Regularly Varying Solutions of Second-Order Difference Equations with Arbitrary Sign Coefficient
© Matucci and P. Řehák. 2010
Received: 15 June 2010
Accepted: 25 October 2010
Published: 27 October 2010
Necessary and sufficient conditions for regular or slow variation of all positive solutions of a second-order linear difference equation with arbitrary sign coefficient are established. Relations with the so-called -classification are also analyzed and a generalization of the results to the half-linear case completes the paper.
The principal aim of this paper is to study asymptotic behavior of positive solutions to (1.1) in the framework of discrete regular variation. Our results extend the existing ones for (1.1), see , where the additional condition was assumed. We point out that the relaxation of this condition requires a different approach. At the same time, our results can be seen as a discrete counterpart to the ones for linear differential equations, see, for example, . As a byproduct, we obtain new nonoscillation criterion of Hille-Nehari type. We also examine relations with the so-called -classification (i.e., the classification of monotone solutions with respect to their limit behavior and the limit behavior of their difference). We point out that such relations could be established also in the continuous case, but, as far as we know, they have not been derived yet. In addition, we discuss relations with the sets of recessive and dominant solutions. A possible extension to the case of half-linear difference equations is also indicated.
The paper is organized as follows. In the next section we recall the concept of regularly varying sequences and mention some useful properties of (1.1) which are needed later. In the main section, that is, Section 3, we establish sufficient and necessary conditions guaranteeing that (1.1) has regularly varying solutions. Relations with the -classification is analyzed in Section 4. The paper is concluded by the section devoted to the generalization to the half-linear case.
In this section we recall basic properties of regularly and slowly varying sequences and present some useful information concerning (1.1).
The theory of regularly varying sequences (sometimes called Karamata sequences), initiated by Karamata  in the thirties, received a fundamental contribution in the seventies with the papers by Seneta et al. (see [4, 5]) starting from which quite many papers about regularly varying sequences have appeared, see  and the references therein. Here we make use of the following definition, which is a modification of the one given in , and is equivalent to the classical one, but it is more suitable for some applications to difference equations, see .
If , then is said to be slowly varying. Let us denote by the totality of regularly varying sequences of index and by the totality of slowly varying sequences. A positive sequence is said to be normalized regularly varying of index if it satisfies . If , then is called a normalized slowly varying sequence. In the sequel, and will denote, respectively, the set of all normalized regularly varying sequences of index , and the set of all normalized slowly varying sequences. For instance, the sequence , and the sequence , for every ; on the other hand, the sequence .
The main properties of regularly varying sequences, useful to the development of the theory in the subsequent sections, are listed in the following proposition. The proofs of the statements can be found in , see also [4, 5].
We end this section recalling the definition of recessive solution of (1.1). Assume that (1.1) is nonoscillatory. A solution of (1.1) is said to be a recessive solution if for any other solution of (1.1), with , , it holds . Recessive solutions are uniquely determined up to a constant factor, and any other linearly independent solution is called a dominant solution. Let be a solution of (1.1), positive for . The following characterization holds: is recessive if and only if ; is dominant if and only if .
3. Regularly Varying Solutions of Linear Difference Equations
Now we prove the main statement.
Now, thanks to the contraction mapping theorem, there exists a unique element such that . Thus is a solution of (3.16), and hence of (3.11), and is positively decreasing towards zero. Clearly, defined by (3.9) is such that and therefore for large . This implies that defined by (3.8) is a nonoscillatory (positive) solution of (1.1). Since , we get , see Proposition 2.2. By the same proposition, can be written as , where .
(i) In the above proof, the contraction mapping theorem was used to construct a recessive solution . A dominant solution resulted from by means of the known formula for linearly independent solutions. A suitable modification of the approach used for the recessive solution leads to the direct construction of a dominant solution . This can be useful, for instance, in the half-linear case, where we do not have a formula for linearly independent solutions, see Section 5.
As a direct consequence of Theorem 3.1 we have obtained the following new nonoscillation criterion.
then (1.1) is nonoscillatory.
Throughout this section we assume that is eventually of one sign. In this case, all nonoscillatory solutions of (1.1) are eventually monotone, together with their first difference, and therefore can be a priori classified according to their monotonicity and to the values of the limits at infinity of themselves and of their first difference. A classification of this kind is sometimes called -classification, see, for example, [9–12] for a complete treatment including more general equations. The aim of this section is to analyze the relations between the classification of the eventually positive solutions according to their regularly varying behavior, and the -classification. The relations with the set of recessive solutions and the set of dominant solutions will be also discussed. We point out that all the results in this section could be established also in the continuous case and, as far as we know, have never been derived both in the discrete and in the continuous case.
Theorem 4.2 (see ).
We end this section by remarking that in this case positive solutions are convex and therefore they can exhibit also a rapidly varying behavior, unlike the previous case in which positive solutions are concave. We address the reader interested in this subject to the paper , in which the properties of rapidly varying sequences are described and the existence of rapidly varying solutions of (1.1) is completely analyzed for the case .
5. Regularly Varying Solutions of Half-Linear Difference Equations
where and , , for every . For basic information on qualitative theory of (5.1) see, for example, .
The main idea of the proof is the analogous of the linear case, apart from some additional technical problems. We omit all the details, pointing out only the main differences.
Similarly as in the linear case, as a direct consequence of Theorem 5.1 we obtain the following new nonoscillation criterion. Recall that a Sturm type separation theorem holds for equation (5.1), see , hence one solution of (5.1) is nonoscillatory if and only if every solution of (5.1) is nonoscillatory.
then (5.1) is nonoscillatory.
This work was supported by the grants 201/10/1032 and 201/08/0469 of the Czech Grant Agency and by the Institutional Research Plan No. AV0Z10190503.
- Matucci S, Řehák P: Second order linear difference equations and Karamata sequences. International Journal of Difference Equations 2008,3(2):277-288.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Marić V: Regular Variation and Differential Equations, Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Volume 1726. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 2000:x+127.MATHGoogle Scholar
- Karamata J: Sur certain "Tauberian theorems" de M. M. Hardy et Littlewood. Mathematica (Cluj) 3 1930, 33-48.Google Scholar
- Bojanić R, Seneta E: A unified theory of regularly varying sequences. Mathematische Zeitschrift 1973, 134: 91-106. 10.1007/BF01214468MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Galambos J, Seneta E: Regularly varying sequences. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society 1973, 41: 110-116. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1973-0323963-5MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Matucci S, Řehák P: Regularly varying sequences and second order difference equations. Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 2008,14(1):17-30. 10.1080/10236190701466728MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Jaroš J, Kusano T: Self-adjoint differential equations and generalized Karamata functions. Bulletin. Classe des Sciences Mathématiques et Naturelles 2004, (29):25-60. 10.2298/BMAT0429025JMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Řehák P: Oscillation and nonoscillation criteria for second order linear difference equations. Fasciculi Mathematici 2001, (31):71-89.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Cecchi M, Došlá Z, Marini M: Positive decreasing solutions of quasi-linear difference equations. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 2001,42(10-11):1401-1410. 10.1016/S0898-1221(01)00249-8MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Cecchi M, Došlá Z, Marini M, Vrkoč I: Summation inequalities and half-linear difference equations. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2005,302(1):1-13. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2004.08.005MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Cecchi M, Došlá Z, Marini M: On the growth of nonoscillatory solutions for difference equations with deviating argument. Advances in Difference Equations 2008, -15.Google Scholar
- Cecchi M, Došlá Z, Marini M: On oscillation and nonoscillation properties of Emden-Fowler difference equations. Central European Journal of Mathematics 2009,7(2):322-334. 10.2478/s11533-009-0014-7MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Řehák P: Oscillatory properties of second order half-linear difference equations. Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal 2001,51(2):303-321. 10.1023/A:1013790713905MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Jaroš J, Kusano T, Tanigawa T: Nonoscillation theory for second order half-linear differential equations in the framework of regular variation. Results in Mathematics 2003,43(1-2):129-149.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.