 Research Article
 Open Access
 Published:
Nonlinear Delay Discrete Inequalities and Their Applications to Volterra Type Difference Equations
Advances in Difference Equations volume 2010, Article number: 795145 (2010)
Abstract
Delay discrete inequalities with more than one nonlinear term are discussed, which generalize some known results and can be used in the analysis of various problems in the theory of certain classes of discrete equations. Application examples to show boundedness and uniqueness of solutions of a Volterra type difference equation are also given.
1. Introduction
GronwallBellman inequalities and their various linear and nonlinear generalizations play very important roles in the discussion of existence, uniqueness, continuation, boundedness, and stability properties of solutions of differential equations and difference equations. The literature on such inequalities and their applications is vast. For example, see [1–12] for continuous cases, and [13–20] for discrete cases. In particular, the book [21] written by Pachpatte considered three types of discrete inequalities:
In this paper, we consider a delay discrete inequality
which has nonlinear terms where . We will show that many discrete inequalities like (1.1) can be reduced to this form. Our main result can be applied to analyze properties of solutions of discrete equations. We also give examples to show boundedness and uniqueness of solutions of a Volterra type difference equation.
2. Main Results
Assume that

(C_{1}) is nonnegative for and ;

(C_{2}) are nondecreasing for , the range of each belongs to , and ;

(C_{3}) all are nonnegative for ;

(C_{4}) all are continuous and nondecreasing functions on and are positive on . They satisfy the relationship where means that is nondecreasing on (see [10]).
Let for where is a given constant. Then, is strictly increasing so its inverse is well defined, continuous, and increasing in its corresponding domain. Define , and .
Theorem 2.1.
Suppose that ()–() hold and is a nonnegative function for satisfying (1.2). Then
where , , is determined recursively by
, , (Identity), and is the largest positive integer such that
Remark 2.2.

(1)
is defined by (2.3) and when all satisfy . Different choices of in do not affect our results (see [2]).

(2)
If for , then (2.1) gives the estimate of the following inequality:
by replacing , , , , and with , , , and , respectively. Especially, if and , then (1.2) for becomes the first inequality of (1.1). Equation (2.1) shows the same estimate given by () of Theorem 4.2.3 in the book [21].
Lemma 2.3.
is nonnegative and nondecreasing in , and is nonnegative and nondecreasing in and for .
Proof.
By the definitions of and , it is easy to check that they are nonnegative and nondecreasing in , and and for each fixed where . in () implies that for all . Clearly,
where is used, which yields that and are nondecreasing in . Assume that is nondecreasing in . Then
which implies that is nondecreasing in . By induction, are nondecreasing in . Similarly, we can prove that they are nonnegative by induction again. Then are nonnegative and nondecreasing in and .
Proof of Theorem 2.1.
Take any arbitrary positive integer and consider the auxiliary inequality
Claim that in (2.7) satisfies
for where is the largest positive integer such that
Before we prove (2.8), notice that . In fact, , , and are nondecreasing in by Lemma 2.3. Thus, satisfying (2.9) gets smaller as is chosen larger. In particular, satisfies the same (2.3) as for if is applied.
We divide the proof of (2.8) into two steps by using induction.
Step 1 ().
Let for and . It is clear that is nonnegative and nondecreasing. Observe that (2.7) is equivalent to for and by assumptions () and () and Lemma 2.3,
Since is nondecreasing and , we have
Then
and so
The definition of in Theorem 2.1 and show
Equation (2.9) shows that the right side of (2.14) is in the domain of for all . Thus the monotonicity of implies
for ; that is, (2.8) is true for .
Step 2 ().
Assume that (2.8) is true for . Consider
Let and . Then is nonnegative and nondecreasing and satisfies for . Moreover, we have
Since and are nondecreasing in their arguments and , we have by the assumption
for where for , which gives
Therefore,
that is,
or equivalently
the same as (2.7) for where and
From the assumption (), each , , is continuous and nondecreasing on and is positive on since is continuous and nondecreasing on . Moreover, . By the inductive assumption, we have
for where , , (Identity), , is the inverse of , , ,
i and is the largest positive integer such that
Note that
Thus, we have from (2.24) that
for since .
In the following, we prove that by induction again.
It is clear that for . Suppose that for . We have
where is applied. It implies that it is true for . Thus, for .
Equation (2.26) becomes
for . It implies that . Thus, (2.28) becomes
for . It shows that (2.8) is true for . Thus, the claim is proved.
Now we prove (2.1). Replacing by in (2.8), we have
Since (2.8) is true for any , we replace by and get
This is exactly (2.1) since . This proves Theorem 2.1.
Remark 2.4.
If for all , then . Let where is given in . Using the same arguments as in (2.11) where is replaced with the positive , we have and (2.14) becomes
that is,
which is the same as (2.15) with a complementary definition that . From () of Remark 2.2, the estimate of (2.35) is independent of . Then we similarly obtain (2.1) and all are defined by the same formula (2.2) where we define for .
3. Some Corollaries
In this section, we apply Theorem 2.1 and obtain some corollaries.
Assume that is a strictly increasing function with where . Consider the inequality
Corollary 3.1.
Suppose that )–() hold. Ifin(3.1)is nonnegative for, then
for where , is the inverse of , , , , and other related functions are defined as in Theorem 2.1 by replacing with .
Proof.
Let . Then (3.1) becomes
Note that satisfy () for . Using Theorem 2.1, we obtain the estimate about by replacing with . Then use the fact that and we get Corollary 3.1.
If where , then (3.1) reads
Directly using Corollary 3.1, we have the following result.
Corollary 3.2.
Suppose that )–() hold. If in (3.4) is nonnegative for, then
for where , is the inverse of , , , , and other related functions are defined as in Theorem 2.1 by replacing with .
If , , , (3.4) becomes the second inequality of (1.1) with and , and the third inequality of (1.1) with and , which are discussed in the book [21]. Equation (3.5) yields the same estimates of Theorem 4.2.4 in the book [21].
4. Applications to Volterra Type Difference Equations
In this section, we apply Theorem 2.1 to study boundedness and uniqueness of solutions of a nonlinear delay difference equation of the form
where is an unknown function, maps from to , and map from to , and satisfies the assumption () for .
Theorem.
Suppose that and the functions and in (4.1) satisfy the conditions
where . If is a solution of (4.1) on , then
where
Proof.
Using (4.1) and (4.2), the solution satisfies
where
Clearly, for all since . For positive constants , we have
It is obvious that and satisfy (). Applying Theorem 2.1 gives
which implies (4.3).
Theorem.
Suppose that and the functions and in (4.1) satisfy the conditions
where . Then (4.1) has at most one solution on .
Proof.
Let and be two solutions of (4.1) on . From (4.9), we have
where , , and . Appling Theorem 2.1, Remark 2.4, and the notation for , we obtain that which implies that the solution is unique.
References
 1.
Agarwal RP:On an integral inequality in independent variables. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 1982,85(1):192196. 10.1016/0022247X(82)900348
 2.
Agarwal RP, Deng S, Zhang W: Generalization of a retarded Gronwalllike inequality and its applications. Applied Mathematics and Computation 2005,165(3):599612. 10.1016/j.amc.2004.04.067
 3.
Bihari I: A generalization of a lemma of Bellman and its application to uniqueness problems of differential equations. Acta Mathematica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 1956, 7: 8194. 10.1007/BF02022967
 4.
Cheung WS: Some new nonlinear inequalities and applications to boundary value problems. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2006,64(9):21122128. 10.1016/j.na.2005.08.009
 5.
Choi SK, Deng S, Koo NJ, Zhang W:Nonlinear integral inequalities of Biharitype without class . Mathematical Inequalities & Applications 2005,8(4):643654.
 6.
Horváth L: Generalizations of special Bihari type integral inequalities. Mathematical Inequalities & Applications 2005,8(3):441449.
 7.
Lungu N: On some GronwallBihariWendorfftype inequalities. Fixed Point Theory 2002, 3: 249254.
 8.
Pachpatte BG: On generalizations of Bihari's inequality. Soochow Journal of Mathematics 2005,31(2):261271.
 9.
Pachpatte BG: Integral inequalities of the Bihari type. Mathematical Inequalities & Applications 2002,5(4):649657.
 10.
Pinto M: Integral inequalities of Biharitype and applications. Funkcialaj Ekvacioj 1990,33(3):387403.
 11.
Ye H, Gao J, Ding Y: A generalized Gronwall inequality and its application to a fractional differential equation. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2007,328(2):10751081. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2006.05.061
 12.
Zhang W, Deng S: Projected GronwallBellman's inequality for integrable functions. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 2001,34(34):393402. 10.1016/S08957177(01)00070X
 13.
Cheung WS: Some discrete nonlinear inequalities and applications to boundary value problems for difference equations. Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 2004,10(2):213223. 10.1080/10236190310001604238
 14.
Cheung WS, Ren J: Discrete nonlinear inequalities and applications to boundary value problems. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2006,319(2):708724. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.06.064
 15.
Deng S, Prather C: Nonlinear discrete inequalities of Biharitype. submitted
 16.
Pachpatte BG: On Bihari like integral and discrete inequalities. Soochow Journal of Mathematics 1991,17(2):213232.
 17.
Phat VN, Park JY: On the Gronwall inequality and asymptotic stability of nonlinear discrete systems with multiple delays. Dynamic Systems and Applications 2001,10(4):577588.
 18.
Popenda J, Agarwal RP: Discrete Gronwall inequalities in many variables. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 1999,38(1):6370. 10.1016/S08981221(99)001698
 19.
Tao L, Yong H: A generalization of discrete Gronwall inequality and its application to weakly singular Volterra integral equation of the second kind. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2003,282(1):5662. 10.1016/S0022247X(02)003694
 20.
Wong FH, Yeh CC, Hong CH: Gronwall inequalities on time scales. Mathematical Inequalities & Applications 2006,9(1):7586.
 21.
Pachpatte BG: Integral and Finite Difference Inequalities and Applications, NorthHolland Mathematics Studies. Volume 205. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2006:x+309.
Acknowledgments
This paper was supported by Guangdong Provincial natural science Foundation (07301595). The authors would like to thank Professor Boling Guo for his great help.
Author information
Affiliations
Corresponding author
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Wu, Y., Li, X. & Deng, S. Nonlinear Delay Discrete Inequalities and Their Applications to Volterra Type Difference Equations. Adv Differ Equ 2010, 795145 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/795145
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/795145
Keywords
 Functional Equation
 Difference Equation
 Nonlinear Term
 Stability Property
 Nonnegative Function