 Research Article
 Open Access
Oscillation for a Class of SecondOrder EmdenFowler Delay Dynamic Equations on Time Scales
 Shurong Sun^{1, 2}Email author,
 Zhenlai Han^{1, 3},
 Ping Zhao^{4} and
 Chao Zhang^{1}
https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/642356
© Shurong Sun et al. 2010
 Received: 13 December 2009
 Accepted: 4 March 2010
 Published: 8 March 2010
Abstract
By means of Riccati transformation technique, we establish some new oscillation criteria for the secondorder EmdenFowler delay dynamic equations on a time scale ; here is a quotient of odd positive integers with and as realvalued positive rdcontinuous functions defined on . Our results in this paper not only extend the results given in Agarwal et al. (2005), AkinBohner et al. (2007) and Han et al. (2007) but also unify the results about oscillation of the secondorder EmdenFowler delay differential equation and the secondorder EmdenFowler delay difference equation.
Keywords
 Delay Differential Equation
 Nonoscillatory Solution
 Oscillation Criterion
 Continuous Dynamic System
 Nonlinear Dynamic Equation
1. Introduction
The theory of time scales, which has recently received a lot of attention, was introduced by Hilger in his Ph.D. Thesis in 1988 in order to unify continuous and discrete analysis (see Hilger [1]). Several authors have expounded on various aspects of this new theory; see the survey paper by Agarwal et al. [2] and references cited therein. A book on the subject of time scales, by Bohner and Peterson [3], summarizes and organizes much of the time scale calculus; we refer also to the last book by Bohner and Peterson [4] for advances in dynamic equations on time scales. For the notions used below, we refer to the next section that provides some basic facts on time scales extracted from Bohner and Peterson [3].
A time scale is an arbitrary closed subset of the reals, and the cases when this time scale is equal to the reals or to the integers represent the classical theories of differential and of difference equations. Not only does the new theory of the socalled dynamic equations unify the theories of differential equations and difference equations, but also it extends these classical cases to cases in between, for example, to the socalled difference equations when which has important applications in quantum theory and can be applied on different types of time scales like , and the space of the harmonic numbers.
Many other interesting time scales exist, and they give rise to plenty of applications, among them the study of population dynamic models which are discrete in season (and may follow a difference scheme with variable stepsize or often modeled by continuous dynamic systems), die out, say in winter, while their eggs are incubating or dormant, and then in season again, hatching gives rise to a nonoverlapping population (see Bohner and Peterson [3]).
In recent years, there has been much research activity concerning the oscillation and nonoscillation of solutions of various equations on time scales, and we refer the reader to AkinBohner and Hoffacker [5, 6], AkinBohner et al. [7], Bohner and Saker [8], Erbe [9], Erbe et al. [10], Li et al. [11], and Saker [12, 13]. However, there are few results dealing with the oscillation of the solutions of delay dynamic equations on time scales [14–29].
Following this trend, in this paper, we consider a secondorder nonlinear delay differential equation
For oscillation of the secondorder delay dynamic equations, Agarwal et al. [14] considered the secondorder delay dynamic equations on time scales
and established some sufficient conditions for oscillation of (1.2).
Zhang and Shanliang [29] studied the secondorder nonlinear delay dynamic equations on time scales
and the secondorder nonlinear dynamic equations on time scales
where and is continuous and nondecreasing , and for , and established the equivalence of the oscillation of (1.3) and (1.4). However, the results established in [29] are valid only when the graininess function is bounded which is a restrictive condition. Also the restriction is required.
Şahiner [23] considered the secondorder nonlinear delay dynamic equations on time scales
where is continuous, for and , and and obtained some sufficient conditions for oscillation of (1.5).
Han et al. [17] investigated the secondorder EmdenFowler delay dynamic equations on time scales
established some sufficient conditions for oscillation of (1.6), and extended the results given in [14].
Erbe et al. [28] considered the general nonlinear delay dynamic equations on time scales
where and are positive, realvalued rdcontinuous functions defined on , is rdcontinuous, and as , and satisfies for some positive constant , for all nonzero , and extended the generalized Riccati transformation techniques in the time scales setting to obtain some new oscillation criteria which improve the results given by Şahiner [23] and Zhang and Shanliang [29].
Clearly, (1.2), (1.3), (1.5), (1.6), and (1.7) are different from (1.1). To develop the qualitative theory of delay dynamic equations on time scales, in this paper, we consider the secondorder nonlinear delay dynamic equation on time scales (1.1).
As we are interested in oscillatory behavior, we assume throughout this paper that the given time scale is unbounded above, that is, it is a time scale interval of the form with .
We assume that is a quotient of odd positive integer, and are positive, realvalued rdcontinuous functions defined on and , is a rdcontinuous function such that and .
We shall also consider the two cases
By a solution of (1.1), we mean a nontrivial realvalued function satisfying (1.1) for . A solution of (1.1) is called oscillatory if it is neither eventually positive nor eventually negative; otherwise, it is called nonoscillatory. Equation (1.1) is called oscillatory if all solutions are oscillatory. Our attention is restricted to those solutions of (1.1) which exist on some half line with for any .
We note that if , then , and (1.1) becomes the secondorder EmdenFowler delay differential equation
If , then and (1.1) becomes the secondorder EmdenFowler delay difference equation
In the case of , (1.1) is the prototype of a wide class of nonlinear dynamic equations called EmdenFowler superlinear dynamic equations, and if , then (1.1) is the prototype of dynamic equations called EmdenFowler sublinear dynamic equations. It is interesting to study (1.1) because the continuous version, that is, (1.10), has several physical applications—see, for example, [1] —and when is a discrete variable as in (1.11), (1.1) also has important applications.
Numerous oscillation and nonoscillation criteria have been established for equations as (1.10) and (1.11); see, for example, [1, 30–36] and references therein.
In this paper, we intend to use the Riccati transformation technique for obtaining several oscillation criteria for (1.1). Our results in this paper not only extend the results given in Agarwal et al. [14] and Han et al. [17] but also unify the oscillation of the secondorder EmdenFowler delay differential equation and the secondorder EmdenFowler delay difference equation. Applications to equations to which previously known criteria for oscillation are not applicable are given.
This paper is organized as follows: in Section 2, we present the basic definitions and the theory of calculus on time scales. In Section 3, we apply a simple consequence of Kellers chain rule, devoted to the proof of the sufficient conditions for oscillation of all solutions of (1.1). In Section 4, some applications and examples are considered to illustrate the main results.
2. Some Preliminaries
A time scale is an arbitrary nonempty closed subset of the real numbers . Since we are interested in oscillatory behavior, we suppose that the time scale under consideration is not bounded above, that is, it is a time scale interval of the form . On any time scale, we define the forward and backward jump operators by
A point is said to be leftdense if , rightdense if , leftscattered if , and rightscattered if . The graininess of the time scale is defined by .
For a function (the range of may actually be replaced by any Banach space), the (delta) derivative is defined by
if is continuous at and is rightscattered. If is not rightscattered, then the derivative is defined by
provided this limit exists.
A function is said to be rdcontinuous if it is continuous at each rightdense point and if there exists a finite left limit in all leftdense points. The set of rdcontinuous functions is denoted by .
is said to be differentiable if its derivative exists. The set of functions that are differentiable and whose derivative is rdcontinuous function is denoted by .
The derivative and the shift operator are related by the formula
Let be a realvalued function defined on an interval . We say that is increasing, decreasing, nondecreasing, and nonincreasing on if and imply , , , and , respectively. Let be a differentiable function on . Then is increasing, decreasing, nondecreasing, and nonincreasing on if , , , and for all , respectively.
We will make use of the following product and quotient rules for the derivative of the product and the quotient of two differentiable functions and
For and a differentiable function , the Cauchy integral of is defined by
The integration by parts formula reads
and infinite integrals are defined as
In case , we have
And in case , we have
3. Main Results
In this section, we give some new oscillation criteria for (1.1). Since we are interested in oscillatory behavior, we will suppose that the time scale under consideration is not bounded above, that is, it is a time scale interval of the form . In order to prove our main results, we will use the formula
where is delta differentiable and eventually positive or eventually negative, which is a simple consequence of Keller's chain rule (see Bohner and Peterson [3, Theorem ]). Also, we need the following auxiliary result.
Lemma 3.1 (Şahiner [23, Lemma ]).

(H_{1}) , where for some ;

(H_{2}) , and for .
Lemma 3.2.
Proof.
and this contradicts the fact that for all . Hence is eventually positive. So is eventually positive. Then is eventually increasing.
From (3.4), (3.7), and , we can easily verify that is eventually negative. Therefore, we see that there is some such that (3.3) holds. The proof is complete.
Lemma 3.3.
The proof is similar to that of AkinBohner et al. [7, Lemma ].
Theorem 3.4.
then (1.1) is oscillatory on .
Proof.
which contradicts (4.3). The proof is complete.
Remark 3.5.
Theorem 3.4 includes results of AkinBohner et al. [7, Theorem ].
Putting that is, in Theorem 3.4, we obtain the following corollary.
Corollary 3.6.
then (1.1) is oscillatory on .
Theorem 3.7.
holds for all constants . Then (1.1) is oscillatory on .
Proof.
where if . If , we chose .
which contradicts (3.18). The proof is complete.
Remark 3.8.
Theorem 3.7 not only includes results of Agarwal et al. [14, Theorem ], AkinBohner et al. [7, Theorem ], and Han et al. [17, Theorem ], but also improves conditions of Agarwal et al. [14, Theorem ] and Han et al. [17, Theorem ].
From Theorem 3.7, we can obtain different conditions for oscillation of all solutions of (1.1) with different choices of .
For example, let . Now Theorem 3.4 yields the following results.
Corollary 3.9.
holds for all constants , then (1.1) is oscillatory on .
Sometimes the following criterion is easier to check than the one given in Corollary 3.6, but it follows easily from Corollary 3.6 as we always have for all .
Corollary 3.10.
holds for all constants , then (1.1) is oscillatory on .
Now, using Lemma 3.2, we can give some sufficient conditions when (1.9) holds, which guarantee that every solution of (1.1) oscillates or converges to zero in .
Theorem 3.11.
then every solution of (1.1) is oscillatory or converges to zero on .
Theorem 3.12.
holds for all constants . Then (1.1) is oscillatory on .
Proof.
which contradicts (3.29). The proof is complete.
Remark 3.13.
Theorem 3.12 includes results of AkinBohner et al. [7, Theorem ] and Han et al. [17, Theorem ] and improves conditions of Han [17, Theorem ].
From Theorem 3.12, we can obtain different conditions for oscillation of all solutions of (1.1) with different choices of .
For example, let . Now Theorem 3.12 yields the following results.
Corollary 3.14.
holds for all constants , then (1.1) is oscillatory on .
Sometimes the following criterion is easier to check than the one given in Corollary 3.14, but it follows easily from Corollary 3.14 as we always have for all .
Corollary 3.15.
holds for all constants , then (1.1) is oscillatory on .
4. Applications
In this section, we give one example to illustrate our main results. To obtain the conditions for oscillation, we will use the following fact:
For more details, we refer the reader to [4, Theorem ].
AkinBohner et al. [7] considered the secondorder dynamic equations on time scales
where is a quotient of odd positive integer, and are positive, realvalued rdcontinuous functions defined on , and established some new oscillation criteria of (4.2).
Theorem 4.1 (AkinBohner et al. [7, Theorem ]).
then (4.2) is oscillatory on .
We note that (1.1) becomes (4.2) when , and Theorem 3.4 becomes Theorem 4.1, so Theorem 3.4 essentially includes results of AkinBohner et al. [7, Theorem ].
Example 4.2.
for all constants . Then (4.4) is oscillatory on .
Declarations
Acknowledgments
This research is supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (60774004, 60904024), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project (20080441126, 200902564), Shandong Postdoctoral funded project (200802018), and supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong (Y2008A28, ZR2009AL003), also supported by the Fund of Doctoral Program Research of University of Jinan (B0621, XBS0843).
Authors’ Affiliations
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