- Research Article
- Open Access

# Fractional-Order Variational Calculus with Generalized Boundary Conditions

- MohamedAE Herzallah
^{1, 2}and - Dumitru Baleanu
^{3, 4}Email author

**2011**:357580

https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/357580

© Mohamed A. E. Herzallah and Dumitru Baleanu. 2011

**Received:**18 September 2010**Accepted:**8 November 2010**Published:**28 November 2010

## Abstract

This paper presents the necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for fractional variational problems involving the right and the left fractional integrals and fractional derivatives defined in the sense of Riemman-Liouville with a Lagrangian depending on the free end-points. To illustrate our approach, two examples are discussed in detail.

## Keywords

- Fractional Derivative
- Fractional Calculus
- Fractional Integral
- Transversality Condition
- Natural Boundary Condition

## 1. Introduction

Fractional calculus is one of the generalizations of the classical calculus. Several fields of application of fractional differentiation and fractional integration are already well established, some others have just started. Many applications of fractional calculus can be found in turbulence and fluid dynamics, stochastic dynamical system, plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion, nonlinear control theory, image processing, nonlinear biological systems, astrophysics, and so forth (see [1–11] and the references therein).

Real integer variational calculus plays a significant role in many areas of science, engineering, and applied mathematics. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the area of fractional variational calculus and its applications which include classical and quantum mechanics, field theory, and optimal control (see [10, 12–20]).

In the papers cited above, the problems have been formulated mostly in terms of two types of fractional derivative, namely, Riemann-Liouville (RL) and Caputo derivatives.

The natural boundary conditions for fractional variational problems, in terms of the RL and the Caputo derivatives, are presented in [13, 14].

The necessary optimality conditions for problems of the fractional calculus of variations with a Lagrangian that may also depend on the unspecified end-points , is proven in [19].

In [18] the two authors discussed the fractional variational problems with fractional integral and fractional derivative in the sense of Riemann-Liouville and the Caputo derivatives and give the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations with the natural boundary conditions.

Here we develop the theory of fractional variational calculus further by proving the necessary optimality conditions for more general problems of the fractional calculus of variations with a fractional integral and a Lagrangian that may also depend on the unspecified end-points or . The novelty is the dependence of the integrand on the free end-points , with replacing the ordinary integral by fractional integral in the functional.

The paper is organized as follows.

In Section 2, we present the principal definitions used in this paper. In Section 3, the necessary optimality conditions are proved for problems (1.1) and (1.2) by giving some special cases which prove the generalization of our problems. Sufficient conditions are shown in Section 4, and two examples are depicted in Section 5.

## 2. Preliminaries

Here we give the standard definitions of left and right Riemann-Liouville fractional integral, Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives, and Caputo fractional derivatives (see [1, 2, 4, 21]).

Definition 2.1.

*α*, denoted, respectively, by and , are defined by

Definition 2.2.

*α*, denoted, respectively, by and , are defined by

where is such that and

Definition 2.3.

*α*, denoted, respectively, by and , are defined by

where is such that and .

## 3. Necessary Optimality Conditions

### 3.1. Necessary Optimality Conditions for Problem (1.1)

Remark 3.1.

These conditions are only necessary for an extremum. The question of sufficient conditions for the existence of an extremum is considered in the next section.

Special Cases

Case 1.

Case 2.

we get similar results as in [18].

### 3.2. Necessary Optimality Conditions for Problem (1.2)

## 4. Sufficient Conditions

In this section, we prove the sufficient conditions that ensure the existence of a minimum (maximum). Some conditions of convexity (concavity) are in order.

for all .

Theorem 4.1.

Let be jointly convex (concave) in . If satisfies conditions (3.5) (3.7), then is a global minimizer (maximizer) to problem (1.1).

Proof.

Since satisfies conditions (3.5)–(3.7), thus we obtain which completes the proof.

Similar to proving the previous theorem, we can prove the following theorem.

Theorem 4.2.

Let be jointly convex (concave) in (y,z,u ). If satisfies conditions (3.16)–(3.18), then is a global minimizer (maximizer) to problem (1.2).

## 5. Examples

We will provide in this section two examples in order to illustrate our main results.

Example 5.1.

Note that it is difficult to solve the above fractional equations; for , a numerical method should be used, and where is a jointly convex then the obtained solution is a global minimizer to problem (5.1).

Example 5.2.

Using a numerical method, we get the solution which is a global minimizer to problem (5.3) where is a jointly convex.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgment

The first author would like to thank Majmaah University in Saudi Arabia for financial support and for providing the necessary facilities.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Miller KS, Ross B:
*An Introduction to the Fractional Calculus and Fractional Differential Equations, A Wiley-Interscience Publication*. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 1993:xvi+366.Google Scholar - Podlubny I:
*Fractional Differential Equations*.*Volume 198*. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA; 1999:xxiv+340.MATHGoogle Scholar - Hilfe R:
*Applications of Fractional Calculus in Physics*. World Scientific Publishing, River Edge, NJ, USA; 2000:viii+463.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Kilbas AA, Srivastava HM, Trujillo JJ:
*Theory and Applications of Fractional Differential Equations, North-Holland Mathematical Studies*.*Volume 204*. Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2006.Google Scholar - Magin RL:
**Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 1.***Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering*2004,**32**(1):1-104. 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v32.10View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Magin RL:
**Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 2.***Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering*2004,**32**(2):105-193. 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v32.i2.10View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Magin RL:
**Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part3.***Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering*2004,**32**(3-4):195-377. 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v32.i34.10View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Debnath L: Recent applications of fractional calculus to science and engineering. International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 2003, (54):3413-3442.Google Scholar
- Fonseca Ferreira NM, Duarte FB, Lima MFM, Marcos MG, Tenreiro Machado JA:
**Application of fractional calculus in the dynamical analysis and control of mechanical manipulators.***Fractional Calculus & Applied Analysis*2008,**11**(1):91-113.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Frederico GSF, Torres DFM:
**Fractional conservation laws in optimal control theory.***Nonlinear Dynamics*2008,**53**(3):215-222. 10.1007/s11071-007-9309-zMathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kulish VV, Lage JL:
**Application of fractional calculus to fluid mechanics.***Journal of Fluids Engineering*2002,**124**(3):803-806. 10.1115/1.1478062View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Agrawal OP:
**Formulation of Euler-Lagrange equations for fractional variational problems.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2002,**272**(1):368-379. 10.1016/S0022-247X(02)00180-4MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Agrawal OP:
**Fractional variational calculus and the transversality conditions.***Journal of Physics A*2006,**39**(33):10375-10384. 10.1088/0305-4470/39/33/008MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Agrawal OP:
**Generalized Euler-Lagrange equations and transversality conditions for FVPs in terms of the Caputo derivative.***Journal of Vibration and Control*2007,**13**(9-10):1217-1237. 10.1177/1077546307077472MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Almeida R, Malinowska AB, Torres DFM: A fractional calculus of variations for multiple integrals with application to vibrating string. Journal of Mathematical Physics 2010.,51(3):Google Scholar
- Baleanu D, Agrawal OP:
**Fractional Hamilton formalism within Caputo's derivative.***Czechoslovak Journal of Physics*2006,**56**(10-11):1087-1092. 10.1007/s10582-006-0406-xMathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Baleanu D, Muslih SI, Rabei EM:
**On fractional Euler-Lagrange and Hamilton equations and the fractional generalization of total time derivative.***Nonlinear Dynamics*2008,**53**(1-2):67-74. 10.1007/s11071-007-9296-0MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Herzallah MAE, Baleanu D:
**Fractional-order Euler-Lagrange equations and formulation of Hamiltonian equations.***Nonlinear Dynamics*2009,**58**(1-2):385-391. 10.1007/s11071-009-9486-zMathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Malinowska A, Torres DFM:
**Generalized natural boundary conditions for fractional variational problems in terms of the Caputo derivative.***Computers & Mathematics with Applications*2010,**59**(9):3110-3116. 10.1016/j.camwa.2010.02.032MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Muslih SI, Baleanu D:
**Fractional Euler-Lagrange equations of motion in fractional space.***Journal of Vibration and Control*2007,**13**(9-10):1209-1216. 10.1177/1077546307077473MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Samko SG, Kilbas AA, Marichev OI:
*Fractional Integrals and Derivatives: Theory and Applcations*. Gordon and Breach, New York, NY ,USA; 1987:xxxvi+976. Translated from the RussianMATHGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.