 (2011)
Abstract
We establish a composition theorem of Stepanov almost periodic functions, and, with its help, a composition theorem of Stepanovlike pseudo almost periodic functions is obtained. In addition, we apply our composition theorem to study the existence and uniqueness of pseudoalmost periodic solutions to a class of abstract semilinear evolution equation in a Banach space. Our results complement a recent work due to Diagana (2008).
1. Introduction
Recently, in [1, 2], Diagana introduced the concept of Stepanovlike pseudoalmost periodicity, which is a generalization of the classical notion of pseudoalmost periodicity, and established some properties for Stepanovlike pseudoalmost periodic functions. Moreover, Diagana studied the existence of pseudoalmost periodic solutions to the abstract semilinear evolution equation . The existence theorems obtained in [1, 2] are interesting since is only Stepanovlike pseudoalmost periodic, which is different from earlier works. In addition, Diagana et al. [3] introduced and studied Stepanovlike weighted pseudoalmost periodic functions and their applications to abstract evolution equations.
On the other hand, due to the work of [4] by N'Guérékata and Pankov, Stepanovlike almost automorphic problems have widely been investigated. We refer the reader to [5–11] for some recent developments on this topic.
Since Stepanovlike almostperiodic (almost automorphic) type functions are not necessarily continuous, the study of such functions will be more difficult considering complexity and more interesting in terms of applications.
Very recently, in [12], Li and Zhang obtained a new composition theorem of Stepanovlike pseudoalmost periodic functions; the authors in [13] established a composition theorem of vectorvalued Stepanov almostperiodic functions. Motivated by [2, 12, 13], in this paper, we will make further study on the composition theorems of Stepanov almostperiodic functions and Stepanovlike pseudoalmost periodic functions. As one will see, our main results extend and complement some results in [2, 13].
Throughout this paper, let be the set of real numbers, let be the Lebesgue measure for any subset , and be two arbitrary real Banach spaces. Moreover, we assume that if there is no special statement. First, let us recall some definitions and basic results of almost periodic functions, Stepanov almost periodic functions, pseudoalmost periodic functions, and Stepanovlike pseudoalmost periodic functions (for more details, see [2, 14, 15]).
Definition 1.1.
A set is called relatively dense if there exists a number such that
Definition 1.2.
A continuous function is called almost periodic if for each there exists a relatively dense set such that
We denote the set of all such functions by or .
Definition 1.3.
A continuous function is called almost periodic in uniformly for if, for each and each compact subset , there exists a relatively dense set
We denote by the set of all such functions.
Definition 1.4.
The Bochner transform , , , of a function on , with values in , is defined by
Definition 1.5.
The space of all Stepanov bounded functions, with the exponent , consists of all measurable functions on with values in such that
It is obvious that and whenever .
Definition 1.6.
A function is called Stepanov almost periodic if ; that is, for all , there exists a relatively dense set such that
We denote the set of all such functions by or .
Remark 1.7.
It is clear that for .
Definition 1.8.
A function with , for each , is called Stepanov almost periodic in uniformly for if, for each and each compact set , there exists a relatively dense set such that
for each and each . We denote by the set of all such functions.
It is also easy to show that for .
Throughout the rest of this paper, let (resp., ) be the space of bounded continuous (resp., jointly bounded continuous) functions with supremum norm, and
We also denote by the space of all functions such that
uniformly for in any compact set .
Definition 1.9.
A function is called pseudoalmost periodic if
with and . We denote by the set of all such functions.
It is wellknown that is a closed subspace of , and thus is a Banach space under the supremum norm.
Definition 1.10.
A function is called Stepanovlike pseudoalmost periodic if it can be decomposed as with and . We denote the set of all such functions by or .
It follows from [2] that for all .
Definition 1.11.
A function with , for each , is called Stepanovlike pseudalmost periodic in uniformly for if it can be decomposed as with and . We denote by the set of all such functions.
Next, let us recall some notations about evolution family and exponential dichotomy. For more details, we refer the reader to [16].
Definition 1.12.
A set of bounded linear operator on is called an evolution family if

(a)
, for and ,

(b)
is strongly continuous.
Definition 1.13.
An evolution family is called hyperbolic (or has exponential dichotomy) if there are projections , , being uniformly bounded and strongly continuous in , and constants , such that

(a)
for all ,

(b)
the restriction is invertible for all ,

(c)
and for all ,
where . We call that
(1.11)is the Green's function corresponding to and .
Remark 1.14.
Exponential dichotomy is a classical concept in the study of longterm behaviour of evolution equations; see, for example, [16]. It is easy to see that
2. Main Results
Throughout the rest of this paper, for , we denote by the set of all the functions satisfying that there exists a function such that
and, for any compact set , we denote by the set of all the functions such that (1.7) is replaced by
In addition, we denote by the norm of and .
Lemma 2.1.
Let , be compact, and . Then .
Proof.
For all , there exist such that
Since , for the above , there exists a relatively dense set such that
for all , , and . On the other hand, since , there exists a function such that (2.1) holds.
Fix , . For each , there exists such that . Thus, we have
for each and , which gives that
Now, by Minkowski's inequality and (2.4), we get
which means that .
Theorem 2.2.
Assume that the following conditions hold:

(a)
with , and with .

(b)
, and there exists a set with such that
(2.8)is compact in .
Then there exists such that .
Proof.
Since , there exists such that . Let
Then and . On the other hand, since , there is a function such that (2.1) holds.
It is easy to see that is measurable. By using (2.1), for each , we have
Thus, .
Next, let us show that . By Lemma 2.1, . In addition, we have . Thus, for all , there exists a relatively dense set such that
for all and . By using (2.11), we deduce that
for all and . Thus, .
Lemma 2.3.
Let be compact, , and . Then , where
Proof.
Noticing that is a compact set, for all , there exist such that
Combining this with , for all , there exists such that
for all and . Thus, we get
which yields that
On the other hand, since , for the above , there exists such that, for all ,
This together with (2.17) implies that
Hence, .
Theorem 2.4.
Assume that and the following conditions hold:

(a)
with and . Moreover, with ;

(b)
with and , and there exists a set with such that
(2.20)is compact in .
Then there exists such that .
Proof.
Let be as in the proof of Theorem 2.2. In addition, let , where
It follows from Theorem 2.2 that , that is, .
Next, let us show that . For , we have
where was used. For , since , by Lemma 2.3, we know that
which yields
that is, . Now, we get .
Next, let us discuss the existence and uniqueness of pseudoalmost periodic solutions for the following abstract semilinear evolution equation in :
Theorem 2.5.
Assume that and the following conditions hold:

(a)
with and . Moreover, with
(2.26) 
(b)
the evolution family generated by has an exponential dichotomy with constants , dichotomy projections , , and Green's function ;

(c)
for all , for all , and for all there exists a relatively dense set such that and
(2.27)
for all and with .
Then (2.25) has a unique pseudoalmost periodic mild solution provided that
Proof.
Let , where and . Then and is compact in . By the proof of Theorem 2.4, there exists such that .
Let
where and . Denote
where
By [13, Theorem 2.3] we have . In addition, by a similar proof to that of [2, Theorem 3.2], one can obtain that . So maps into . For , by using the Hölder's inequality, we obtain
for all , which yields that has a unique fixed point and
This completes the proof.
Remark 2.6.
For some general conditions which can ensure that the assumption (c) in Theorem 2.5 holds, we refer the reader to [17, Theorem 4.5]. In addition, in the case of and generating an exponential stable semigroup , the assumption (c) obviously holds.
References
Diagana T: Stepanovlike pseudo almost periodic functions and their applications to differential equations. Communications in Mathematical Analysis 2007,3(1):918.
Diagana T: Stepanovlike pseudoalmost periodicity and its applications to some nonautonomous differential equations. Nonlinear Analysis. Theory, Methods & Applications 2008,69(12):42774285. 10.1016/j.na.2007.10.051
Diagana T, Mophou GM, N'Guérékata GM:Existence of weighted pseudoalmost periodic solutions to some classes of differential equations with weighted pseudoalmost periodic coefficients. Nonlinear Analysis. Theory, Methods & Applications 2010,72(1):430438. 10.1016/j.na.2009.06.077
N'Guérékata GM, Pankov A: Stepanovlike almost automorphic functions and monotone evolution equations. Nonlinear Analysis. Theory, Methods & Applications 2008,68(9):26582667. 10.1016/j.na.2007.02.012
Diagana T:Existence of pseudoalmost automorphic solutions to some abstract differential equations with pseudoalmost automorphic coefficients. Nonlinear Analysis. Theory, Methods & Applications 2009,70(11):37813790. 10.1016/j.na.2008.07.034
Diagana T: Existence of almost automorphic solutions to some classes of nonautonomous higherorder differential equations. Electronic Journal of Qualitative Theory of Differential Equations 2010, 22: 126.
Ding HS, Liang J, Xiao TJ: Almost automorphic solutions to nonautonomous semilinear evolution equations in Banach spaces. Nonlinear Analysis. Theory, Methods & Applications 2010,73(5):14261438. 10.1016/j.na.2010.05.006
Ding HS, Liang J, Xiao TJ: Some properties of Stepanovlike almost automorphic functions and applications to abstract evolution equations. Applicable Analysis 2009,88(7):10791091. 10.1080/00036810903156164
Fan ZB, Liang J, Xiao TJ: On Stepanovlike (pseudo) almost automorphic functions. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods and Applications 2011,74(8):28532861. 10.1016/j.na.2011.01.007
Fan ZB, Liang J, Xiao TJ: Composition of Stepanovlike pseudo almost automorphic functions and applications to nonautonomous evolution equations. preprint
Ding HS, Liang J, Xiao TJ: Almost automorphic solutions to abstract fractional differential equations. Advances in Difference Equations 2010, 2010:9.
Li HX, Zhang LL: Stepanovlike pseudoalmost periodicity and semilinear differential equations with uniform continuity. Results in Mathematics 2011,59(12):4361. 10.1007/s0002501000504
Ding HS, Long W, N'Guérékata GM: Almost periodic solutions to abstract semilinear evolutionequations with Stepanov almost periodic coeffcient. Journal of Computational Analysis and Applications 2011, 13: 231243.
Pankov AA: Bounded and Almost Periodic Solutions of Nonlinear Operator Differential Equations. Volume 55. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands; 1990:x+221.
Levitan BM, Zhikov VV: Almost Periodic Functions and Differential Equations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK; 1982:xi+211.
Engel KJ, Nagel R: OneParameter Semigroups for Linear Evolution Equations, Graduate Texts in Mathematics. Volume 194. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 2000:xxii+586.
Maniar L, Schnaubelt R: Almost periodicity of inhomogeneous parabolic evolution equations. In Evolution Equations. Volume 234. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA; 2003:299318.
Acknowledgments
The work was supported by the NSF of China, the Key Project of Chinese Ministry of Education, the NSF of Jiangxi Province of China, the Youth Foundation of Jiangxi Provincial Education Department (GJJ09456), and the Youth Foundation of Jiangxi Normal University (201096).
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Corresponding author
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Long, W., Ding, HS. Composition Theorems of Stepanov Almost Periodic Functions and StepanovLike PseudoAlmost Periodic Functions. Adv Differ Equ 2011, 654695 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/654695
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/654695
Keywords
 Banach Space
 Periodic Function
 Mild Solution
 Real Banach Space
 Unique Fixed Point