- Research Article
- Open Access

# On Type of Periodicity and Ergodicity to a Class of Fractional Order Differential Equations

- RaviP Agarwal
^{1, 2}Email author, - Brunode Andrade
^{3}and - Claudio Cuevas
^{3}

**2010**:179750

https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/179750

© Ravi P. Agarwal et al. 2010

**Received:**22 October 2009**Accepted:**27 January 2010**Published:**11 February 2010

## Abstract

We study several types of periodicity to a class of fractional order differential equations.

## Keywords

- Mild Solution
- Fractional Differential Equation
- Differential Inclusion
- Automorphic Function
- Fractional Order Differential Equation

## 1. Introduction

Fractional order differential equations is a very important subject matter. These orders can be complex in viewpoint of pure mathematics. During the last few decades fractional order differential equations have emerged vigorously (cf., [1–8]). We observe that there is much interest in developing the qualitative theory of such equations. Indeed, this has been strongly motivated by their natural and widespread applicability in several fields of sciences and technology. Many real phenomena in those fields can be described very successfully by models using mathematical tools of fractional calculus, such as dielectric polarization, electrode-electrolyte polarization, electromagnetic wave, modeling of earthquake, fluid dynamics, traffic model with fractional derivative, measurement of viscoelastic material properties, modeling of viscoplasticity, Control Theory, and economy (cf., [3, 4, 9–15]). Very recently, some basic theory for initial value problem of fractional differential equations involving the Riemann-Liouville differential operators was discussed by Benchohra et al. [16], Agarwal et al. [17–19], Lakshmikantham [20], and Lakshmikantham and Vatsala [21, 22]. Mophou and N'Guérékata [23] have studied existence of mild solution for fractional semilinear differential equations with nonlocal conditions (more details can be found in [24–29]). El-Sayed and Ibrahim [30] and Benchohra et al. [31] initiated the study of fractional multivalued differential inclusions. In this direction, we refer to the article by Henderson and Ouahab [32] concerning the existence of solutions to fractional functional differential inclusions with finite delay, and existence of solutions for these types of equations in the infinite delay framework (see [16, 31]). In the case that fractional order is , existence results for fractional boundary value problems of differential inclusions were studied by Ouahab [33].

We study in this work some sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of pseudo-almost periodic mild solutions to the following semilinear fractional differential equation:

where , is a linear densely defined operator of sectorial type on a complex Banach space and is a pseudo-almost periodic function (see Definition 2.10) satisfying suitable conditions in . The fractional derivative is understood in the Riemann-Liouville sense. Type (1.1) equations are attracting increasing interest. For example, anomalous diffusion in fractals by Eidelman and Kochubei [10] or in macroeconomics by Ahn and McVinisch [1] has been recently studied in the setting of fractional differential equations like (1.1). The study of almost automorphic mild solutions of (1.1) was studied by Cuevas and Lizama in [34] (see also [35]).

As for almost periodic functions, pseudo-almost periodic functions have many applications in several problems, for example, in theory of functional differential equations, integral equations, and partial differential equations. The concept of pseudo-almost periodic was introduced by Zhang [36–39] in the early nineties. Since then, such notion became of great interest to several mathematicians (see [40–49]). To the knowledge of the authors, no results yet exist for pseudo-almost periodic mild solution of (1.1).

We also discuss sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of an asymptotically almost periodic mild solution of the fractional Cauchy problem

In a work by Cuevas and de Souza [50] the authors proved existence and uniqueness of an S-asymptotically -periodic solution of problem (1.2)-(1.3) (see also [51]). On the other hand, we give results on existence and uniqueness of an asymptotically almost automorphic mild solution to a class of fractional integrodifferential neutral equations.

We now turn to a summary of this work. The second section provides the definitions and preliminaries results to be used in theorems stated and proved in this article. In particular, we review some of the standard properties of the solution operator generated by a sectorial operator (see Proposition 2.2). We also recall the notion of almost periodicity, asymptotically almost periodicity, asymptotically almost automorphy, and pseudo-almost periodicity. In the third section, we obtain very general results on the existence of pseudo-almost periodic mild solution to equation (1.1). The fourth section is concerned with the existence of an asymptotically almost periodic mild solution to problem (1.2)-(1.3). While in the fifth section we use the machinery developed in the previous sections to obtain new results on existence and uniqueness of an asymptotically almost automorphic solution to a class of fractional integrodifferential neutral equation. To build intuition and throw some light on the power of our results and methods, we give, in the sixth section, a few applications.

## 2. Preliminaries and Basic Results

Let and be two Banach spaces. The notation and stand for the collection of all continuous functions from into and the Banach space of all bounded continuous functions from into endowed with the uniform convergence topology, respectively. Similarly, and stand, respectively, for the class of all jointly continuous functions from into and the collection of all jointly bounded continuous functions from into . The notation stands for the space of bounded linear operators from into endowed with the uniform operator topology, and we abbreviate it to whenever . We set for the closed ball with center at radius in the space . A closed and linear operator is said to be sectorial of type if there exist , and such that its resolvent exists outside the sector and , . Sectorial operators are well studied in the literature. For a recent reference including several examples and properties we refer the reader to [52]. In order to give an operator theoretical approach, we recall the following definition (cf., [50, 51]).

Definition 2.1.

Let be a closed and linear operator with domain defined on a Banach space . Recall the generator of a solution operator if there exist and a strongly continuous function such that and , , . In this case, is called the solution operator generated by .

We note that if is sectorial of type with , then is the generator of a solution operator given by , where is a suitable path lying outside the sector (cf., Cuesta's paper [53]). Very recently, Cuesta [53, Theorem ] has proved that if is a sectorial operator of type for some and then there exists such that

Note that is, in fact, integrable. The concept of a solution operator, as defined above, is closely related to the concept of a resolvent family (see Prüss [54, Chapter 1]). For the scalar case, where there is a large bibliography, we refer the reader to the monography by Gripenberg et al. [55] and references therein. Because of the uniqueness of the Laplace transform, in the border case the family corresponds to a -semigroup, whereas in the case a solution operator corresponds to the concept of a cosine family; see Arendt et al. [56] and Fattorini [57]. We note that solution operators, as well as resolvent families, are a particular case of -regularized families introduced by Lizama [58]. According to [58] a solution operator corresponds to a -regularized family. The following result is a direct consequence of [58, Proposition and Lemma ].

Proposition 2.2.

- (a)
and for all ,

- (b)
Let and . Then

- (c)
Let and . Then

A characterization of generators of solution operators, analogous to the Hille-Yosida Theorem for -semigroup, can be directly deduced from [58, Theorem ]. Results on perturbation, approximation, representation as well as ergodic type theorems can be deduced from the more general context of -regularized resolvents (see [58–61]).

Let us recall the notions of almost periodicity, asymptotically almost periodicity, asymptotically almost automorphy, and pseudo-almost periodicity which shall come into play later on.

Definition 2.3 (see [62]).

Let be a Banach space. Then is called almost periodic if is continuous, and for each there exists such that for every interval of length it contains a number with the property that for each . The number above is called an -translation number for , and the collection of such functions will be denoted by .

Remark 2.4 (see [63]).

Note that each almost periodic function is bounded and uniformly continuous. It is well known that the range of an almost periodic function is relatively compact. endowed with the norm of uniform convergence on is a Banach space.

Definition 2.5.

Let and be two Banach spaces. Then is called almost periodic in uniformly for if is continuous, and for each and any compact there exists such that every interval of length it contains a number with the property that for all , . The collection of such functions will be denoted by .

It is well known that the study of composition of two functions with special properties is important and basic for deep investigations. We begin with the following standard result in the theory of almost periodic function (see [39, 63]).

Lemma 2.6.

Let and . Then the function .

Definition 2.7.

A continuous function (resp., ) is called asymptotically almost periodic (resp., asymptotically almost periodic in uniformly in ) if it admits a decomposition , where (resp., ) and (resp., ). Here denotes the subspace of such that and denotes the space of all continuous functions such that uniformly for in any compact subset of . Denote by (resp., ) the set of all such functions. is a Banach space with the sup norm.

Definition 2.8.

A continuous function is called uniformly continuous on bounded sets uniformly for if for every and every bounded subset of there exists such that for all and all so that .

Lemma 2.9.

Let and let be uniformly continuous on bounded sets uniformly for . If , then .

Let denote the space of all bounded continuous functions such that

and denotes the space of all continuous functions such that is bounded for all and

uniformly in .

Definition 2.10 (see [36, 64]).

A function (resp, ) is called pseudo-almost periodic (resp., pseudo-almost periodic in uniformly in ) if where ( ) and ( ).

The functions and are called the almost periodic component and, respectively, the ergodic perturbation of the function . The set of all such functions will be denoted by (resp., ). Obviously is a subspace of . Furthermore, we have that is a closed subspace of hence, it is a Banach space with the supremum norm (see [65]).

Lemma 2.11 (see [65]).

- (i)
and is bounded for every bounded subset .

- (ii)
is uniformly continuous in each bounded subset of uniformly in . More explicitly, given and bounded, there exists such that and imply that for all .

If , then .

Lemma 2.12.

then .

Proof.

is responsible for the fact that .

Lemma 2.13.

then .

Proof.

Therefore, , that is, . This completes the proof.

Lemma 2.14.

Assume that is sectorial of type . If is pseudo-almost periodic function and is the function defined in (2.5). Then .

Proof.

where , .

It is not hard to check that as . Next, since is bounded and is integrable in , using the Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem, it follows that . The proof is now completed.

Let be a continuous function such that as . We consider the space endowed with the norm

Lemma 2.15 (see [66]).

A subset is a relatively compact set if it verifies the following conditions.

(*c*-1) The set
is relatively compact in
for each
.

(*c*-2) The set
is equicontinuous.

(*c*-3) For each
there exists
such that
for all
and all
.

Let be a continuous function such that as . Consider the space endowed with the norm

Lemma 2.16 (see [67]).

A subset is a relatively compact set if it verifies the following conditions.

(*c*-1) The set
is relatively compact in
for all
.

(*c*-2)
uniformly for all
.

Definition 2.17.

A continuous function is called almost automorphic if for every sequence of real numbers there exists a subsequence such that is well defined for each , and for each . Denote by the set of all such functions; it constitutes a Banach space when it is endowed with the sup norm.

Almost automorphic functions were introduced by Bochner [68] as a natural generalization of the concept of almost periodic function. A complete description of the properties and further applications to evolution equations can be found in the monographs [69] and [70] by N'Guérékata.

Definition 2.18.

Let and be two Banach spaces. A continuous function is called almost automorphic in uniformly for in compact subsets of if for every compact subset of and every real sequence there exists a subsequence such that is well defined for each , and for each , . Denote by the set of all such functions.

Lemma 2.19 (see [34]).

Assume that is sectorial of type . If is an almost automorphic function and is given by (2.5), then .

In 1980s, N'Guérékata [71] defined asymptotically almost automorphic functions as perturbation of almost automorphic functions by functions vanishing at infinite. Since then, those functions have generated lots of developments and applications; we refer the reader to [69, 72–74] and the references therein.

Definition 2.20 (see [75]).

A continuous function (resp., ) is called asymptotically almost automorphic (asymptotically almost automorphic in uniformly for in compact subsets of ) if it admits a decomposition , , where (resp., ) and (resp., ). Denote by (resp., ) the set of all such functions. is a Banach space with the sup norm (see [75, Lemma ]). We note that the range of an asymptotically almost automorphic function is relatively compact [75].

Lemma 2.21.

Assume that is sectorial of type . If is an asymptotically almost automorphic function and is given by (2.7), then .

Proof.

, where and . We have that , where and are the functions given by (2.8) and (2.9), respectively. By previous lemma and by the proof of Lemma 2.13 . This ends the proof.

Lemma 2.22 (see [75]).

Let and let be uniformly continuous on bounded sets uniformly for . If , then .

## 3. Pseudo-Almost Periodic Mild Solutions

We recall the following definition that will be essential for us.

Definition 3.1 (see [34]).

is called a mild solution to the equation (1.1).

The following are the main results of this section.

Theorem 3.2.

Then equation (1.1) has a unique pseudo-almost periodic mild solution.

Proof.

where . Since for sufficiently large, by the contraction principle, has a unique fixed point . This completes the proof.

We can establish the following existence result.

Proposition 3.3.

Assume that is sectorial of type . Let be a function pseudo-almost periodic in uniformly in that satisfies the Lipschitz condition (3.2) with . Let . If , where and are the constants in (2.1), then equation (1.1) has a unique pseudo-almost periodic mild solution.

Proof.

which finishes the proof.

Corollary 3.4.

If , where and are the constants given in (2.1), then equation (1.1) has a unique pseudo-almost periodic mild solution.

To establish our next result we consider perturbations of (1.1) that satisfy the following boundedness condition.

(H1) There exists a continuous nondecreasing function such that for all and .

We have the following result.

Theorem 3.5.

Assume that is sectorial of type . Let be a function pseudo-almost periodic in uniformly in that satisfies assumption (H1) and the following conditions.

(H2) is uniformly continuous on bounded subset of uniformly in .

(H3) For each , , where is given by Lemma 2.15. Set

where and are constants given in (2.1).

(H4) For each there is such that, for every , implies that

for all .

(H5) For all , , and , the set is relatively compact in .

(H6) .

Then equation (1.1) has a pseudo-almost periodic mild solution.

Proof.

We define the operator on as in (3.3). We show that has a fixed point in .

- (ii)
We next show that is completely continuous. The argument comes from Lemma 2.15. In fact, let and for . Initially, we will prove that is a relatively compact subset of for each . It follows from condition (H3) that the function is integrable on . Hence, for , we can choose such that . Hence , where denotes the convex hull of . Using that is strongly continuous and the property (H5), we infer that is relatively compact set, and , which establishes our assertion.

We next show that the set is equicontinuous. In fact, we can decompose

For each , we can choose and such that

for . Moreover, since is relatively compact set and is strongly continuous, we can choose such that for . Combining these estimates, we get for small enough and independent of .

Finally, applying condition (H3), we can show that

- (iii)
If is a solution of equation for some , then we can check that and, combining with condition (H6), we conclude that the set is bounded.

- (iv)
It follows, from Lemmas 2.11 and 2.14, that and, consequently, is completely continuous. Since is bounded and using Leray-Schauder alternative theorem, we infer that has a fixed point . Let be a sequence in that converges to . We see that converges to uniformly in . This implies that and completes the proof.

It is particularly interesting to note that the next result is not covered by the results by Cuevas and Lizama [34].

Corollary 3.6.

Assume that conditions (H1)–(H6) hold and that is sectorial of type . If is almost periodic in uniformly for , then equation (1.1) has an almost periodic mild solution.

Proof.

It is a consequence of Lemmas 2.6 and 2.12.

## 4. Asymptotically Almost Periodic Mild Solutions

We recall the following definition.

Definition 4.1 (see [50]).

is called a mild solution of the problem (1.2)-(1.3).

Theorem 4.2.

Then the problem (1.2)-(1.3) has a unique asymptotically almost periodic mild solution.

Proof.

which is responsible for the fact that has a unique fixed point in .

Corollary 4.3.

Assume that is sectorial of type . Let be a function asymptotically almost periodic in uniformly in that satisfies the Lipschitz condition (4.2) with . If , where and are the constants given in (2.1), then the problem (1.2)-(1.3) has a unique asymptotically almost periodic mild solution.

Taking with and in (1.2), the above result produces the following corollary.

Corollary 4.4.

Let be a function asymptotically almost periodic in uniformly in that satisfies the Lipschitz condition (4.2) with . Then problem (1.2)-(1.3) has a unique asymptotically almost periodic solution whenever .

Remark 4.5.

A similar result as that of the previous corollary was obtained by Cuevas and de Souza [50] for obtaining an S-asymptotically -periodic mild solution for problem (1.2)-(1.3) (see [50, Remark 3.6] for complementary comments).

Next, we establish a version of Theorem 4.2 which enable us to consider locally Lipschitz perturbations for equation (1.2). We have the following result.

Theorem 4.6.

where and for ; then there is such that for each with there exists a unique asymptotically almost periodic mild solution of (1.2)-(1.3).

Proof.

endowed with the metric . We define the operator on the space by (4.3). Let we next show that We have the estimate that is, .

On the other hand, for we obtain

To conclude, we note that , which means that is a -contraction. This completes the proof.

Theorem 4.7.

Assume that is sectorial of type . Let be an asymptotically almost periodic in uniformly in that satisfies the following conditions.

(H*1) There is a continuous nondecreasing function such that for all and .

(H*2) is uniformly continuous on bounded sets of uniformly in .

(H*3) For each , , where is given by Lemma 2.16. Set

where and are constants given in (2.1).

(H*4) For each there is such that, for every , implies that

for all .

(H*5) For all , and , the set is relatively compact in .

(H*6) .

Then problem (1.2)-(1.3) has an asymptotically almost periodic mild solution.

Proof.

- (i)
It follows from (H*3) that . From condition (H*4) it follows that is a continuous map.

- (ii)
We next show that is completely continuous. Let and for . Initially, we can infer that is a relatively compact subset of for each . In fact, using condition (H*5) we get that is relatively compact. It is easy to see that , which establishes our assertion. From the decomposition of given by , it follows that the set is equicontinuous. We can show that uniformly for all . From Lemma 2.16, we deduce that is relatively compact set in .

We note that the set is bounded. In fact, it follows from condition (H*6) and the estimate . It follows, from Lemmas 2.9 and 2.13, that . The remaining of proof makes use of a similar argument already done in the proof of Theorem 3.5.

## 5. Asymptotically Almost Automorphic Solutions of Fractional Integro Differential Neutral Equations

This section is mainly concerned with the existence and uniqueness of an asymptotically almost automorphic mild solution to the fractional integro differential neutral equation

where , is a linear densely defined operator of sectorial type, and are functions subject to some additional conditions.

Definition 5.1.

is called a mild solution of problem (5.1).

We have the following result.

Theorem 5.2.

If , where and are the constants given in (2.1), then problem (5.1) has a unique asymptotically almost automorphic mild solution.

Proof.

which proves that is a contraction we conclude that has a unique fixed point in . This completes the proof.

Next, we establish a local version of the previous result.

Theorem 5.3.

for all , where and for every . Then there is such that satisfies then there is a unique asymptotically almost automorphic mild solution of (5.1).

Proof.

which shows that is a contraction from into . The assertion is now a consequence of the contraction mapping principle.

Remark 5.4.

A similar result was obtained by Diagana et al. [76] for the existence of asymptotically almost automorphic solutions to some abstract partial neutral integrodifferential equations.

Theorem 5.5.

Assume that is sectorial of type and that conditions (H*1),(H*3), (H*4) and (H*5) hold. In addition, suppose that the following properties hold.

(A1) The functions are asymptotically almost automorphic in and uniformly for in compact subsets of and uniformly continuous on bounded sets of uniformly in .

(A2) There is a constant such that for all and (here is given in Lemma 2.16). Set

where and are the constants given in (2.1).

(A3) .

Then problem (5.1) has an asymptotically almost automorphic mild solution.

Proof.

Thus ), which is contrary to assumption (A3). We have that is a contraction on and is a compact set. It follows from [77, Corollary ] that has a fixed point . More precisely, , and this finishes the proof.

## 6. Applications

To illustrate our results, initially we examine sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of pseudo-almost periodic mild solutions to the fractional relaxation-oscillation equation given by

where . To study this system in the abstract form (1.1), we choose the space and the operator defined by , with domain . It is well known that is generator of an analytic semigroup on . Hence, is sectorial of type . (6.1) can be formulated by the inhomogeneous problem (1.1), where . Let us consider the nonlinearity for all and , with , . We observe that . Hence . We observe that is pseudo-almost periodic in , uniformly in such that (3.6) holds for . If we assume that , then by Corollary 3.4, the fractional relaxation-oscillation equation (6.1) has a unique pseudo-almost periodic mild solution.

Taking and , we define the function as

We consider the following fractional relaxation-oscillation equation given by

Equation (6.4) can be expressed as an abstract equation of the form (1.1), where

Proposition 6.1.

Problem (6.4) has a pseudo-almost periodic mild solution.

Proof.

which are responsible for the fact that and that is uniformly continuous on bounded sets of uniformly in .

It is straightforward to verify that

uniformly in and . Finally, Simon's theorem leads to the conclusion that is relatively compact. Using Theorem 3.5, equation (6.4) has a pseudo-almost periodic mild solution.

Next, we examine the existence and uniqueness of an asymptotically almost automorphic mild solution to the fractional differential equation

where , are appropriate functions, and . From Corollary 4.3, we can deduce the following result.

Proposition 6.2.

Assume that is an asymptotically almost periodic function and that there exists a constant such that for all . If , then (6.11) has a unique asymptotically almost periodic mild solution.

We consider the fractional differential equation

From Theorem 4.6, we deduce the following result.

Proposition 6.3.

Assume that is an asymptotically almost periodic function, then there is such that for each with there exists a unique asymptotically almost periodic mild solution of (6.12)–(6.14).

Proof.

The proof is straightforward. Indeed, (6.12) can be expressed as an abstract equation of form (1.2), where , , . We observe that , for all and . Hence the perturbation is locally Lipschitz. We remark that is asymptotically almost periodic in uniformly in , as we mentioned before, by using Theorem 4.6.

Take and . We define the function by

We examine asymptotically almost periodic mild solution to the fractional relaxation-oscillation equation given by

where .

Proposition. 6.4

Problem (6.16) has an asymptotically almost periodic mild solution.

Proof.

we get conditions (H*2) and (H*4), the latter being considered with , .

We can infer that

and using Simon's theorem, we conclude that condition (H*5) holds. Consequently, by Theorem 4.7 we can assert that problem (6.16) has an asymptotically almost periodic mild solution. This completes the proof of Proposition 6.4.

Remark 6.5.

It is easy to check that results in Section 5 are applicable to similar fractional differential equations as those treated in this section. For the sake of shortness, the details are left to the reader.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgment

Claudio Cuevas is partially supported by CNPQ/Brazil under Grant no. 300365/2008-0.

## Authors’ Affiliations

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