# Oscillatory Behavior of Quasilinear Neutral Delay Dynamic Equations on Time Scales

- Zhenlai Han
^{1, 2}Email author, - Shurong Sun
^{1, 3}, - Tongxing Li
^{1}and - Chenghui Zhang
^{2}

**2010**:450264

https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/450264

© Zhenlai Han et al. 2010

**Received: **6 December 2009

**Accepted: **4 March 2010

**Published: **22 March 2010

## Abstract

By means of the averaging technique and the generalized Riccati transformation technique, we establish some oscillation criteria for the second-order quasilinear neutral delay dynamic equations , , where , and the time scale interval is . Our results in this paper not only extend the results given by Agarwal et al. (2005) but also unify the oscillation of the second-order neutral delay differential equations and the second-order neutral delay difference equations.

## Keywords

## 1. Introduction

The theory of time scales, which has recently received a lot of attention, was introduced by Hilger in his Ph.D. Thesis in 1988 in order to unify continuous and discrete analysis (see Hilger [1]). Several authors have expounded on various aspects of this new theory and references cited therein. A book on the subject of time scale, by Bohner and Peterson [2], summarizes and organizes much of the time scale calculus; we refer also the last book by Bohner and Peterson [3] for advances in dynamic equations on time scales.

A time scale is an arbitrary closed subset of the reals, and the cases when this time scale is equal to the reals or to the integers represent the classical theories of differential and of difference equations. Many other interesting time scales exist (see Bohner and Peterson [2]).

In the last few years, there has been much research activity concerning the oscillation and nonoscillation of solutions of various dynamic equations on time scales which attempts to harmonize the oscillation theory for the continuous and the discrete to include them in one comprehensive theory and to eliminate obscurity form both, for instance, the papers [4–20] and the reference cited therein.

For oscillation of delay dynamic equations on time scales, see recently papers [21–32]. However, there are very few results dealing with the oscillation of the solutions of neutral delay dynamic equations on time scales; we refer the reader to [33–44].

Agarwal et al. [33] and Saker [37] consider the second-order nonlinear neutral delay dynamic equations on time scales:

where , is a quotient of odd positive integer, are positive constants, such that for all nonzero , and there exists a nonnegative function defined on satisfing .

Agwo [35] examines the oscillation of the second-order nonlinear neutral delay dynamic equations:

Li et al. [36] discuss the existence of nonoscillatory solutions to the second-order neutral delay dynamic equation of the form

Saker et al. [38, 39], Sahíner [40], and Wu et al. [43] consider the second-order neutral delay and mixed-type dynamic equations on time scales:

where , is a quotient of odd positive integer, , such that for all nonzero , and there exists a nonnegative function defined on satisfing .

Zhu and Wang [44] study existence of nonoscillatory solutions to neutral dynamic equations on time scales:

Recently, Tripathy [42] has established some new oscillation criteria for second-order nonlinear delay dynamic equations of the form

where , is a quotient of odd positive integer, are positive constants, and .

To the best of our knowledge, there are no results regarding the oscillation of the solutions of the following second-order nonlinear neutral delay dynamic equations on time scales up to now:

where , and the time scale interval is .

In what follows we assume the following:

To develop the qualitative theory of delay dynamic equations on time scales, in this paper, by using the averaging technique and the generalized Riccati transformation, we consider the second-order nonlinear neutral delay dynamic equation on time scales (1.7) and establish several oscillation criteria. Our results in this paper not only extend the results given but also unify the oscillation of the second-order quasilinear delay differential equation and the second-order quasilinear delay difference equation. Applications to equations to which previously known criteria for oscillation are not applicable are given.

By a solution of (1.7), we mean a nontrivial real-valued function , , which has the property and satisfying (1.7) for . Our attention is restricted to those solutions of (1.7) which exist on some half line with for any . A solution of (1.7) is called oscillatory if it is neither eventually positive nor eventually negative; otherwise it is called nonoscillatory. Equation (1.7) is called oscillatory if all solutions are oscillatory.

Equation (1.7) includes many other special important equations; for example, if , (1.7) is the prototype of a wide class of nonlinear dynamic equations called Emden-Fowler neutral delay superlinear dynamic equation:

If , (1.7) is the prototype of nonlinear dynamic equations called Emden-Fowler neutral delay sublinear dynamic equation:

We note that if , then (1.7) becomes second-order nonlinear delay dynamic equation on time scales:

If , then (1.7) becomes second-order nonlinear delay dynamic equation on time scales:

If , then (1.7) becomes second-order nonlinear delay dynamic equation on time scales:

If , then (1.7) becomes second-order nonlinear delay dynamic equation on time scales:

It is interesting to study (1.7) because the continuous version and its special cases have several physical applications, see [1] and when is a discrete variable, and include its special cases also, are important in applications.

The paper is organized as follows: In the next section we present the basic definitions and apply a simple consequence of Keller's chain rule, Young's inequality:

and the inequality

where and are nonnegative constants, devoted to the proof of the sufficient conditions for oscillation of all solutions of (1.7). In Section 3, we present some corollaries to illustrate our main results.

## 2. Main Results

In this section we shall give some oscillation criteria for (1.7) under the cases when and . It will be convenient to make the following notations in the remainder of this paper. Define

We define the function space as follows: provided that is defined for and is rd-continuous function and nonnegative. For given function , we set

In order to prove our main results, we will use the formula

where is delta differentiable and eventually positive or eventually negative, which is a simple consequence of Keller's chain rule (see Bohner and Peterson [2, Theorem ]).

Also, we assume the condition and , and there exists such that and

Lemma 2.1.

Lemma 2.2.

The proof of Lemmas 2.1 and 2.2 is similar to that of Saker et al. [39, Lemma ]; so it is omitted.

Lemma 2.3.

Proof.

We prove that is eventually positive.

- (i)
- (ii)

From , we have that is eventually negative.

and we have that is strictly decreasing for .

which implies that and which contradicts

thus and Hence, The proof is complete.

Theorem 2.4.

Then (1.7) is oscillatory on .

Proof.

Suppose that (1.7) has a nonoscillatory solution . We may assume that is eventually positive. We shall consider only this case, since the proof when is eventually negative is similar. In view of Lemmas 2.1 and 2.2, there exists a such that , and for .

This contradicts (2.28). The proof is complete.

Remark 2.5.

Theorem 2.4 includes results of Agarwal et al. [21, Theorem ] and Han et al. [25, Theorem ].

Theorem 2.6.

Then every solution of (1.7) either oscillates or tends to zero as .

Proof.

Suppose that (1.7) has a nonoscillatory solution . We may assume that is eventually positive. In view of Lemma 2.3, either or there exists a such that and is strictly decreasing for .

Since the rest of the proof is similar to Theorem 2.4, so we omit the detail. The proof is complete.

Theorem 2.7.

then (1.7) is oscillatory on , where .

Proof.

which contradicts (2.36).

Since the rest of the proof is similar to that of above, so we omit the detail. The proof is complete.

Theorem 2.8.

then every solution of (1.7) either oscillates or tends to zero as , where .

Proof.

Suppose that (1.7) has a nonoscillatory solution . We may assume that is eventually positive. In view of Lemma 2.3, either or there exists a such that and for .

Since the rest of the proof is similar to Theorem 2.7, so we omit the detail. The proof is complete.

Theorem 2.9.

then (1.7) is oscillatory on .

Proof.

This contradicts (2.51) and finishes the proof.

Theorem 2.10.

then every solution of (1.7) either oscillates or tends to zero as .

Proof.

Suppose that (1.7) has a nonoscillatory solution . We may assume that is eventually positive. In view of Lemma 2.3, either or there exists a such that and for .

Since the rest of the proof is similar to Theorem 2.9, so we omit the detail. The proof is complete.

Following the procedure of the proof of Theorem 2.7, we can also prove the following theorem.

Theorem 2.11.

and then (1.7) is oscillatory on , where .

Proof.

which contradicts (2.62). The proof is complete.

Theorem 2.12.

and then every solution of (1.7) either oscillates or tends to zero as .

Proof.

Suppose that (1.7) has a nonoscillatory solution . We may assume that is eventually positive. In view of Lemma 2.3, either or there exists a such that and for .

Since the rest of the proof is similar to Theorem 2.11, so we omit the detail. The proof is complete.

Following the procedure of the proof of Theorem 2.8, we can also prove the following theorem.

Theorem 2.13.

and then (1.7) is oscillatory on .

Theorem 2.14.

and then every solution of (1.7) either oscillates or tends to zero as .

Remark 2.15.

As Theorem 2.7–Theorem 2.14 are rather general, it is convenient for applications to derive a number of oscillation criteria with the appropriate choice of the functions and .

## 3. Examples

## Declarations

### Acknowledgments

This research is supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (60774004, 60904024), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project (20080441126, 200902564), Shandong Postdoctoral funded project (200802018), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong (Y2008A28, ZR2009AL003), and also supported by University of Jinan Research Funds for Doctors (B0621, XBS0843).

## Authors’ Affiliations

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