# Numerical Solutions of a Fractional Predator-Prey System

- Yanqin Liu
^{1}Email author and - Baogui Xin
^{2, 3}

**2011**:190475

https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/190475

© Yanqin Liu and Baogui Xin. 2011

**Received: **10 December 2010

**Accepted: **22 February 2011

**Published: **13 March 2011

## Abstract

We implement relatively new analytical technique, the Homotopy perturbation method, for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations arising in predator-prey biological population dynamics system. Numerical solutions are given, and some properties exhibit biologically reasonable dependence on the parameter values. And the fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense.

## Keywords

## 1. Introduction

Recently, it has turned out that many phenomena in engineering, physics, chemistry, other sciences [1–3] can be described very successfully by models using mathematical tools form fractional calculus, such as anomalous transport in disordered systems, some percolations in porous media, and the diffusion of biological populations. But most fractional differential equations [4, 5] do not have exact analytic solutions [6, 7]. An effective method for solving such equations is needed. So approximate and numerical techniques must be used. The Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is relatively new approach to provide an analytical approximation to nonlinear problem. This method was first presented by He [8, 9] and applied to various nonlinear problems [10–12]. Recently, the application of the method is extended for fractional differential equations [13–15].

Biological population problems are widely investigated in many papers [16–19]. Dunbar [20] establishes the existence of traveling wave solutions for two reaction diffusion systems based on the Lotka-Volterra model for predator and prey interactions, and discusses some possible biological implications of the existence of these waves. Gourley and Britton [21] investigate stability of coexistence steady-state and bifurcations of a predator-prey system in the form of a coupled reaction-diffusion equations. Petrovskii et al. [22] obtained an exact solution of the spatiotemporal dynamics of a predator-prey community by using an appropriate change of variables, and the properties of the solution exhibit biologically reasonable dependence on the parameter values. Kadem and Baleanu[23] studied the coupled fractional Lotka-Volterra equations using the Homotopy perturbation method.

where , and denotes the prey population density and represents the predator population density, denote initial conditions of population system; the nonlinear equation of this type has wide applications in the fields of population growth. The derivatives in (1.1) is the Caputo derivative.

In this paper, we consider the fractional nonlinear predator-prey population model. and the paper is organized as follows: in Section 2, a brief review of the theory of fractional calculus will be given to fix notation and provide a convenient reference. In Section 3, we extend the application of the homotopy perturbation method to construct approximate solutions for the nonlinear fractional predator-prey system. In Section 4, we present three examples with different initial conditions to the predator-prey system and show some properties of this fractional nonlinear predator-prey system. Conclusions will be presented in Section 5.

## 2. Fractional Calculus

There are several approaches to define the fractional calculus, for example, Riemann-Liouville, Gruünwald-Letnikow, Caputo, and Generalized Functions approach. Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative is mostly used by mathematicians but this approach is not suitable for real world physical problems since it requires the definition of fractional order initial conditions, which have no physically meaningful explanation yet. Caputo introduced an alternative definition, which has the advantage of defining integer order initial conditions for fractional order differential equations.

Definition 2.1.

Definition 2.2.

We have chosen the Caputo fractional derivative because it allows traditional initial and boundary conditions to be included in the formulation of the problem. And some other properties of fractional derivative can be found in [1, 3].

## 3. Homotopy Perturbation Method

institute (3.2) into (3.1) and compare coefficients of terms with identical powers of , then you can get the numerical solutions of the equation. Because of the knowledge of various perturbation methods that low-order approximate solution leads to high accuracy, there requires no infinite series. Then after a series of recurrent calculation by using Mathematica software, we will get approximate solutions of fractional biological population model. In Section 4, we show some examples that the Homotopy perturbation method gives a very good approximation of the exact solution.

## 4. Fractional Predator-Prey Equation

In order to assess the advantages and the accuracy of the Homotopy perturbation method presented in this paper for nonlinear fractional Fisher's equation, we have applied it to the following several problems.

Case 1.

In this case, we consider the fractional predator-prey equation and subject to the constant initial condition

Case 2.

In this case, the initial conditions of systems (1.1) are given by

Case 3.

We will consider the initial conditions of fractional predator-prey equation (1.1)

Because of the knowledge of various perturbation methods that low-order approximate solution leads to high accuracy, there requires no infinite series (mostly 2–4 terms are enough). The corresponding solutions are obtained according to the recurrence relation using Mathematica.

## 5. Conclusion

In this letter, we implement relatively new analytical techniques, the Homotopy perturbation method, for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations arising in prey-predator biological population dynamics system. Comparing the methodology HPM to ADM, VIM and HAM have the advantages. Unlike the ADM, the HPM is free from the need to use Adomian polynomials. In this method we do not need the Lagrange multiplier, correction functional, stationary conditions, or calculating integrals, which eliminate the complications that exist in the VIM. In contrast to the HAM, this method is not required to solve the functional equations in each iteration the efficiency of HAM is very much depended on choosing auxiliary parameter. We can easily conclude that the Homotopy perturbation method is an efficient tool to solve approximate solution of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgments

The authors thank to the referees for their fruitful advices and comments. This work was supported partly by the National Science Foundation of Shandong Province (Grant nos. Y2007A06 & ZR2010Al019) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant no. 20100470783).

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Podlubny I:
*Fractional Differential Equations, Mathematics in Science and Engineering*.*Volume 198*. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA; 1999:xxiv+340.MATHGoogle Scholar - Metzler R, Klafter J:
**The random walks guide to anomalous diffusion: a fractional dynamics approach.***Physics Reports A*2000,**339:**1–77. 10.1016/S0370-1573(00)00070-3MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Hilfer R:
*Applications of Fractional Calculus in Physics*. World Scientific, Singapore; 2000:viii+463.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Golmankhaneh AK, Golmankhaneh AK, Baleanu D:
**On nonlinear fractional Klein-Gordon equation.***Signal Processing*2011,**91:**446–451. 10.1016/j.sigpro.2010.04.016View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Rida SZ, El-Sherbiny HM, Arafa AAM:
**On the solution of the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation.***Physics Letters A*2008,**372**(5):553–558. 10.1016/j.physleta.2007.06.071MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Jiang XY, Xu MY:
**Analysis of fractional anomalous diffusion caused by an instantaneous point source in disordered fractal media.***International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics*2006,**41:**156–165. 10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2004.07.023View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Wang S, Xu M:
**Axial Couette flow of two kinds of fractional viscoelastic fluids in an annulus.***Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications*2009,**10**(2):1087–1096. 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2007.11.027MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - He J-H:
**Homotopy perturbation technique.***Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering*1999,**178**(3–4):257–262. 10.1016/S0045-7825(99)00018-3MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - He J-H:
**A coupling method of a homotopy technique and a perturbation technique for non-linear problems.***International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics*2000,**35**(1):37–43. 10.1016/S0020-7462(98)00085-7MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - He J-H:
**The homotopy perturbation method nonlinear oscillators with discontinuities.***Applied Mathematics and Computation*2004,**151**(1):287–292. 10.1016/S0096-3003(03)00341-2MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - He JH:
**Application of homotopy perturbation method to nonlinear wave equations.***Chaos, Solitons & Fractals*2005,**26:**695–700. 10.1016/j.chaos.2005.03.006View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Li X, Xu M, Jiang X:
**Homotopy perturbation method to time-fractional diffusion equation with a moving boundary condition.***Applied Mathematics and Computation*2009,**208**(2):434–439. 10.1016/j.amc.2008.12.023MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Wang Q:
**Homotopy perturbation method for fractional KdV-Burgers equation.***Chaos, Solitons & Fractals*2008,**35**(5):843–850. 10.1016/j.chaos.2006.05.074MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Momani S, Odibat Z:
**Homotopy perturbation method for nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order.***Physics Letters A*2007,**365**(5–6):345–350. 10.1016/j.physleta.2007.01.046MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Odibat Z, Momani S:
**Modified homotopy perturbation method: application to quadratic Riccati differential equation of fractional order.***Chaos, Solitons & Fractals*2008,**36**(1):167–174. 10.1016/j.chaos.2006.06.041MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Shakeri F, Dehghan M:
**Numerical solution of a biological population model using He's variational iteration method.***Computers & Mathematics with Applications*2007,**54**(7–8):1197–1209. 10.1016/j.camwa.2006.12.076MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Rida SZ, Arafa AAM:
**Exact solutions of fractional-order biological population model.***Communications in Theoretical Physics*2009,**52**(6):992–996. 10.1088/0253-6102/52/6/04MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Tan Y, Xu H, Liao S-J:
**Explicit series solution of travelling waves with a front of Fisher equation.***Chaos, Solitons & Fractals*2007,**31**(2):462–472. 10.1016/j.chaos.2005.10.001MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Petrovskii S, Shigesada N:
**Some exact solutions of a generalized Fisher equation related to the problem of biological invasion.***Mathematical Biosciences*2001,**172**(2):73–94. 10.1016/S0025-5564(01)00068-2MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Dunbar SR:
**Travelling wave solutions of diffusive Lotka-Volterra equations.***Journal of Mathematical Biology*1983,**17**(1):11–32.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Gourley SA, Britton NF:
**A predator-prey reaction-diffusion system with nonlocal effects.***Journal of Mathematical Biology*1996,**34**(3):297–333.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Petrovskii S, Malchow H, Li B-L:
**An exact solution of a diffusive predator-prey system.***Proceedings of The Royal Society of London A*2005,**461**(2056):1029–1053. 10.1098/rspa.2004.1404MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kadem A, Baleanu D:
**Homotopy perturbation method for the coupled fractional Lotka-Volterra equations.***Romanian Journal of Physics*2011.,**56:**Google Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.