- Research Article
- Open Access

# On the Symmetric Properties of Higher-Order Twisted -Euler Numbers and Polynomials

- Eun-Jung Moon
^{1}, - Seog-Hoon Rim
^{2}Email author, - Jeong-Hee Jin
^{1}and - Sun-Jung Lee
^{1}

**2010**:765259

https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/765259

© Eun-Jung Moon et al. 2010

**Received:**14 December 2009**Accepted:**19 March 2010**Published:**30 March 2010

## Abstract

In 2009, Kim et al. gave some identities of symmetry for the twisted Euler polynomials of higher-order, recently. In this paper, we extend our result to the higher-order twisted -Euler numbers and polynomials. The purpose of this paper is to establish various identities concerning higher-order twisted -Euler numbers and polynomials by the properties of -adic invariant integral on . Especially, if , we derive the result of Kim et al. (2009).

## Keywords

- Differential Equation
- Partial Differential Equation
- Ordinary Differential Equation
- Functional Analysis
- Functional Equation

## 1. Introduction

Let be a fixed odd prime number. Throughout this paper, the symbols and will denote the ring of rational integers, the ring of adic integers, the field of adic rational numbers, the complex number field, and the completion of the algebraic closure of , respectively. Let be the set of natural numbers and . Let be the normalized exponential valuation of with

When one talks of -extension, is variously considered as an indeterminate, a complex , or a -adic number . If one normally assumes that . If , then we assume that so that for each We use the following notation:

For a fixed positive integer with , set

where satisfies the condition For any

(see [1–13]) is known to be a distribution on .

We say that is a uniformly differentiable function at and denote this property by if the difference quotients

have a limit as

For the fermionic -adic invariant -integral on is defined as

(see [14]). Let us define the fermionic -adic invariant integral on as follows:

(see [1–12, 14–20]). From the definition of integral, we have

For , let be the adic locally constant space defined by

where for some is the cyclic group of order

It is well known that the twisted Euler polynomials of order are defined as

and are called the twisted Euler numbers of order When the polynomials and numbers are called the twisted Euler polynomials and numbers, respectively. When and , the polynomials and numbers are called the twisted Euler polynomials and numbers, respectively. When , and , the polynomials and numbers are called the ordinary Euler polynomials and numbers, respectively.

In [15], Kim et al. gave some identities of symmetry for the twisted Euler polynomials of higher order, recently. In this paper, we extend our result to the higher-order twisted Euler numbers and polynomials.

The purpose of this paper is to establish various identities concerning higher-order twisted -Euler numbers and polynomials by the properties of adic invariant integral on . Especially, if , we derive the result of [15].

## 2. Some Identities of the Higher-Order Twisted Euler Numbers and Polynomials

Let with and .

For and , we set

In (2.1), we note that is symmetric in and .

From (2.1), we derive that

From the definition of integral, we also see that

It is easy to see that

where .

From (2.3), (2.4), and (2.5), we can derive

From the symmetry of in and , we also see that

Comparing the coefficients on the both sides of (2.6) and (2.7), we obtain an identity for the twisted Euler polynomials of higher order as follows.

Theorem 2.1.

Let with and .

Remark 2.2.

Moreover, if we take and in Theorem 2.1, then we have the following identity for the twisted Euler numbers of higher order.

Corollary 2.3.

We also note that taking in Corollary shows the following identity:

Now we will derive another interesting identities for the twisted -Euler numbers and polynomials of higher order. From (2.3), we can derive that

From the symmetry of in and , we see that

Comparing the coefficients on the both sides of (2.12) and (2.13), we obtain the following theorem which shows the relationship between the power sums and the twisted Euler polynomials.

Theorem 2.4.

Remark 2.5.

Moreover, if we take and in Theorem 2.4, then we have the following identity for the twisted Euler numbers of higher order.

Corollary 2.6.

Remark 2.7.

If we can observe the result of [15].

## Authors’ Affiliations

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## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.