- Research Article
- Open Access
- Published:

# Nonlinear Integral Inequalities in Two Independent Variables on Time Scales

*Advances in Difference Equations*
**volume 2011**, Article number: 283926 (2011)

## Abstract

We investigate some nonlinear integral inequalities in two independent variables on time scales. Our results unify and extend some integral inequalities and their corresponding discrete analogues which established by Pachpatte. The inequalities given here can be used as handy tools to study the properties of certain partial dynamic equations on time scales.

## 1. Introduction

The theory of dynamic equations on time scales unifies existing results in differential and finite difference equations and provides powerful new tools for exploring connections between the traditionally separated fields. During the last few years, more and more scholars have studied this theory. For example, we refer the reader to [1, 2] and the references cited therein. At the same time, some integral inequalities used in dynamic equations on time scales have been extended by many authors [3–11].

On the other hand, a few authors have focused on the theory of partial dynamic equations on time scales [12–17]. However, only [10, 11] have studied integral inequalities useful in the theory of partial dynamic equations on time scales, as far as we know. In this paper, we investigate some nonlinear integral inequalities in two independent variables on time scales, which can be used as handy tools to study the properties of certain partial dynamic equations on time scales.

Throughout this paper, a knowledge and understanding of time scales and time scale notation is assumed. For an excellent introduction to the calculus on time scales, we refer the reader to [1, 2].

## 2. Main Results

In what follows, is an arbitrary time scale, denotes the set of rd-continuous functions, denotes the set of all regressive and rd-continuous functions, for all, denotes the set of real numbers, , and denotes the set of nonnegative integers. We use the usual conventions that empty sums and products are taken to be 0 and 1, respectively. Throughout this paper, we always assume that and are time scales, , , , , , and we write for the partial delta derivatives of with respect to , and for the partial delta derivatives of with respect to .

The following two lemmas are useful in our main results.

Lemma 2.1 (see [18]).

If , and with , then

with equality holding if and only if .

Lemma 2.2 (Comparison Theorem [1]).

Suppose , . Then,

implies

Next, we establish our main results.

Theorem 2.3.

Assume that , , , , and are nonnegative functions defined for that are right-dense continuous for , and is a real constant. Then,

implies

where

Proof.

Define a function by

Then, (2.4) can be written as

From (2.9), by Lemma 2.1, we have

It follows from (2.8)–(2.10) that

where is defined by (2.6). It is easy to see that is nonnegative, right-dense continuous, and nondecreasing for . Let be given, and from (2.11), we obtain

Define a function by

It follows from (2.12) and (2.13) that

From (2.13), a delta derivative with respect to yields

where is defined by (2.7). Noting that , , and using Lemma 2.2, from (2.15), we obtain

It follows from (2.9), (2.14), and (2.16) that

Letting in (2.17), we immediately obtain the required (2.5). The proof of Theorem 2.3 is complete.

Remark 2.4.

Letting and , respectively, we easily see that Theorem 2.3 reduces to Theorem 2.3.3 and Theorem 5.2.4 in [19].

Theorem 2.5.

Assume that all assumptions of Theorem 2.3 hold. If and is nondecreasing for , then

implies

where

Proof.

Noting that and is nondecreasing for , from (2.18), we have

By Theorem 2.3, from (2.21), we easily obtain the desired (2.19). This completes the proof of Theorem 2.5.

Remark 2.6.

If in Theorem 2.5, then we easily obtain Theorem 2.3.3 in [19].

Theorem 2.7.

Assume that , , and are nonnegative functions defined for that are right-dense continuous for , and is a real constant. If is right-dense continuous on and continuous on such that

for , , where is right-dense continuous on and continuous on , then

implies

where

Proof.

Define a function by

As in the proof of Theorem 2.3, from (2.23), we easily see that (2.9) and (2.10) hold. Combining (2.10), (2.27) and noting the assumptions on , we have

where is defined by (2.25). It is easy to see that is nonnegative, right-dense continuous, and nondecreasing for . The remainder of the proof is similar to that of Theorem 2.3 and we omit it.

Remark 2.8.

Letting and in Theorem 2.7, respectively, we can obtain Theorem 2.3.4 and Theorem 5.2.4 in [19].

Theorem 2.9.

Assume that , , and are nonnegative functions defined for that are right-dense continuous for , and is a real constant. If is right-dense continuous on and continuous on , and such that

for , , where is right-dense continuous on and continuous on , is the inverse function of , and

then

implies

where is defined by (2.25), and

Proof.

Define a function by (2.27). Similar to the proof of Theorem 2.3, we have

From (2.27), (2.35) and the assumptions on and , we obtain

where is defined by (2.25). Obviously, is nonnegative, right-dense continuous, and nondecreasing for . The remainder of the proof is similar to that of Theorem 2.3, and we omit it here. This completes the proof of Theorem 2.9.

Remark 2.10.

We note that when , Theorem 2.9 reduces to Theorem 2.3.4 in [19].

Remark 2.11.

Using our main results, we can obtain many integral inequalities for some peculiar time scales. For example, letting , , from Theorem 2.3, we easily obtain the following result.

Corollary 2.12.

Assume that , , , and are nonnegative functions defined for , that are continuous for , and is a real constant. Then,

implies

where

## 3. Some Applications

In this section, we present two applications of our main results.

Example 3.1.

Consider the following partial dynamic equation on time scales

with the initial boundary conditions

where is a constant, is right-dense continuous on and continuous on , is right-dense continuous on , and are right-dense continuous, and is a constant.

Assume that

where and are nonnegative right-dense continuous functions for . If is a solution of (3.1), (3.2), then satisfies

where

In fact, the solution of (3.1), (3.2) satisfies

Therefore,

It follows from (3.3) and (3.7) that

Using Theorem 2.3, from (3.8), we easily obtain (3.4).

Example 3.2.

Consider the following dynamic equation on time scales:

where , are constants, is right-dense continuous on and continuous on .

Assume that

where is a nonnegative right-dense continuous function for . If is a solution of (3.9), then

where

In fact, if is a solution of (3.9), then

It follows from (3.10) and (3.13) that

Therefore, by Theorem 2.5, from (3.14), we immediately obtain (3.11).

## References

Bohner M, Peterson A:

*Dynamic Equations on Time Scales: An Introduction with Applications*. Birkhäuser, Boston, Mass, USA; 2001:x+358.Bohner M, Peterson A (Eds):

*Advances in Dynamic Equations on Time Scales*. Birkhäuser, Boston, Mass, USA; 2003:xii+348.Agarwal R, Bohner M, Peterson A:

**Inequalities on time scales: a survey.***Mathematical Inequalities & Applications*2001,**4**(4):535-557.Akin-Bohner E, Bohner M, Akin F:

**Pachpatte inequalities on time scales.***Journal of Inequalities in Pure and Applied Mathematics*2005,**6**(1, article 6):1-23.Li WN:

**Some new dynamic inequalities on time scales.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2006,**319**(2):802-814. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.06.065Wong F-H, Yeh C-C, Hong C-H:

**Gronwall inequalities on time scales.***Mathematical Inequalities & Applications*2006,**9**(1):75-86.Li WN, Sheng W:

**Some nonlinear dynamic inequalities on time scales.***Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences Mathematical Sciences*2007,**117**(4):545-554. 10.1007/s12044-007-0044-7Li WN:

**Some Pachpatte type inequalities on time scales.***Computers & Mathematics with Applications*2009,**57**(2):275-282. 10.1016/j.camwa.2008.09.040Li WN:

**Bounds for certain new integral inequalities on time scales.***Advances in Difference Equations*2009,**2009:**-16.Anderson DR:

**Dynamic double integral inequalities in two independent variables on time scales.***Journal of Mathematical Inequalities*2008,**2**(2):163-184.Anderson DR:

**Nonlinear dynamic integral inequalities in two independent variables on time scale pairs.***Advances in Dynamical Systems and Applications*2008,**3**(1):1-13.Ahlbrandt CD, Morian Ch:

**Partial differential equations on time scales.***Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*2002,**141**(1-2):35-55. 10.1016/S0377-0427(01)00434-4Hoffacker J:

**Basic partial dynamic equations on time scales.***Journal of Difference Equations and Applications*2002,**8**(4):307-319. 10.1080/1026190290017379Jackson B:

**Partial dynamic equations on time scales.***Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*2006,**186**(2):391-415. 10.1016/j.cam.2005.02.011Bohner M, Guseinov GSh:

**Partial differentiation on time scales.***Dynamic Systems and Applications*2004,**13**(3-4):351-379.Bohner M, Guseinov GSh:

**Double integral calculus of variations on time scales.***Computers & Mathematics with Applications*2007,**54**(1):45-57. 10.1016/j.camwa.2006.10.032Wang P, Li P:

**Monotone iterative technique for partial dynamic equations of first order on time scales.***Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society*2008,**2008:**-7.Mitrinović DS:

*Analytic Inequalities, Die Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften*.*Volume 16*. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 1970:xii+400.Pachpatte BG:

*Integral and Finite Difference Inequalities and Applications, North-Holland Mathematics Studies*.*Volume 205*. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2006:x+309.

## Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (10971018), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2009AM005), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project (20080440633), Shanghai Postdoctoral Scientific Program (09R21415200), the Project of Science and Technology of the Education Department of Shandong Province (J08LI52), and the Doctoral Foundation of Binzhou University (2006Y01). The author thanks the referees very much for their careful comments and valuable suggestions on this paper.

## Author information

### Authors and Affiliations

### Corresponding author

## Rights and permissions

**Open Access** This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

## About this article

### Cite this article

Li, W.N. Nonlinear Integral Inequalities in Two Independent Variables on Time Scales.
*Adv Differ Equ* **2011**, 283926 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/283926

Received:

Accepted:

Published:

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/283926

### Keywords

- Partial Differential Equation
- Ordinary Differential Equation
- Finite Difference
- Functional Equation
- Dynamic Equation