Formulation and solution to time-fractional generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation via variational methods
© Zhang; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 7 November 2013
Accepted: 13 January 2014
Published: 14 February 2014
This paper presents the formulation of the time-fractional generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV) using the Euler-Lagrange variational technique in the Riemann-Liouville derivative sense and derives an approximate solitary wave solution. Our results show that He’s variational-iteration method is a very efficient technique for finding the solution of the proposed equation and extend the existing results.
KeywordsRiemann-Liouville fractional differential operator Euler-Lagrange equation Riesz fractional derivative generalized KdV equations He’s variational-iteration method solitary wave
The KdV equation has been used to describe a wide range of physics phenomena of the evolution and interaction of nonlinear waves. It was derived from the propagation of dispersive shallow water waves and is widely used in fluid dynamics, aerodynamics, continuum mechanics, as a model for shock wave formation, solitons, turbulence, boundary layer behavior, mass transport, and the solution representing the water’s free surface over a flat bed [1–3]. Camassa and Holm  put forward the derivation of solution as a model for dispersive shallow water waves and discovered that it is a formally integrable dimensional Hamiltonian system, and that its solitary waves are solitons. Most of the classical mechanics techniques have been used in studies of conservative systems, but most of the processes observed in the physical real world are nonconservative.
During the past three decades or so, fractional calculus has obtained considerable popularity and importance as generalization of integer-order evolution equations, and one has used it to model some meaningful things, such as fractional calculus in model price volatility in finance [5, 6], in hydrology to model fast spreading of pollutants ; the most common hydrologic application of fractional calculus is the generation of fractional Brownian motion as a representation of aquifer material with a long-range correlation structure [8, 9]. The fractional differential equation is used to model the particle motions in a heterogeneous environment and long particle jumps in anomalous diffusion in physics [10, 11]. For other exact descriptions of the applications of engineering, mechanics, mathematics, etc., we can refer to [12–16]. If the Lagrangian of conservative system is constructed using fractional derivatives, the resulting equations of motion can be nonconservative. Therefore, in many cases, real physical processes could be modeled in a reliable manner using fractional-order differential equations rather than integer-order equations . Based on the stochastic embedding theory, Cresson  defined the fractional embedding of differential operators and provided a fractional Euler-Lagrange equation for Lagrangian systems, then investigated a fractional Noether theorem and a fractional Hamiltonian formulation of fractional Lagrangian systems. Herzallah and Baleanu  presented the necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for the Euler-Lagrange fractional equations of fractional variational problems and made an effort in determining in which spaces the functional must exist. Malinowska  proposed the Euler-Lagrange equations for fractional variational problems with multiple integrals and proved the fractional Noether-type theorem for conservative and nonconservative generalized physical systems. Riewe [21, 22] formulated a version of the Euler-Lagrange equation for problems of calculus of variation with fractional derivatives. Wu and Baleanu  developed some new variational-iteration formulas to find approximate solutions of fractional differential equations and determined the Lagrange multiplier in a more accurate way. For generalized fractional Euler-Lagrange equations and a fractional-order Van der Pol-like oscillator, we can refer to the works by Odzijewicz [24, 25] and Attari et al. , respectively. For other the known results refer to Baleanu et al.  and Inokuti et al. . In view of the fact that most physical phenomena may be considered as nonconservative, they can be described using fractional-order differential equations. Recently, several methods have been used to solve nonlinear fractional evolution equations using techniques of nonlinear analysis, such as the Adomian decomposition method , the homotopy analysis method [30, 31], the homotopy perturbation method [32, 33] and the Laguerre spectral method [34–36]. It was mentioned that the variational-iteration method has been used successfully to solve different types of integer and fractional nonlinear evolution equations.
where a, b are constants, is a field variable, the subscripts denote the partial differentiation of the function with respect to the parameter x and t. () is a space coordinate in the propagation direction of the field and ( ()) is the time, which occurs in different contexts in mathematical physics. a, b are constant coefficients not equal to zero. The dissipative term provides damping at small scales, and the nonlinear term () (which has the same form as that in the KdV or 1-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations) stabilizes by transferring energy between large and small scales. For , we can refer to the known results of the time-fractional KdV equation: formulation and solution using variational methods [41, 42]. For , , there is little material on the formulation and solution to time-fractional KdV equation. Thus the present paper considers the formulation and solution to a time-fractional KdV equation as the index of the nonlinear term satisfies , . denotes the Riesz fractional derivative. Making use of the variational-iteration method, this work is devoted to a formulation of a time-fractional generalized KdV equation and derives an approximate solitary wave solution.
This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 states some background material from fractional calculus. Section 3 presents the principle of He’s variational-iteration method. Section 4 is devoted to a description of the formulation of the time-fractional generalized KdV equation using the Euler-Lagrange variational technique and to derive an approximate solitary wave solution. Section 5 presents an analysis for the obtained graphs and figures and discusses the present work.
Definition 1 A real multivariable function , is said to be in the space , with respect to t if there exists a real number r (>γ), such that , where . Obviously, if .
is valid under the assumptions that and that for arbitrary , , exist at every point and are continuous in t.
where and are, respectively, the left- and right-hand side Riemann-Liouville fractional integral operators.
where and are, respectively, the left- and right-hand side Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operators.
3 Variational-iteration method
The variational-iteration method provides an effective procedure for explicit and solitary wave solutions of a wide and general class of differential systems representing real physical problems. Moreover, the variational-iteration method can overcome the foregoing restrictions and limitations of approximate techniques so that it provides us with a possibility to analyze strongly nonlinear evolution equations. Therefore, we extend this method to solve the time-fractional KdV equation. The basic features of the variational-iteration method are outlined as follows.
4 Time-fractional generalized KdV equation
noting that .
and since , the fractional derivative operator reduces to the fractional integral operator by Remark 1.
where , is a constant.
The author wrote this paper carefully, gave a rigorous derivation process, and read and approved the final manuscript.
- Camassa R, Holm D, Hyman J: A new integrable shallow water equation. Adv. Appl. Mech. 1994, 31: 1–33.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Johnson RS: Camassa-Holm, Korteweg-de Vries and related models for waterwaves. J. Fluid Mech. 2002, 455: 63–82.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Fokas A, Fuchssteiner B: Symplectic structures, their Bäcklund transformation and hereditary symmetries. Physica D 1981, 4: 47–66. 10.1016/0167-2789(81)90004-XMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Camassa R, Holm D: An integrable shallow water equation with peaked solutions. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1993, 71: 1661–1664. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.71.1661MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gorenflo R, Mainardi F, Scalas E, Raberto M: Fractional calculus and continuous-time finance, III. The diffusion limit. Trends Math. Mathematical Finance 2001, 171–180.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sabatelli L, Keating S, Dudley J, Richmond P: Waiting time distributions in financial markets. Eur. Phys. J. B 2002, 27: 273–275.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Schumer R, Benson DA, Meerschaert MM, Wheatcraft SW: Eulerian derivation of the fractional advection-dispersion equation. J. Contam. Hydrol. 2001, 48: 69–88. 10.1016/S0169-7722(00)00170-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Benson DA, Meerschaert MM, Revielle J: Fractional calculus in hydrologic modeling: a numerical perspective. Adv. Water Resour. 2013, 51: 479–497.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roop JP:Computational aspects of FEM approximation of fractional advection dispersion equations on bounded domains in . J. Comput. Appl. Math. 2006, 193: 243–268. 10.1016/j.cam.2005.06.005MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hilfer R: Applications of Fractional Calculus in Physics. World Scientific, Singapore; 2000.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Meerschaert MM, Benson DA, Baeumer B: Multidimensional advection and fractional dispersion. Phys. Rev. E 1999, 59: 5026–5028.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lundstrom B, Higgs M, Spain W, Fairhall A: Fractional differentiation by neocortical pyramidal neurons. Nat. Neurosci. 2008, 11: 1335–1342. 10.1038/nn.2212View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Metzler R, Klafter J: Boundary value problems for fractional diffusion equations. Phys. A, Stat. Mech. Appl. 2000, 278: 107–125. 10.1016/S0378-4371(99)00503-8MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rossikhin YA, Shitikova MV: Application of fractional derivatives to the analysis of damped vibrations of viscoelastic single mass systems. Acta Mech. 1997, 120: 109–125. 10.1007/BF01174319MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schumer R, Benson DA, Meerschaert MM, Baeumer B: Multiscaling fractional advection-dispersion equations and their solutions. Water Resour. Res. 2003, 39: 1022–1032.Google Scholar
- Yuste SB, Acedo L, Lindenberg K:Reaction front in an reaction subdiffusion process. Phys. Rev. E 2004., 69: Article ID 036126Google Scholar
- Tavazoei MS, Haeri M: Describing function based methods for predicting chaos in a class of fractional order differential equations. Nonlinear Dyn. 2009, 57: 363–373. 10.1007/s11071-008-9447-yMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cresson J: Fractional embedding of differential operators and Lagrangian systems. J. Math. Phys. 2007., 48: Article ID 033504Google Scholar
- Herzallah MAE, Baleanu D: Fractional Euler-Lagrange equations revisited. Nonlinear Dyn. 2012, 69: 977–982. 10.1007/s11071-011-0319-5MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Malinowska AB: A formulation of the fractional Noether-type theorem for multidimensional Lagrangians. Appl. Math. Lett. 2012, 25: 1941–1946. 10.1016/j.aml.2012.03.006MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Riewe F: Nonconservative Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. Phys. Rev. E 1996, 53: 1890–1899. 10.1103/PhysRevE.53.1890MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Riewe F: Mechanics with fractional derivatives. Phys. Rev. E 1997, 55: 3581–3592. 10.1103/PhysRevE.55.3581MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu GC, Baleanu D: Variational iteration method for the Burgers’ flow with fractional derivatives - new Lagrange multipliers. Appl. Math. Model. 2013, 37: 6183–6190. 10.1016/j.apm.2012.12.018MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Odzijewicz T, Malinowska AB, Torres DFM: Generalized fractional calculus with applications to the calculus of variations. Comput. Math. Appl. 2012, 64: 3351–3366. 10.1016/j.camwa.2012.01.073MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Odzijewicz T, Malinowska AB, Torres DFM: Fractional variational calculus with classical and combined Caputo derivatives. Nonlinear Anal. TMA 2012, 75: 1507–1515. 10.1016/j.na.2011.01.010MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Attari M, Haeri M, Tavazoei MS: Analysis of a fractional order Van der Pol-like oscillator via describing function method. Nonlinear Dyn. 2010, 61: 265–274. 10.1007/s11071-009-9647-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baleanu D, Muslih SI: Lagrangian formulation of classical fields within Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Phys. Scr. 2005, 72: 119–123. 10.1238/Physica.Regular.072a00119MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Inokuti M, Sekine H, Mura T: General use of the Lagrange multiplier in non-linear mathematical physics. In Variational Method in the Mechanics of Solids. Edited by: Nemat-Nasser S. Pergamon, Oxford; 1978.Google Scholar
- Saha Ray S, Bera R: An approximate solution of a nonlinear fractional differential equation by Adomian decomposition method. Appl. Math. Comput. 2005, 167: 561–571. 10.1016/j.amc.2004.07.020MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cang J, Tan Y, Xu H, Liao S: Series solutions of nonlinear fractional Riccati differential equations. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2009, 40: 1–9. 10.1016/j.chaos.2007.04.018MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liao, S: The proposed homotopy analysis technique for the solution of nonlinear problems. PhD thesis, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (1992)
- Sweilam NH, Khader MM, Al-Bar RF: Numerical studies for a multi-order fractional differential equation. Phys. Lett. A 2007, 371: 26–33. 10.1016/j.physleta.2007.06.016MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Golmankhaneh AK, Golmankhaneh AK, Baleanu D: Homotopy perturbation method for solving a system of Schrodinger-Korteweg-de Vries equation. Rom. Rep. Phys. 2011, 63: 609–623.Google Scholar
- Baleanu D, Bhrawy AH, Taha TM: Two efficient generalized Laguerre spectral algorithms for fractional initial value problems. Abstr. Appl. Anal. 2013., 2013: Article ID 546502Google Scholar
- Baleanu D, Bhrawy AH, Taha TM: A modified generalized Laguerre spectral method for fractional differential equations on the half line. Abstr. Appl. Anal. 2013., 2013: Article ID 413529Google Scholar
- Bhrawy AH, Baleanu D: A spectral Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto collocation method for a space-fractional advection diffusion equations with variable coefficients. Rep. Math. Phys. 2013, 72: 219–233. 10.1016/S0034-4877(14)60015-XMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- He J: A new approach to nonlinear partial differential equations. Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 1997, 2: 230–235. 10.1016/S1007-5704(97)90007-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- He J: Approximate analytical solution for seepage flow with fractional derivatives in porous media. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 1998, 167: 57–68. 10.1016/S0045-7825(98)00108-XView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Molliq RY, Noorani MSM, Hashim I: Variational iteration method for fractional heat- and wave-like equations. Nonlinear Anal., Real World Appl. 2009, 10: 1854–1869. 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2008.02.026MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Momani S, Odibat Z, Alawnah A: Variational iteration method for solving the space- and time-fractional KdV equation. Numer. Methods Partial Differ. Equ. 2008, 24: 261–271.Google Scholar
- El-Wakil S, Abulwafa E, Zahran M, Mahmoud A: Time-fractional KdV equation: formulation and solution using variational methods. Nonlinear Dyn. 2011, 65: 55–63. 10.1007/s11071-010-9873-5MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Atangana A, Secer A: The time-fractional coupled-Korteweg-de-Vries equations. Abstr. Appl. Anal. 2013., 2013: Article ID 947986Google Scholar
- Kilbas AA, Srivastava HM, Trujillo JJ North-Holland Mathematics Studies 204. In Theory and Applications of Fractional Differential Equations. Elsevier, Amsterdam; 2006.Google Scholar
- Podlubny I: Fractional Differential Equations. Academic Press, San Diego; 1999.Google Scholar
- Samko SG, Kilbas AA, Marichev OI: Fractional Integrals and Derivatives: Theory and Applications. Gordon & Breach, New York; 1993.Google Scholar
- He J: Semi-inverse method of establishing generalized variational principles for fluid mechanics with emphasis on turbo-machinery aerodynamics. Int. J. Turbo Jet-Engines 1997, 14: 23–28.Google Scholar
- He J: Variational iteration method - a kind of nonlinear analytical technique: some examples. Int. J. Non-Linear Mech. 1999, 34: 699–708. 10.1016/S0020-7462(98)00048-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Agrawal OP: Formulation of Euler-Lagrange equations for fractional variational problems. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2002, 272: 368–379. 10.1016/S0022-247X(02)00180-4MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Agrawal OP: A general formulation and solution scheme for fractional optimal control problems. Nonlinear Dyn. 2004, 38: 323–337. 10.1007/s11071-004-3764-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Agrawal OP: Fractional variational calculus in terms of Riesz fractional derivatives. J. Phys. A, Math. Theor. 2007, 40: 62–87.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.