- Research Article
- Open Access
Asymptotical Behaviors of Nonautonomous Discrete Kolmogorov System with Time Lags
© Shengqiang Liu. 2010
- Received: 23 November 2009
- Accepted: 24 April 2010
- Published: 31 May 2010
We discuss a general -species discrete Kolmogorov system with time lags. We build some new results about the sufficient conditions for permanence, extinction, and balancing survival. When applying these results to some Lotka-Volterra systems, we obtain the criteria on harmless delay for the permanence as well as profitless delay for balancing survival.
- Discrete System
- Delay Difference Equation
- Positive Initial Condition
- Delay Density Dependence
- Discrete Population Model
where and is the density of species at time Recently, Crone  showed that inclusion of effects of parental density on offspring mass fundamentally changes population dynamics models by making recruitment a function of population size in two previous generations. Wikan and Mjølhus  showed general delay may have different effects on species. By the above conclusions, it is realistic for us to consider the time-delayed discrete population models.
Liu et al.  showed that under some conditions, the inclusion, exclusion and change of time-delays cannot change the permanence, extinction and balancing survival of species. That is, time-delays maybe harmless for both the permanence and balancing survival of species, in addition to being profitless to the extinction of species. In particular, when , the extinction and permanence of this system were corresponding to some inequalities that only involve the coefficients therein, that is, permanence and extinction in this two-species system are determined only by three elements: growth rate, density dependence and interspecific competition rate.
where represents the density of population at the th generation; is the space of continuous mapping to with the uniform norm; and is a given function with with some positive below bounds for all , . We define
Suppose is a given integer. We denote with the uniform norm on , that is, for , where is a given norm on . For any function with and any , we define as for , and For the purpose of convenience, we write
Consequently, we get the general discrete Kolmogorov system (1.3) which embodies both the overlapping interactions among its species and the time-varying environments. Our model extends and joint those models in [11, 33–37].
Species is called permanent if there exists a positive interval such that will ultimately enter and stay in this interval. A population system is called a permanent one (uniformly persistent) if all of its species are permanent.
The purpose of this paper is to construct some general results for the long-time behaviors (permanence and balancing survival) of system (1.3) and study the effects of time delays on the asymptotical behaviors. We get the sufficient conditions for the permanence and balancing survival of system (1.3), which directly extend those in . We also apply the main results for (1.3) to the -species Lotka-Volterra systems of competitive type, which are one of the theoretical interests in population biology since they involve Ricker type (exponential) nonlinearities—one of the standard nonlinearities used in the business. And we obtain the sufficient conditions for system (1.3)'s permanence and balancing survival. These results are applied into the nonautonomous competitive delayed discrete Lotka-Volterra systems and directly generalize some relative results in [33–35, 37]. Moreover, we show the delays do not affect the permanence and balancing survival of the -species Lotka-Volterra discrete systems. Biologically speaking, that is, time delays are both harmless for permanence and profitless to the balancing survival of the system.
Our paper is organized as follows, in the next section we present and prove our main results. In Section 3, we apply the main results into the competitive Lotka-Volterra system and get the corresponding results for its permanence and balancing survival. Discussion follows at the last section.
In ecosystems, the natural resources are limited, so are the species that live in them, therefore, during this paper we always assume that system (1.3) is dissipative, namely system (1.3) is ultimately bounded. Hence there exist a positive constant and positive integer such that for all
In [35, Theorem ], Tang and Xiao constructed the sufficient conditions for the permanence of an autonomous two-species Kolmogorov system. Theorem 2.3 directly generalizes their results.
Using the arguments similar to Lemma in , we have the following.
Assume positive initial conditions hold for system (1.3), then each of its solution is positive with upper and lower bound.
Proof of Theorem 2.3.
We divide the arguments into the following several steps.
Hence we have two cases to consider.
then we obtain a contradiction, which finishes Step 2.
Let be sufficiently large such that for , let , that is, , Following Step 2, we can find a such that for all and By Property (ii) of Definition 2.2, we see that there is a desired such that for Here is dependent on
In this case, we first claim that there exists a sufficiently large for each such that If it is not true, that is, for all and for each . The definition of implies that for all large , and by the choice of and the definition of , we have , where is some constant with . Hence as A contradiction to the boundedness of (see Step 4). Then for each , there exists a sufficiently large integer such that . By Step 2, for all
We have the following theorem.
Assume there exists a vector -balancing survival Liapunov function for system (1.3), then system (1.3) is -balancing survival, that is, the species are extinct while the rest populations are permanent.
Then using the similararguments to Step 3–5 for Theorem 2.3, we prove Theorem 2.9.
Then we have the following.
Then system (3.1) is permanent.
where are defined in . By Theorem 2.3, we only need to prove the vector function is a vector Liapunov boundary function of system (3.1). With the similar arguments in , we can prove that is a boundary function. Hence we only need to prove the (ii) of Definition 2.2.
Then all species in system (3.1) except species 1 are going extinct while species 1 is permanent.
Kuang , Tang and Kuang , Liu and Chen  obtained the sufficient conditions for the permanence in the delayed -species Lotka-Volterra differential equations. They also proved that time-delays are harmless for the permanence of the continuous Lotka-Volterra system. Our results in Theorem 3.1 and Corollary 3.3 are analogous to theirs.
Noting all conditions in Theorems 3.1 and 3.2 and Corollary 3.3 are independent of the delays , then once conditions for this propositions are satisfied, the inclusion, exclusion or the variations of the time-delays will not affect the conclusions any more.
Proof of Theorem 3.2.
By Theorem 2.9, we only need to prove that is a vector -balancing survival function for system (3.1). With the similar arguments to Theorem in , we can prove is an -boundary function for system (3.1); by the dissipative property of system (3.1), we can prove that satisfies conditions for part in Definition 2.8.
Many authors have studied the effects of time delays on dynamics of population difference systems. Levin and May  showed excessive time lags could lead to stable oscillations behaviors. Crone  showed that the inclusion of time delays can dramatically change the dynamics and lead to chaos and cyclical. Further, Crone and Taylor  proved that inclusion of delays into the density dependence can destabilize the dynamics that may be stabilized by the nondelayed density dependence. Ginzburg and Taneybill  obtained that delays can produce patterns of population fluctuation. Keeling et al. [22, 45] showed that time delays might be one of the causes to stabilize the natural enemy victim interactions and allow the long term coexistence of the two species.
Harmless delays have been well-known for some continuous population since Wang and Ma  proved that delays are "harmless" for the permanence of a continuous Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system, similar conclusions can also be found in some competitive Lotka-Volterra systems (see [43, 49, 50]). Recently, Liu and Chen  proved the existence of "profitless delays", that is, the delays do not affect on species' extinction. For the discrete system, to study the effects of time delays on permanence, Tang and Xiao , Saito et al.  and Liu et al.  study the effects of time delays on the two-species competitive systems and they prove that time delays are "harmless" for the uniform persistence or permanence. Saito et al.  also discover the same conclusions for the two-species predator-prey systems.
Different from the above results, we consider the long-time behaviors of the discrete nonautonomous Kolmogorov-type population system with delays. We obtained the sufficient conditions for its permanence and balancing survival behaviors. These results have the advantage that we do not assume any sign condition on . So, we can study simultaneously several population models: competing species, predator-prey, mutualism, and so forth. In this paper, we have only applied the main results to Lotka-Volterra competing species.
When applying the results of Kolmogorov system into the nonautonomous the competitive system of Lotka-Volterra type, we construct the sufficient conditions for the permanence and balancing survival behaviors of these systems, with all the conditions independent of the time-delays. Hence if the nondelayed system is permanent, its corresponding delayed system will be permanent, too. If several species of the nondelayed systems are balancing survival, so will be in the corresponding delayed system. On the other hand, under the corresponding conditions, if the delayed system is permanent or some of its species go extinct (balancing survival), so will be in the relative nondelayed system.
Thus, under the proper conditions, neither can time delays break the permanence of some species into extinction, nor can they save the extinction of some species. Therefore, time-lags in the discrete competitive Lotka-Volterra system with time-varying environments are both harmless for the permanence and profitless to the extinction of species in system (3.1), these results confirm and improve our previous conclusions for the discrete autonomous Lotka-Volterra systems .
Further, we show that the permanence and extinction of the discrete system (3.1) are equivalent to their corresponding continuous systems (see [40, 43, 45]), where time delays are also both harmless for the permanence and profitless to the extinction of species of the system.
Time delays have been shown to dramatically change the dynamics of the discrete populations systems (see [15, 17, 22, 32]) and they may even lead to some complicated dynamical behaviors such as Crone . Based on our results, it would be interesting to consider the effects of time delay on the stability of discrete systems, we leave this as our future work.
The authors are grateful to the anonymous referees for their careful reading and valuable comments, which led to an improvement of their original manuscript. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no.10601042), Science Research Foundation in Harbin Institute of Technology (HITC200714) and the program of excellent Team in Harbin Institute of Technology. The authors would like to thank Dr. S. Tang and Prof. M. J. Keeling for sending their reprints/preprints to them.
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