- Research Article
- Open Access
Gevrey Regularity of Invariant Curves of Analytic Reversible Mappings
© D. Zhang and R. Cheng. 2010
- Received: 19 April 2010
- Accepted: 25 December 2010
- Published: 29 December 2010
We prove the existence of a Gevrey family of invariant curves for analytic reversible mappings under weaker nondegeneracy condition. The index of the Gevrey smoothness of the family could be any number , where is the exponent in the small divisors condition and is the order of degeneracy of the reversible mappings. Moreover, we obtain a Gevrey normal form of the reversible mappings in a neighborhood of the union of the invariant curves.
- Invariant Curve
- Reversible Mapping
- Invariant Curf
- Small Divisor
- Gevrey Class
where and are real analytic and periodic in , the variable ranges in an open interval of the real line . We suppose that the mapping is reversible with respect to the involution , that is, . When some nonresonance and non-degeneracy conditions are satisfied and , are sufficiently small, the existence of invariant curve of reversible mapping (1.1) has been proved in [1–3]. For related works, we refer the readers to [4–6] and the references there.
It is well known that reversible mappings have many similarities as Hamiltonian systems. Since many KAM theorems are proved for Hamiltonian systems, some mathematicians turn to study the regular property of KAM tori with respect to parameters. One of the earliest results is due to Pöschel , who proved that the KAM tori of nearly integrable analytic Hamiltonian systems form a Cantor family depending on parameters only in -way. Because the notorious small divisors can result in loss of smoothness with respect to parameters involving in small divisors in KAM steps, we can only expect Gevrey smoothness of KAM tori even for analytic systems. Gevrey smoothness is a notion intermediate between -smoothness and analyticity (see definition below). Popov  obtained Gevrey smoothness of invariant tori for analytic Hamiltonian systems. In , Wagener used the inverse approximation lemma to prove a more general conclusion. Recently, the preceding result has been generalized to Rüssmann's non-degeneracy condition [10–12]. Gevrey smoothness of the family of KAM tori is important for constructing Gevrey normal form near KAM tori, which can lead to the effective stability [8, 13].
For reversible mappings, if , the existence of a -family of invariant curves has been proved in [1, 2]. But in the case of weaker non-degeneracy condition (1.2), there is no result about Gevrey smoothness. In this paper, we are concerned with Gevrey smoothness of invariant curve of reversible mapping (1.1). The Gevrey smoothness is expressed by Gevrey index. In the following, we specifically obtain the Gevrey index of invariant curve which is related to smoothness of reversible mapping (1.1) and the exponent of the small divisors condition. Moreover, we obtain a Gevrey normal form of the reversible mappings in a neighborhood of the union of the invariant curves.
In this paper, we will prove Gevrey smoothness of function in a closed set, so we give the following definition.
The derivatives in (1.13) and (1.15) should be understood in the sense of Whitney . In fact, the estimates (1.13) and (1.15) also hold in a neighborhood of with the same Gevrey index.
In this section, we will prove our Theorem 1.4. But in the case of weaker non-degeneracy condition, the previous methods in [1, 2] are not valid and the difficulty is how to control the parameters in small divisors. We use an improved KAM iteration carrying some parameters to obtain the existence and Gevrey regularity of invariant curves of analytic reversible mappings. This method is outlined in the paper  by Pöschel and adapted to Gevrey classes in  by Popov. We also extend the method of Liu [1, 2].
The KAM step can be summarized in the following lemma.
Proof of Lemma 2.1.
The above lemma is actually one KAM step. We divide the KAM step into several pats.
Construction of the Transformation
where denotes the mean value of a function over the angular variable . Indeed, we can solve these functions from the above equations. But the problem is that such functions and do not, in general, satisfy the condition (2.17), that is, the transformed mapping is no longer a reversible mapping with respect to . Therefore, we cannot use the above equations to determine the functions and .
Estimates of the Transformation
Estimates of the New Perturbation
Thus, this ends the proof of Lemma 2.1.
Setting the Parameters and Iteration
Now, we choose some suitable parameters so that the above iteration can go on infinitely.
Whitney Extension in Gevrey Classes
Since satisfies (2.58) and (2.65), by Theorem 3.7 and Theorem 3.8 in , we can extend as a Gevrey function of the same Gevrey index in a neighborhood of . Thus, by the definition of Gevrey function in a closed set, , satisfies the estimate (1.13) and (1.15) in a neighborhood of .
Note that one can also use the inverse approximation lemma in  to prove the preceding Whitney extension for .
Estimates of Measure for Parameters
We would like to thank the referees very much for their valuable comments and suggestions. D. Zhang was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grants nos. (10826035)(11001048) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education for New Teachers (Grant no. 200802861043). R. Cheng was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 11026212).
- Liu B: Invariant curves of quasi-periodic reversible mappings. Nonlinearity 2005,18(2):685-701. 10.1088/0951-7715/18/2/012MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu B, Song JJ: Invariant curves of reversible mappings with small twist. Acta Mathematica Sinica 2004,20(1):15-24. 10.1007/s10114-004-0316-4MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sevryuk MB: Reversible Systems, Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Volume 1211. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 1986:vi+319.Google Scholar
- Moser J: On invariant curves of area-preserving mappings of an annulus. Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. II. Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse 1962, 1962: 1-20.MATHGoogle Scholar
- Simó C: Invariant curves of analytic perturbed nontwist area preserving maps. Regular & Chaotic Dynamics 1998,3(3):180-195. 10.1070/rd1998v003n03ABEH000088MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zharnitsky Vadim: Invariant curve theorem for quasiperiodic twist mappings and stability of motion in the Fermi-Ulam problem. Nonlinearity 2000,13(4):1123-1136. 10.1088/0951-7715/13/4/308MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pöschel J: A Lecture on the classical KAM theorem. Proceedings of the Symposium in Pure Mathematics 2001, 69: 707-732.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Popov G: Invariant tori, effective stability, and quasimodes with exponentially small error terms. I. Birkhoff normal forms. Annales Henri Poincaré 2000,1(2):223-248. 10.1007/PL00001004MATHView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wagener F: A note on Gevrey regular KAM theory and the inverse approximation lemma. Dynamical Systems 2003,18(2):159-163. 10.1080/1468936031000117857MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu J, You J: Gevrey-smoothness of invariant tori for analytic nearly integrable Hamiltonian systems under Rüssmann's non-degeneracy condition. Journal of Differential Equations 2007,235(2):609-622. 10.1016/j.jde.2006.12.001MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang D, Xu J: On elliptic lower dimensional tori for Gevrey-smooth Hamiltonian systems under Rüssmann's non-degeneracy condition. Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems A 2006,16(3):635-655.MATHView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang D, Xu J: Gevrey-smoothness of elliptic lower-dimensional invariant tori in Hamiltonian systems under Rüssmann's non-degeneracy condition. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2006,323(1):293-312. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.10.029MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Popov G: KAM theorem for Gevrey Hamiltonians. Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems 2004,24(5):1753-1786. 10.1017/S0143385704000458MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Broer HW, Huitema GB: Unfoldings of quasi-periodic tori in reversible systems. Journal of Dynamics and Differential Equations 1995,7(1):191-212. 10.1007/BF02218818MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sevryuk MB: KAM-stable Hamiltonians. Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems 1995,1(3):351-366. 10.1007/BF02269374MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Whitney H: Analytic extensions of differentiable functions defined in closed sets. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society 1934,36(1):63-89. 10.1090/S0002-9947-1934-1501735-3MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bruna J: An extension theorem of Whitney type for non-quasi-analytic classes of functions. The Journal of the London Mathematical Society 1980,22(3):495-505. 10.1112/jlms/s2-22.3.495MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bonet J, Braun RW, Meise R, Taylor BA: Whitney's extension theorem for nonquasianalytic classes of ultradifferentiable functions. Studia Mathematica 1991,99(2):155-184.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Li X, de la Llave R: Convergence of differentiable functions on closed sets and remarks on the proofs of the "converse approximation lemmas". Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems S 2010,3(4):623-641.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu J, You J, Qiu Q: Invariant tori for nearly integrable Hamiltonian systems with degeneracy. Mathematische Zeitschrift 1997,226(3):375-387. 10.1007/PL00004344MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.