Open Access

Global Asymptotic Behavior of

Advances in Difference Equations20082007:041541

DOI: 10.1155/2007/41541

Received: 9 July 2007

Accepted: 19 November 2007

Published: 17 January 2008


We investigate the global stability character of the equilibrium points and the period-two solutions of , with positive parameters and nonnegative initial conditions. We show that every solution of the equation in the title converges to either the zero equilibrium, the positive equilibrium, or the period-two solution, for all values of parameters outside of a specific set defined in the paper. In the case when the equilibrium points and period-two solution coexist, we give a precise description of the basins of attraction of all points. Our results give an affirmative answer to Conjecture 9.5.6 and the complete answer to Open Problem 9.5.7 of Kulenović and Ladas, 2002.


Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Mathematics, University of Rhode Island


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© A. Brett and M. R. S. Kulenović 2007

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