Open Access

Nonlinear Delay Discrete Inequalities and Their Applications to Volterra Type Difference Equations

Advances in Difference Equations20102010:795145

Received: 7 September 2009

Accepted: 14 January 2010

Published: 21 January 2010


Delay discrete inequalities with more than one nonlinear term are discussed, which generalize some known results and can be used in the analysis of various problems in the theory of certain classes of discrete equations. Application examples to show boundedness and uniqueness of solutions of a Volterra type difference equation are also given.

1. Introduction

Gronwall-Bellman inequalities and their various linear and nonlinear generalizations play very important roles in the discussion of existence, uniqueness, continuation, boundedness, and stability properties of solutions of differential equations and difference equations. The literature on such inequalities and their applications is vast. For example, see [112] for continuous cases, and [1320] for discrete cases. In particular, the book [21] written by Pachpatte considered three types of discrete inequalities:


In this paper, we consider a delay discrete inequality


which has nonlinear terms where . We will show that many discrete inequalities like (1.1) can be reduced to this form. Our main result can be applied to analyze properties of solutions of discrete equations. We also give examples to show boundedness and uniqueness of solutions of a Volterra type difference equation.

2. Main Results

Assume that
  • (C1) is nonnegative for and ;

  • (C2) are nondecreasing for , the range of each belongs to , and ;

  • (C3) all are nonnegative for ;

  • (C4) all are continuous and nondecreasing functions on and are positive on . They satisfy the relationship where means that is nondecreasing on (see [10]).

Let for where is a given constant. Then, is strictly increasing so its inverse is well defined, continuous, and increasing in its corresponding domain. Define , and .

Theorem 2.1.

Suppose that ( )–( ) hold and is a nonnegative function for satisfying (1.2). Then
where , , is determined recursively by
, , (Identity), and is the largest positive integer such that
Remark 2.2.
  1. (1)

    is defined by (2.3) and when all satisfy . Different choices of in do not affect our results (see [2]).

  2. (2)

    If for , then (2.1) gives the estimate of the following inequality:


by replacing , , , , and with , , , and , respectively. Especially, if and , then (1.2) for becomes the first inequality of (1.1). Equation (2.1) shows the same estimate given by ( ) of Theorem 4.2.3 in the book [21].

Lemma 2.3.

is nonnegative and nondecreasing in , and is nonnegative and nondecreasing in and for .


By the definitions of and , it is easy to check that they are nonnegative and nondecreasing in , and and for each fixed where . in ( ) implies that for all . Clearly,
where is used, which yields that and are nondecreasing in . Assume that is nondecreasing in . Then

which implies that is nondecreasing in . By induction, are nondecreasing in . Similarly, we can prove that they are nonnegative by induction again. Then are nonnegative and nondecreasing in and .

Proof of Theorem 2.1.

Take any arbitrary positive integer and consider the auxiliary inequality
Claim that in (2.7) satisfies
for where is the largest positive integer such that

Before we prove (2.8), notice that . In fact, , , and are nondecreasing in by Lemma 2.3. Thus, satisfying (2.9) gets smaller as is chosen larger. In particular, satisfies the same (2.3) as for if is applied.

We divide the proof of (2.8) into two steps by using induction.

Step 1 ( ).

Let for and . It is clear that is nonnegative and nondecreasing. Observe that (2.7) is equivalent to for and by assumptions ( ) and ( ) and Lemma 2.3,
Since is nondecreasing and , we have
and so
The definition of in Theorem 2.1 and show
Equation (2.9) shows that the right side of (2.14) is in the domain of for all . Thus the monotonicity of implies

for ; that is, (2.8) is true for .

Step 2 ( ).

Assume that (2.8) is true for . Consider
Let and . Then is nonnegative and nondecreasing and satisfies for . Moreover, we have
Since and are nondecreasing in their arguments and , we have by the assumption
for where for , which gives
that is,
or equivalently
the same as (2.7) for where and
From the assumption ( ), each , , is continuous and nondecreasing on and is positive on since is continuous and nondecreasing on . Moreover, . By the inductive assumption, we have
for where , , (Identity), , is the inverse of , , ,
i and is the largest positive integer such that
Note that
Thus, we have from (2.24) that

for since .

In the following, we prove that by induction again.

It is clear that for . Suppose that for . We have


where is applied. It implies that it is true for . Thus, for .

Equation (2.26) becomes

for . It implies that . Thus, (2.28) becomes

for . It shows that (2.8) is true for . Thus, the claim is proved.

Now we prove (2.1). Replacing by in (2.8), we have

Since (2.8) is true for any , we replace by and get

This is exactly (2.1) since . This proves Theorem 2.1.

Remark 2.4.

If for all , then . Let where is given in . Using the same arguments as in (2.11) where is replaced with the positive , we have and (2.14) becomes
that is,

which is the same as (2.15) with a complementary definition that . From ( ) of Remark 2.2, the estimate of (2.35) is independent of . Then we similarly obtain (2.1) and all are defined by the same formula (2.2) where we define for .

3. Some Corollaries

In this section, we apply Theorem 2.1 and obtain some corollaries.

Assume that is a strictly increasing function with where . Consider the inequality


Corollary 3.1.

Suppose that )–( ) hold. If in(3.1)is nonnegative for , then

for where , is the inverse of , , , , and other related functions are defined as in Theorem 2.1 by replacing with .


Let . Then (3.1) becomes

Note that satisfy ( ) for . Using Theorem 2.1, we obtain the estimate about by replacing with . Then use the fact that and we get Corollary 3.1.

If where , then (3.1) reads


Directly using Corollary 3.1, we have the following result.

Corollary 3.2.

Suppose that )–( ) hold. If in (3.4) is nonnegative for , then

for where , is the inverse of , , , , and other related functions are defined as in Theorem 2.1 by replacing with .

If , , , (3.4) becomes the second inequality of (1.1) with and , and the third inequality of (1.1) with and , which are discussed in the book [21]. Equation (3.5) yields the same estimates of Theorem 4.2.4 in the book [21].

4. Applications to Volterra Type Difference Equations

In this section, we apply Theorem 2.1 to study boundedness and uniqueness of solutions of a nonlinear delay difference equation of the form


where is an unknown function, maps from to , and map from to , and satisfies the assumption ( ) for .


Suppose that and the functions and in (4.1) satisfy the conditions
where . If is a solution of (4.1) on , then


Using (4.1) and (4.2), the solution satisfies
Clearly, for all since . For positive constants , we have
It is obvious that and satisfy ( ). Applying Theorem 2.1 gives

which implies (4.3).


Suppose that and the functions and in (4.1) satisfy the conditions

where . Then (4.1) has at most one solution on .


Let and be two solutions of (4.1) on . From (4.9), we have

where , , and . Appling Theorem 2.1, Remark 2.4, and the notation for , we obtain that which implies that the solution is unique.



This paper was supported by Guangdong Provincial natural science Foundation (07301595). The authors would like to thank Professor Boling Guo for his great help.

Authors’ Affiliations

Yibin University
Department of Mathematics, Zhanjiang Normal University
Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics


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© Yu Wu et al. 2010

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