- Research Article
- Open Access

# Symmetry Properties of Higher-Order Bernoulli Polynomials

- Taekyun Kim
^{1}Email author, - Kyung-Won Hwang
^{2}Email author and - Young-Hee Kim
^{1}

**2009**:318639

https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/318639

© Patricia J. Y. Wong 2009

**Received:**11 March 2009**Accepted:**2 August 2009**Published:**26 August 2009

## Abstract

We investigate properties of identities and some interesting identities of symmetry for the Bernoulli polynomials of higher order using the multivariate -adic invariant integral on .

## Keywords

- Differential Equation
- Partial Differential Equation
- Ordinary Differential Equation
- Functional Analysis
- Functional Equation

## 1. Introduction

Let be a fixed prime number. Throughout this paper and will, respectively, denote the ring of -adic rational integers, the field of -adic rational numbers, and the completion of algebraic closure of . For , we use the notation . Let be the space of uniformly differentiable functions on and let be the normalized exponential valuation of with . For with , the -Volkenborn integral on is defined as

(see [1, 2]). The ordinary -adic invariant integral on is given by

(see [1–15]). Let . Then we easily see that

From (1.3), we can derive

(see [2, 8–10]), where are the th Bernoulli numbers.

By (1.2) and (1.3), we easily see that

where for

It is known that the Bernoulli polynomials are defined by

where are called the th Bernoulli polynomials. The Bernoulli polynomials of order , denoted , are defined as

(see [3–6]). Then the values of at are called the Bernoulli numbers of order . When , the polynomials or numbers are called the Bernoulli polynomials or numbers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate some interesting properties of symmetry for the multivariate -adic invariant integral on . From the properties of symmetry for the multivariate -adic invariant integral on , we derive some interesting identities of symmetry for the Bernoulli polynomials of higher order.

## 2. Symmetry Properties of Higher-Order Bernoulli Polynomials

Let . Then we define

where

It is easy to see that

By comparing the coefficients on both sides of (2.5) and (2.6), we obtain the following theorem.

Theorem 2.1.

Let and in (2.7). Then we have the following corollary.

Corollary 2.2.

If we take in (2.8), then we also obtain the following corollary.

Corollary 2.3.

From the symmetric property of in , we note that

By comparing the coefficients on both sides of (2.10) and (2.11), we obtain the following theorem.

Theorem 2.4.

Let and in (2.12). Then we obtain the following Corollary 2.5.

Corollary 2.5.

From (2.12), we can get the well-known result due to Raabe:

## Authors’ Affiliations

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## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.